Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 54
Filter
1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 604-609, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144258

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los hongos dematiáceos son un grupo heterogéneo de microorganismos capaces de sintetizar melanina. Las infecciones de este grupo que producen hifas en tejidos se denominan feohifomicosis y generalmente afectan la piel y tejidos vecinos. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 86 años con un tumor quístico blando progresivo en su mano y muñeca derecha, no asociado a dolor o signos inflamatorios. Se demostró una tenosinovitis de los flexores con pseudocapsula y sinovitis adherida a los tendones. El cultivo demostró un hongo dematiáceo compatible con Pleurostomophora richardsiae que se confirmó por secuenciación de la región ITS. La biopsia mostró una inflamación crónica granulomatosa e hifas. Después del drenaje quirúrgico, el paciente fue dado de alta sin terapia antifúngica, pero falleció por causas no relacionadas, tres meses después. Esta es la primera descripción de P. richardsiae como causa de feohifomicosis en Chile. Esta patología se puede sospechar cuando una lesión quística cutánea crónica involucra extremidades sin signos inflamatorios. Puede afectar a pacientes inmunocompetentes o inmunocomprometidos. El tratamiento contempla la escisión quirúrgica con o sin terapia antifúngica.


Abstract Dematiaceous fungi are a heterogeneous group of microorganisms able to synthesize melanin. Infections by this group that provoke tissular hyphae are called phaeohyphomycosis and usually involve skin and neighbor tissues. We present the case of a 86 years old men with a progressive soft cystic tumor in his right hand and wrist not associated to pain or inflammatory signs. A surgical intervention demonstrated flexor tenosynovitis with serous secretion, pseudocapsule and synovitis. Fungal culture demonstrated a dematiaceous fungi compatible with Pleurostomophora richardsiae that was confirmed by sequencing of the ITS region. Biopsy showed chronic inflammation with granuloma and hyphae. After surgical drainage, the patient was discharged without antifungal therapy but died of unrelated causes three month later. This is the first description of P. richardsiae as a cause of phaeohyphomycosis in Chile, a country with a template climate. Phaeohyphomycosis can be suspected when a chronic skin cystic lesion involves extremities without inflammatory signs, sometimes with an associated fistula. It may affect immunocompetent or immunosuppressed patients. Treatment involves surgical excision with or without antifungal therapy and prognosis is favorable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Abscess , Phaeohyphomycosis/diagnosis , Phaeohyphomycosis/drug therapy , Ascomycota , Chile , Hand , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(6): 778-786, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139371

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an opportunistic infection (OI) in immunosuppressed patients. However, there are no clear cut-off values available for quantitative plasmatic CMV measures (viral load [VL]) to discriminate those with CMV illness from those infected suffering a transient viral reactivation. Aim: To estimate a CMV VL cut-off point that discriminates infected patients and those with CMV related diseases, and to clinically characterize AIDS patients with this OI. Patients and Methods: Retrospective analysis of AIDS patients admitted by any reason between years 2017 and 2019 and who had a positive plasma CMV VL at any titer. Cases were categorized with illness or infected using accepted criteria and the cut-off value was obtained by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. Results: Twelve patients were identified as having a CMV-associated illness and seven with CMV infection. A CMV VL of 3,800 copies/mL had a sensitivity of 91.6% and 100% specificity to discriminate both states. Of the 12 patients with CMV illness, all were in AIDS stage and only five were receiving HIV therapy. Predominant clinical presentations were gastrointestinal (50%), followed by liver involvement (25%) and CMV disease (25%). All patients were treated with ganciclovir or valganciclovir. Ten patients had a favorable response (83.3%), one patient only had a laboratory improvement (8.3%) and one died during treatment (8.3%). Drug toxicity was recorded in nine patients but in only three cases, a dose adjustment was necessary. Conclusions: The predominant clinical manifestation in our series was gastrointestinal. A CMV VL cutoff level of CMV VL of 3,800 copies / mL is useful to discriminate infected patients from those with CMV related disease.


