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Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e8853, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089343


Anaphylactic shock can be defined as an acute syndrome, and it is the most severe clinical manifestation of allergic diseases. Anaphylactoid reactions are similar to anaphylactic events but differ in the pathophysiological mechanism. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibitors during anaphylaxis suggest that NO might decrease the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis but exacerbate associated vasodilation. Therefore, blocking the effects of NO on vascular smooth muscle by inhibiting the guanylate cyclase (GC) would be a reasonable strategy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of NO/cGMP pathway inhibitors methylene blue (MB), Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), and indigo carmine (IC) in shock induced by compound 48/80 (C48/80) in rats. The effect was assessed by invasive blood pressure measurement. Shock was initiated by C48/80 intravenous bolus injection 5 min before (prophylactic) or after (treatment) the administration of the inhibitors MB (3 mg/kg), L-NAME (1 mg/kg), and IC (3 mg/kg). Of the groups that received drugs as prophylaxis for shock, only the IC group did not present the final systolic blood pressure (SBP) better than the C48/80 group. Regarding shock treatment with the drugs tested, all groups had the final SBP similar to the C48/80group. Altogether, our results suggested that inhibition of GC and NO synthase in NO production pathway was not sufficient to revert hypotension or significantly improve survival.

Animals , Male , Rats , Cyclic GMP/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Anaphylaxis/drug therapy , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Wistar , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Indigo Carmine/administration & dosage , Methylene Blue/administration & dosage
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(2): e5007, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766980


Metabolic acidosis has profound effects on vascular tone. This study investigated the in vivo effects of acute metabolic acidosis (AMA) and chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) on hemodynamic parameters and endothelial function. CMA was induced by ad libitum intake of 1% NH4Cl for 7 days, and AMA was induced by a 3-h infusion of 6 M NH4Cl (1 mL/kg, diluted 1:10). Phenylephrine (Phe) and acetylcholine (Ach) dose-response curves were performed by venous infusion with simultaneous venous and arterial blood pressure monitoring. Plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) was measured by chemiluminescence. The CMA group had a blood pH of 7.15±0.03, which was associated with reduced bicarbonate (13.8±0.98 mmol/L) and no change in the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2). The AMA group had a pH of 7.20±0.01, which was associated with decreases in bicarbonate (10.8±0.54 mmol/L) and PaCO2 (47.8±2.54 to 23.2±0.74 mmHg) and accompanied by hyperventilation. Phe or ACh infusion did not affect arterial or venous blood pressure in the CMA group. However, the ACh infusion decreased the arterial blood pressure (ΔBP: -28.0±2.35 mm Hg [AMA] to -4.5±2.89 mmHg [control]) in the AMA group. Plasma NOx was normal after CMA but increased after AMA (25.3±0.88 to 31.3±0.54 μM). These results indicate that AMA, but not CMA, potentiated the Ach-induced decrease in blood pressure and led to an increase in plasma NOx, reinforcing the effect of pH imbalance on vascular tone and blood pressure control.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Acetylcholine/administration & dosage , Acidosis/physiopathology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Hypotension/chemically induced , Acute Disease , Acid-Base Imbalance/metabolism , Acidosis/chemically induced , Acidosis/metabolism , Blood Pressure Determination , Bicarbonates/blood , Blood Pressure/physiology , Chronic Disease , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Hemodynamics/physiology , Hyperventilation/metabolism , Luminescence , Nitrates/blood , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitrites/blood
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(11): 966-971, 11/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723904


Erythropoietin (EPO) has been well characterized as a renal glycoprotein hormone regulating red blood cell production by inhibiting apoptosis of erythrocyte progenitors in hematopoietic tissues. EPO exerts regulatory effects in cardiac and skeletal muscles. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal degenerative disorder of skeletal and cardiac muscle. In this study, we tested the possible therapeutic beneficial effect of recombinant EPO (rhEPO) in dystrophic muscles in mdx mice. Total strength was measured using a force transducer coupled to a computer. Gene expression for myostatin, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was determined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. Myostatin expression was significantly decreased in quadriceps from mdx mice treated with rhEPO (rhEPO=0.60±0.11, control=1.07±0.11). On the other hand, rhEPO had no significant effect on the expression of TGF-β1 (rhEPO=0.95±0.14, control=1.05±0.16) and TNF-α (rhEPO=0.73±0.20, control=1.01±0.09). These results may help to clarify some of the direct actions of EPO on skeletal muscle.

Animals , Male , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Erythropoietin/therapeutic use , Gene Expression/drug effects , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/drug therapy , Myostatin/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Dystrophin/deficiency , Mice, Inbred mdx , Muscle Strength/drug effects , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/metabolism , Myostatin/genetics , Phenotype , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 63(3B): 791-800, set. 2005. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-445144


The congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) are heterogeneous muscular diseases with early and dystrophic pattern on muscle biopsy. Many different subtypes have been genetically identified and most phenotypes not yet identified belong to the merosin-positive (MP) CMD subgroup. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the immunohistochemical expression of the main proteins of the dystrophin-glycoproteins associated complex in muscle biopsy of patients with different CMD phenotypes, for investigating a possible correlation with clinical and histopathological data. METHOD: Fifty-nine patients with CMD had clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical data evaluated: 32 had MP-CMD, 23 CMD with merosin deficiency (MD-CMD), one Ullrich phenotype and three Walker-Warburg disease. RESULTS: Dystrophin and dysferlin were normal in all; among the patients with MD-CMD, merosin deficiency was partial in nine who showed the same clinical severity as those with total deficiency; the reduced expression of alpha-sarcoglycan (SG) and alpha-dystroglycan (DG) showed statistically significant correlation with severe MD-CMD phenotype. CONCLUSION: There is a greater relationship between merosin and the former proteins; among MP-CMD patients, no remarkable immunohistochemical/phenotypical correlations were found, although the reduced expression of beta-DG had showed statistically significant correlation with severe phenotype and marked fibrosis on muscular biopsy.