Antecedentes: Citomegalovirus (CMV) es una infección oportunista (IO) en pacientes inmunosuprimidos. Sin embargo, se requieren puntos de corte de carga viral (CV) para discriminar a aquellos con enfermedad por CMV de aquellos infectados que sufren una reactivación viral transitoria. Objetivos: Estimar un punto de corte de la CV de CMV que discrimine a los enfermos de los infectados y, además, caracterizar clínicamente a los pacientes con sida que presentan esta IO. Pacientes y Métodos: Análisis retrospectivo de pacientes con sida hospitalizados por cualquier motivo entre los años 2017 y 2019, y que presentaron un CV de CMV plasmática positiva a cualquier título. Los casos se clasificaron como enfermos utilizando criterios aceptados y el valor de corte se obtuvo mediante análisis de una curva ROC. Resultados: Durante el período de estudio, 12 pacientes fueron identificados con enfermedad asociada al CMV y siete con infección. Una CV de 3.800 copias/ml logró una sensibilidad de 91,6% y una especificidad de 100% para discriminar ambos estados. De los 12 pacientes enfermos, todos estaban en etapa de sida y solo 5 recibían terapia contra el VIH. La presentación clínica predominante fue gastrointestinal (50%) seguida del compromiso hepático (25%) y de la enfermedad por CMV (25%). Todos los pacientes fueron tratados con ganciclovir o valganciclovir. Diez pacientes tuvieron una respuesta favorable (83,3%), uno solo tuvo mejoría de laboratorio (8,3%) y otro paciente falleció durante el tratamiento (8,3%). Nueve pacientes evolucionaron con toxicidad farmacológica, pero en solo 3 casos fue necesario ajustar las dosis. Conclusiones: La forma predominante de presentación de la enfermedad fue gastrointestinal. Un punto de corte de 3.800 copias/ml discrimina pacientes infectados de aquellos con la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Cytomegalovirus Infections/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ganciclovir/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Viral Load , Cytomegalovirus
3.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(3): 344-348, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115798

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Syphilis during pregnancy has a high risk of congenital transmission with disastrous fetal consequences. Penicillin (PNC) is the only effective antimicrobial for the treatment of pregnant women with syphilis. Chilean guidelines do not consider desensitization to PNC in these women. We report two cases of pregnant women aged 32 and 23 years, with immediate allergy to PNC and syphilis who were safely and successfully desensitized using a four-hour intravenous protocol in the critical care unit and who subsequently received benzathine G PNC. An electronic survey was conducted among approximately 100 Clinical Pharmacists (CP) in the country. Of these, 16 answered and 13 reported having experience in drug desensitization, in at least five cases with PNC and none reported deaths or cardiorespiratory arrest. Desensitization to PNC can be carried out safely and in Chile, this alternative should be incorporated to the management of pregnant women with syphilis and immediate allergy to PNC, instead of using erythromycin.


La sífilis durante el embarazo tiene un alto riesgo de transmisión congénita con consecuencias desastrosas para el feto. La penicilina (PNC) es el único compuesto efectivo para el tratamiento de sífilis en una mujer embarazada.. En Chile, ante alergias de tipo inmediata, no se considera la desensibilización a la PNC en mujeres embarazadas por norma ministerial. Se comunican dos casos de mujeres embarazadas con alergia tipo inmediata y sífilis durante la gestación que fueron desensibilizadas a este compuesto con un protocolo endovenoso de 4 horas en la unidad de pacientes críticos, sin observar complicaciones, recibiendo posteriormente PNC G Benzatina. Se efectuó una encuesta electrónica a farmacéuticos clínicos del país que incluyó más de 100 profesionales. De ellos, 16 contestaron y 13 declararon poseer experiencia en desensibilización de fármacos, en al menos cinco casos con PNC y ninguno reportó muertes o paro cardiorrespiratorio. La desensibilización a PNC puede ser efectuada en forma segura en embarazadas con alergia de tipo inmediata a PNC que cursan con sífilis. En Chile se debería incorporar esta alternativa en el manejo de mujeres embarazadas con sífilis y alergia inmediata a PNC en lugar de solo considerar por norma el uso de eritromicina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Syphilis/complications , Hypersensitivity/complications , Penicillin G Benzathine , Chile
4.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(10): 1340-1345, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058603

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Infectious endocarditis (IE) by Bartonella species is an emerging problem worldwide. We report two cases of native valve Bartonella-associated IE events, both affecting adult male patients with a history of alcohol abuse and a low socioeconomic status. Admissions were due to pancytopenia and bleeding in one case and embolic stroke in the other. Blood cultures were negative and IgG indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) were positive for B. henselae/B. quintana in high titers (1/16,384-1/16,384, and 1/32,768 -1/16,384, respectively). Cases were classified as definitive IE events according to modified Duke criteria due to the presence of valve vegetations with at least three minor criteria. One patient required aortic mechanical valve replacement and survived, and the other died after a massive hemorrhagic transformation of his stroke. PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S ribosomal bacterial DNA from a valve tissue sample obtained at surgery in the patient who survived, confirmed B. quintana as the etiological agent. Bartonella-associated IE is an emerging problem in Chile, present in disadvantaged populations. It should be suspected in patients with culture-negative IE. IFA does not discriminate between B. henselae and B. quintana infection, but high titers suggest IE. Complementary PCR techniques may help to elucidate the final causative agent.


La endocarditis infecciosa(EI) asociada a Bartonella es un problema emergente a nivel mundial. Publicamos los 2 primeros casos de EI en válvula nativa asociados a Bartonella en Chile, los que afectaron a pacientes masculinos con historia de consumo de alcohol y bajos ingresos. La hospitalización fue provocada por pancitopenia y hemorragias en un caso y por un evento cerebrovascular en el otro. Se solicitó serología para Bartonella por inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI) para ampliar el estudio ante hemocultivos negativos y en ambos casos se reportaron resultados intensamente positivos para B. henselae y B. quintana1/16.384-1/16.384 y 1/32.768 -1/16.384, respectivamente). Los casos se clasificaron como eventos definitivos de EI según los criterios modificados de Duke debido a la presencia de vegetaciones valvulares con al menos 3 criterios menores. Un paciente requirió reemplazo valvular aórtico y sobrevivió, y el otro falleció tras una transformación hemorrágica masiva del infarto cerebral. La amplificación del ADN ribosomal 16S por RCP y posterior secuenciación de una muestra de tejido valvular confirmó la presencia de B. quintana. La EI por Bartonella sp. es un problema emergente en Chile, probablemente asociada a poblaciones desfavorecidas, la que debe ser sospechada en pacientes con cultivos negativos. La IFI no permite discriminar infecciones por B. henselae o B. quintana pero los títulos altos sugieren EI. Técnicas complementarias por RCP pueden ayudar a dilucidar el diagnóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Bartonella quintana/isolation & purification , Bartonella henselae/isolation & purification , Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology , Bartonella Infections/microbiology , Bartonella Infections/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Chile , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnostic imaging
5.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(8): 1042-1052, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058641

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent data suggest an increase in tuberculosis (TB) incidence in Chile. Aim: To evaluate recent epidemiological trends, geographic extension and potential factors associated with TB reemergence in Chile. Material and Methods: Data analysis from official sources and trend analysis. Results: TB incidence rate increased from 12.3 (2014) to 14.7 (2017) per 100,000 inhabitants. Morbidity rates also increased in nine out of 15 regions. The proportion of TB cases in specific groups has also increased in the last six years: HIV/AIDS (68%), immigrants (118%), drug users/alcoholics (267%) and homeless people (370%). Several indicators of the national TB program performance have deteriorated including TB case detection, HIV co-infection study and contact tracing activities. Overall results indicate a higher than expected case-fatality ratio (> 3%), high rates of loss from follow-up (> 5%), and low percentage of cohort healing rate (< 90%). This decline is associated with a Control Program with scarce human resources whose central budget decreased by 90% from 2008 to 2014. New molecular diagnostic tools and liquid media culture were only recently implemented. Conclusions: TB trends and overall program performance indicators have deteriorated in recent years in Chile and several factors appear to be involved. Multiple strategies will be required to rectify this situation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Tuberculosis/economics , Tuberculosis/etiology , Homeless Persons/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Incidence , Risk Factors , Health Expenditures/trends , Statistics, Nonparametric , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , Geography
6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(7): 842-851, jul. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058613