A distrofia muscular congênita (DMC) é doença muscular heterogênea, de início precoce e padrão histopatológico de distrofia. Diversos subtipos foram geneticamente identificados e os fenótipos ainda não identificados pertencem em geral ao subgrupo de DMC merosina-positiva (MP). OBJETIVO: Analisar a expressão imuno-histoquímica das principais proteínas do complexo distrofina-glicoproteínas associadas na biópsia muscular de pacientes com diferentes fenótipos de DMC, a fim de investigar uma eventual correlação com o quadro clínico e histopatológico. MÉTODO: Cinqüenta e nove pacientes com DMC foram avaliados clinicamente e sua biópsia muscular, histopatologica e imuno-histoquimicamente: 32 eram MP, 23 merosina-deficiente (MD), um mostrava fenótipo Ullrich e três síndrome de Walker-Warburg. RESULTADOS: Distrofina e disferlina foram normais em todos; nove pacientes MD apresentavam déficit parcial de merosina, porém com a mesma gravidade clínica daqueles com deficiência total. CONCLUSÃO: A hipoexpressão de a-sarcoglicana (SG) and a-distroglycan (DG) se correlacionou estatisticamente com o grave fenótipo MD, assim indicando maior correlação entre a merosina e as referidas proteínas; entre os pacientes MP, apesar da hipoexpressão de b-DG ter se correlacionado significativamente com fenótipo e histopatologia mais grave, não houve correlação clínica/imuno-histoquímica valorizável.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Dystrophin-Associated Protein Complex/metabolism , Muscular Dystrophies/metabolism , Laminin/deficiency , Brazil , Chi-Square Distribution , Dystrophin-Associated Protein Complex/genetics , Muscular Dystrophies/congenital , Follow-Up Studies , Phenotype , Severity of Illness Index , Sarcoglycans/metabolism
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 63(3B): 785-790, set. 2005. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-445145


Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD), due to mutations in the collagen VI genes, is an autosomal recessive form of CMD, commonly associated with distal joints hyperlaxity and severe course. A mild or moderate involvement can be occasionally observed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical picture of CMD patients with Ullrich phenotype who presented decreased or absent collagen VI immunoreactivity on muscular biopsy. RESULTS: Among 60 patients with CMD, two had no expression of collagen V and their clinical involvement was essentially different: the first (3 years of follow-up) has mild motor difficulty; the second (8 years of follow-up) never acquired walking and depends on ventilatory support. A molecular study, performed by Pan et al. at the Thomas Jefferson University, demonstrated in the first a known mutation of Bethlem myopathy in COL6A1 and in the second the first dominantly acting mutation in UCMD and the first in COL6A1, previously associated only to Bethlem myopathy, with benign course and dominant inheritance. CONCLUSION: Bethlem myopathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of UCMD, even in patients without fingers contractures; overlap between Ullrich and Bethlem phenotypes can be supposed.

A distrofia muscular congênita (DMC) com hiperextensibilidade articular distal (fenótipo Ullrich) associa-se a mutações nos genes do colágeno VI e corresponde a um grave quadro congênito de herança autossômica recessiva e curso progressivo, ocasionalmente mostrando menor gravidade. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o quadro clínico dos pacientes com DMC tipo Ullrich que apresentam imunoexpressão baixa ou ausente do colágeno VI na biópsia muscular. RESULTADOS: Entre 60 pacientes com DMC, dois mostravam imunomarcação negativa do colágeno VI. Mostravam-se clinicamente essencialmente diferentes: o primeiro, com 8 anos de idade e três de seguimento mostra leve dificuldade motora; o segundo, com 14 anos de idade e 8 de seguimento, não deambula e apresenta insuficiência respiratória. O estudo molecular, realizado na Thomas Jefferson University por Pan et al., revelou no primeiro, no gene COL6A1, mutação típica da miopatia de Bethlem, que tem curso benigno e herança autossômica dominante; e no segundo a primeira mutação de efeito dominante e do gene COL6A1, previamente associado apenas à miopatia de Bethlem. CONCLUSÃO: A miopatia de Bethlem deve constar no diagnóstico diferencial da DMC tipo Ullrich, mesmo na ausência das típicas contraturas dos dedos; pode existir sobreposição dos fenótipos Ullrich e Bethlem.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Collagen Type VI/deficiency , Muscular Dystrophies/genetics , Genetic Heterogeneity , Biopsy , Collagen Type VI/genetics , Diagnosis, Differential , Muscular Dystrophies/congenital , Muscular Dystrophies/pathology , Follow-Up Studies , Immunohistochemistry , Joint Instability/genetics , Joint Instability/pathology , Phenotype