ABSTRACT

Background: Except for influenza pandemics, different observational studies have failed to demonstrate differences in mortality between various etiologies in adult patients hospitalized for respiratory infections. Aim: To compare clinical and mortality differences between different viral pathogens associated with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in hospitalized adults. Material and Methods: One-year prospective study in a sentinel center. We included 132 patients with SARI hospitalized for any of the nine viruses under study by PCR. Clinical variables were compared, excluding cases of coinfection. Results: A viral coinfection was identified in 12% and influenza infection in 56% of cases. Eighty percent of patients were aged ≥ 65 years, with a high frequency of comorbidities, 27% were bedridden. Twenty four percent were admitted to critical care units, 20% required ventilatory assistance and 16% died. Cases occurred throughout the year, with an expected seasonal peak between autumn and spring and a predominance of infections not associated with influenza during summer months. In the multivariate analysis, only being bedridden was significantly associated with mortality at discharge (Odds ratio 23.46; 95% confidence intervals 3.33-165.12, p < 0.01), without association with age, comorbidity, viral pathogen involved, laboratory parameters, clinical presentation or CURB65 score. No major clinical dissimilarities were found between different viral pathogens. Conclusions: In our series of patients, mostly elderly, only bedridden status was significantly associated with mortality at discharge in patients hospitalized for SARI. Viral pathogens were not relevant.


Los factores del huésped son más importantes que el tipo viral para predecir el desenlace en pacientes hospitalizados por infecciones respiratoria aguda grave. Exceptuando las pandemias de influenza, diferentes estudios observacionales no han logrado demostrar diferencias en mortalidad entre diferentes patógenos en pacientes adultos hospitalizados por infecciones respiratorias. Objetivo: Comparar diferencias clínicas y en mortalidad entre diferentes patógenos virales asociados a infección respiratoria aguda grave (IRAG) en adultos hospitalizados. Método: Estudio prospectivo durante un año en un centro centinela. Se incluyeron casos de IRAG hospitalizados por alguno de los 9 virus bajo estudio por RCP. Se compararon variables clínicas y desenlace. Resultados: Ingresaron 132 pacientes con IRAG. Se identificó coinfección viral en 12,1% e infección por influenza en 56,1%. La mayor parte era de la tercera edad (80,3%) con una alta frecuencia de comorbilidad y 27,3% estaba postrado. Veintitres coma cinco por ciento ingresó a unidad de cuidados críticos, 19,7% requirió asistencia ventilatoria y 15,9% fallecieron. Los casos ocurrieron todo el año, con un aumento estacional esperado entre otoño y primavera y predominio de infecciones no asociadas a influenza en verano. En el análisis multivariado, sólo la postración se asoció significativamente a mortalidad al egreso (ORa 23,46 IC95 3,33-165,12, p = 0,002), sin asociación con la edad, comorbilidad, patógeno viral involucrado, parámetros de laboratorio, presentación clínica o puntuación CURB65. No se encontraron discordancias clínicas mayores entre diferentes agentes virales. Conclusiones: En nuestra serie de pacientes, mayoritariamente de la tercera edad, sólo la postración se asoció significativamente a mortalidad al egreso en pacientes hospitalizados por IRAG. El patógeno viral no resultó ser relevante.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Seasons , Severity of Illness Index , Acute Disease , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Hospitalization
7.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(7): 922-927, jul. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058622

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations associated with influenza virus infection include encephalitis, encephalopathy, acute necrotizing encephalitis, transverse myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, mild encephalitis with reversible splenial syndrome (MERS), and Guillaín Barré syndrome. We report a 16-year-old female who was admitted at our emergency department with seizures, confusion, nystagmus and motor clumsiness five days after an upper a respiratory tract infection. Influenza type B virus infection was confirmed by chain polymerase reaction analysis. The initial electroencephalogram demonstrated a pattern of global slowness without epileptic discharges. One week later, it showed a progression to slow-wave focal bilateral discharges at both temporal and occipital lobes. The patient had a favorable evolution and was discharged 19 days after admission with phenytoin to prevent seizures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Encephalitis/virology , Influenza, Human/complications , Electroencephalography , Encephalitis/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/virology
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(3): 312-317, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013789

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. Los factores de virulencia de las cepas de Vibrio cholerae no-O1, no-O139 no son claramente conocidos. La cepa de origen septicémico NN1 Vibrio cholerae no-O1, no-O139 fue secuenciada previamente mediante la plataforma Illumina, detectándose en su genoma un fragmento de la isla de patogenicidad VPaI-7 de V. parahaemolyticus. Objetivo: detectar los genes de virulencia vcsN2, vcsC2, vcsV2, vspD, toxR2 y vopF en cepas chilenas clínicas de V. cholerae no-O1, no-O139. Material y Métodos: Un total de 9 cepas chilenas de origen clínico de Vibrio cholerae no-O1, no-O139 aisladas entre 2006-2012 fueron analizadas mediante ensayos de reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC, en inglés PCR) convencional para los genes de secreción tipo III codificados en dicha isla: vcsN2, vcsC2, vcsV2, vspD, toxR2 y vopF. Adicionalmente se determinó la presencia de los genes de virulencia hylA y rtxA. Además, se realizaron ensayos de repetitive element palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) y Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR). Resultados: la mayoría (6/9) de las cepas chilenas de V. cholerae no-O1, no-O139 contiene todos los genes de secreción tipo III vcsN2, vcsC2, vcsV2, vspD, toxR2 y vopF, codificados en una isla de patogenicidad. Además, el total de las cepas (9/9) contiene los genes de virulencia hylA y rtxA. Conclusión: Estos resultados sugieren fuertemente la posibilidad que dichas cepas posean un potencial de virulencia importante en seres humanos.


Backgound: The virulence factors of the Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strains are not clearly known. The strain of septicemic origin NN1 Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 was sequenced previously by the Illumina platform. A fragment of the pathogenicity island VPaI-7 of V. parahaemolyticus was detected in its genome. Aim: To detect the virulence genes vcsN2, vcsC2, vcsV2, vspD, toxR2 y vopF in Chilean strains of V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139. Methods: A total of 9 Chilean strains of clinical origin of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 isolated between 2006-2012 were analyzed by conventional PCR assays for type III secretion genes encoded on that island: vcsN2, vcsC2, vcsV2, vspD, toxR2 and vopF. Additionally, the presence of the virulence genes hylA and rtxA was determined. In addition, REP-PCR and ERIC-PCR assays were performed. Results: most (6/9) Chilean V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strains contain the type III secretion genes vcsN2, vcsC2, vcsV2, vspD, toxR2 and vopF, encoded in an island of pathogenicity. In addition, all (9/9) the strains contain the virulence genes hylA and rtxA. Conclusion: These results strongly suggest the possibility that those strains possess an important virulence potential in humans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics , Vibrio cholerae/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics , Vibrio cholerae non-O1/genetics , Genomic Islands/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Type III Secretion Systems/genetics , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , Vibrio cholerae/isolation & purification , Vibrio cholerae/pathogenicity , Chile , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Vibrio cholerae non-O1/isolation & purification , Vibrio cholerae non-O1/pathogenicity , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(1): 106-111, feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003659

ABSTRACT

Resumen Comunicamos dos casos de meningitis aséptica asociadas a parotiditis viral en mujeres de edad mediana, una de ellas embarazada. Ambas se presentaron pocos días después del aumento de volumen parotídeo, con cefalea, fiebre y signos meníngeos, pleocitosis de predominio mononuclear en el LCR y resultados negativos para otras causas. La parotiditis fue confirmada por serología IgG e IgM positiva. Las pacientes tuvieron una evolución favorable con desaparición total de sus síntomas. Ambos casos ocurrieron durante un brote regional de parotiditis. La meningitis aséptica es una complicación frecuente de las parotiditis. Su diagnóstico puede lograrse por el aumento de volumen glandular precedente, la pleocitosis de predominio mononuclear en el LCR y una serología IgM e IgG positiva o detección genómica por RPC en muestra urinaria o salival. Esta complicación es más probable que sea observada durante brotes de parotiditis viral.


We report two cases of acute aseptic meningitis associated to mumps in middle-aged women, one pregnant. Both presented shortly after parotid gland enlargement. Neurological complications were suspected by headache, fever and meningeal signs and confirmed by CSF findings (mononuclear predominant pleocytosis) with negative results for alternative causes. Mumps were confirmed by positive IgM and IgG serology. Both patients were discharged with a favorable evolution and complete disappearance of symptoms. Cases were concurrent with a regional mumps outbreak. Conclusions: Aseptic meningitis is a rare mumps-associated neurological complication. Its diagnostic can be achieved by precedent parotid enlargement, mononuclear pleocytosis in the CSF and positive IgM and IgG serology or viral detection by PCR in urine or salivary samples. This complication would be more probably observed during mumps outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Meningitis, Aseptic/virology , Mumps/complications , Seasons , Time Factors , Chile/epidemiology , Incidence , Risk Factors , Age Distribution , Epidemics , Meningitis, Aseptic/pathology , Meningitis, Aseptic/epidemiology , Mumps/epidemiology
11.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(2): 256-260, Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004341

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Adenovirus (ADV) is a recognized cause of severe disease among immunocompromised patients. We report a previously healthy 39-year-old female, admitted with influenza pneumonia and evolving with lung hemorrhage and acute renal failure requiring mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis. She received high corticosteroid doses due to an initial suspicion of alveolar hemorrhage. Lymphopenia already present before steroid use (567/μL), was maintained during the whole hospital stay (mean 782/μL). From the second week of admission she presented a high-volume diarrhea (mean 2.5 L/day) associated to intermittent bloody stools. An ulcerative enterocolitis was confirmed by CT images and colonoscopy. ADV was detected in a colonic tissue sample by real time PCR but not by a commercial filmarray test. Cidofovir-probenecid and racecadotril therapy were indicated without changing the clinical course of diarrhea and the patient finally died.


Adenovirus (ADV) es una causa reconocida de enfermedades graves en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Informamos el caso de una mujer de 39 años, previamente sana, que ingresó por neumonía grave por influenza, evolucionando con hemorragia pulmonar y falla renal aguda, requiriendo ventilación mecánica y hemodiálisis. Recibió altas dosis de corticoides por la sospecha inicial de una hemorragia alveolar. Tuvo linfopenia durante toda su estadía (promedio 782/μL), la que ya estaba presente antes del uso de los corticoides (567/μL). Desde la segunda semana de hospitalización, presentó una diarrea de alto volumen (promedio 2,5 L/día) asociada a la presencia de sangre en deposiciones en forma intermitente. Se confirmó una enterocolitis ulcerativa por tomografía computada y colonoscopía. Se detectó ADV en muestras de biopsia colónica por PCR en tiempo real pero no por un test de PCR múltiples automatizado comercial. Fue tratada con cidofovir-probenecid y racecadrotrilo sin impacto clínico y la paciente finalmente falleció.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Cross Infection/etiology , Immunocompromised Host , Adenoviridae Infections/complications , Enterocolitis/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Adenoviridae/isolation & purification , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/immunology , Fatal Outcome , Adenoviridae Infections/microbiology , Diarrhea/complications , Enterocolitis/diagnosis , Enterocolitis/immunology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/immunology
12.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 43: e1, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985764

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To 1) describe clinical characteristics of adult patients in Chile with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) associated with influenza viruses, and 2) analyze virus subtypes identified in specimens collected from those patients, hospital resources used in clinical management, clinical evolution, and risk factors associated with a fatal outcome, using observational data from the SARI surveillance network (SARInet). Methods Adults hospitalized from 1 July 2011 to 31 December 2015 with influenza-associated SARI at a SARI sentinel surveillance hospital in Santiago were identified and the presence of influenza in all cases confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), using respiratory samples. Results A total of 221 patients (mean age: 74.1 years) were hospitalized with influenza-associated SARI during the study period. Of this study cohort, 91.4% had risk factors for complications and 34.3% had been vaccinated during the most recent campaign. Pneumonia was the most frequent clinical manifestation, occurring in 57.0% of the cohort; other manifestations included influenza-like illness, exacerbated chronic bronchitis, decompensated heart failure, and asthmatic crisis. Cases occurred year-round, with an epidemic peak during autumn-winter. Both influenza A (H1N1pdm09 and H3N2) and B virus co-circulated. Critical care beds were required for 26.7% of the cohort, and 19.5% needed ventilatory assistance. Multivariate analysis identified four significant factors associated with in-hospital mortality: 1) being bedridden (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 22.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.0-164); 2) admission to critical care unit (aOR: 8.9; CI: 1.44-55); 3) Pa02/Fi02 ratio < 250 (aOR: 5.8; CI: 1.02-33); and 4) increased serum creatinine concentration (> 1 mg/dL) (aOR: 5.47; CI: 1.20-24). Seasonal influenza vaccine was identified as a significant protective factor (aOR: 0.14; CI: 0.021-0.90). Conclusions Influenza-associated SARI affected mainly elderly patients with underlying conditions. Most patients evolved to respiratory failure and more than one-quarter required critical care beds. Clinical presentation was variable. Death was associated with host characteristics and disease-associated conditions, and vaccine was protective. Virus type did not influence outcome.


resumen está disponible en el texto completo


RESUMO Objetivo Descrever as características clínicas de pacientes adultos com infecção respiratória aguda grave (SARI) associada ao vírus da influenza e analisar os subtipos virais identificados em amostras coletadas destes pacientes, os recursos hospitalares empregados no tratamento clínico, a evolução clínica e os fatores de risco clínicos associados a um desfecho fatal, a partir de dados observacionais da rede de vigilância de SARI (SARInet) no Chile. Métodos Foram identificados os adultos hospitalizados com SARI associada a influenza em um hospital-sentinela de vigilância de SARI, em Santiago, de 1o de julho de 2011 a 31 de dezembro de 2015. A ocorrência de influenza foi confirmada em amostras respiratórias em todos os casos com a reação em cadeia da polimerase via transcriptase reversa (RT-RCP). Resultados Ao todo, 221 pacientes (idade média de 74,1 anos) foram hospitalizados com SARI associada a influenza no período de estudo. Nesta coorte, 91,4% apresentavam fatores de risco para complicação e 34,3% haviam sido vacinados na última campanha de vacinação. Pneumonia foi a manifestação clínica mais frequente, ocorrendo em 57,0% da coorte. Outras manifestações foram doença gripal, bronquite crônica exacerbada, insuficiência cardíaca descompensada e crise asmática. Os casos estiveram distribuídos ao longo do ano, com pico epidêmico no outono-inverno. Houve circulação simultânea dos vírus da influenza A (H1N1pdm09 e H3N2) e B. Leitos de terapia intensiva foram necessários em 26,7% da coorte e suporte ventilatório, em 19,5%. Na análise multivariada, quatro fatores importantes associados à mortalidade hospitalar foram identificados: estar restrito ao leito (odds ratio ajustado [ORaj] 22.3; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC 95%] 3.0-164); ser admitido na unidade de terapia intensiva (ORaj 8.9, IC 95% 1.4 4-55); relação Pa02/Fi02 <250 (ORaj 5.8; IC 95% 1.02-33) e aumento da creatinina sérica (>1 mg/dl) (ORaj 5.47; IC 95% 1.20-24). A vacinação sazonal contra influenza foi identificada como importante fator de proteção (ORaj 0.14; IC 95% 0.021-0.90). Conclusões A SARI associada a influenza acometeu sobretudo pacientes idosos com doenças preexistentes. A maioria dos pacientes evoluiu com insuficiência respiratória e mais de um quarto precisou de cuidados intensivos. O quadro clínico foi variável. Morte foi associada às características do hospedeiro e problemas relacionados à doença. A vacinação teve efeito protetor e o tipo viral não influiu no desfecho.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Fatal Outcome , Influenza, Human/transmission , Chile
13.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(12): 1481-1485, dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-991360

ABSTRACT

We report a 45-year-old male with AIDS who had a Cryptococcus neoformans central nervous system infection. He was treated with amphotericin B deoxycholate subsequently changed to voriconazole due to systemic toxicity of the former. Plasma levels of voriconazole were insufficient with a standard dose (0.7 μg/mL), therefore, the dose was increased thereafter to reach appropriate levels (4.5 μg/mL). Anti-retroviral therapy was started five weeks after voriconazole initiation with non-interacting drugs and he was discharged after a favorable evolution. He was re-admitted three months later due to seizures; a brain magnetic resonance showed new sub-cortical nodules. After excluding alternative causes and demonstrating fungal eradication, an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) event was suspected and treated with a short course of steroids. His evolution was satisfactory.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/drug therapy , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Deoxycholic Acid/adverse effects , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/chemically induced , Voriconazole/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/diagnostic imaging , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnostic imaging , Deoxycholic Acid/administration & dosage , Drug Combinations , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage
14.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(9): 968-977, set. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-978786

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The long-term effect of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) and its integrated impact with competitive biddings have been seldom reported. Aim: To evaluate the long-term effect of an ASP on antimicrobial consumption, expenditure, antimicrobial resistance and hospital mortality. To estimate the contribution of competitive biddings on cost-savings. Material and Methods: A comparison of periods prior (2005-2008) and posterior to ASP initiation (2009 and 2015) was done. An estimation of cost savings attributable to ASP and to competitive biddings was also performed. Results: Basal median antimicrobial consumption decreased from 221.3 to 170 daily defined doses/100 beds after the start of the ASP. At the last year, global antimicrobial consumption declined by 28%. Median antimicrobial expenditure per bed (initially US$ 13) declined to US$ 10 at the first year (-28%) and to US$ 6 the last year (-57%). As the reduction in consumption was lower than the reduction in expenditure during the last year, we assumed that only 48.4% of savings were attributable to the ASP. According to antimicrobial charges per bed from prior and after ASP implementation, we estimated global savings of US$ 393072 and US$ 190000 directly attributable to the ASP, difference explained by parallel competitive biddings. Drug resistance among nosocomial bacterial isolates did not show significant changes. Global and infectious disease-associated mortality per 1000 discharges significantly decreased during the study period (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The ASP had a favorable impact on antimicrobial consumption, savings and mortality rates but did not have effect on antimicrobial resistance in selected bacterial strains.


Antecedentes: Existe poca información sobre el impacto a largo plazo de un programa de control de antimicrobianos (PCA) y su efecto combinado con licitaciones públicas de fármacos. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de un PCA sobre el consumo, gasto, mortalidad y estimar la contribución de las licitaciones. Material y Métodos: Comparación antes (2005-2008) - después (2009-2015) del PCA y estimación porcentual del ahorro atribuible al PCA y licitaciones. Resultados: El consumo bajó de 221,3 a 170 dosis diarias definidas por 100 días camas (medianas) al primer año. En el último año el consumo declinó un 27,6%. La mediana del gasto por cama ocupada se redujo de 13 a 10 US$ el primer año y a 6 US$ el último año (-57%). Debido a que el gasto bajó más que el consumo, estimamos que solo el 48,4% del ahorro fue debido al PCA (cuociente de ambas reducciones: −27,6%/-57%). De acuerdo con el gasto en antimicrobianos por cama entre ambos períodos, se calculó un ahorro global de 393.000 US$ y de 190.000 US$ directamente atribuible al PCA, siendo la diferencia explicada por licitaciones. Los porcentajes de resistencia en cepas de infecciones nosocomiales no mostraron incrementos o reducciones significativas en el tiempo y la mortalidad por egresos asociada a enfermedades infecciosas (Códigos CIE 10) se redujo significativamente (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: El PCA se asoció a largo plazo a un impacto favorable sobre el consumo de antimicrobianos, gasto por antimicrobianos y egresos por enfermedades infecciosas sin un impacto en la resistencia antimicrobiana. Las licitaciones tuvieron un efecto aditivo en el ahorro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Competitive Bidding/economics , Communicable Diseases/economics , Antimicrobial Stewardship/economics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/economics , Chile/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/mortality , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Hospital Mortality , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Antimicrobial Stewardship/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, General , Anti-Bacterial Agents/classification
15.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(6): 689-694, 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990852

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La enfermedad de Hansen (EH) es una enfermedad curable, poco transmisible, sin necesidad de segregación ni aviso público. La divulgación de un caso de EH en un inmigrante por un funcionario público, permitió medir su impacto en redes sociales (RS) en Chile, un país sin casos endémicos. Objetivo: Medir el impacto y tono de las menciones en RS en Chile que tuvo la divulgación de un caso importado. Métodos: Estudio desde −21 a +21 días de la noticia, con análisis de menciones en RS en Chile a través de un programa computacional. Asignación del tono de las menciones en tres categorías: positiva (Pos), neutra (N) o negativa (Neg) y cálculo de sentimiento neto (SN). Resultados: El día de la divulgación, las menciones sobre migrantes se concentraron en la EH (45%) y el tono mostró una distribución casi equitativa entre tonos Pos y Neg. Sin embargo, predominó el SN negativo el primer día y luego osciló dinámicamente mostrando valores negativos en al menos tres fechas diferentes. Conclusiones: La divulgación de un caso de EH en un inmigrante en Chile acaparó los comentarios sobre migrantes hacia esta enfermedad, observándose una fracción relevante de comentarios de tono negativo en las RS. Debido a que no hay una justificación sanitaria para divulgar la EH, el impacto negativo pudo haberse evitado. El análisis de las RS es una herramienta útil para conocer el impacto de las enfermedades infecciosas en la opinión pública.


Background: Hansen's disease (HD) is a curable disease of low transmissibility which doesn't need social segregation or public notice. The announcement of a HD case in an immigrant by a governmental medical employee allowed to evaluate its impact within social networks (SN) in Chile, a country without endemic cases. Aim: To measure the impact and tone of mentions within SN after the announcement of an imported case. Methods: Mention analysis from −21 to +21 days of the notice using commercial software. Mentions were assigned to a positive, neutral or negative tone and net feeling calculated according to established formula. Results: The day of the announcement immigrant mentions concentrated on HD (45%) and tone was distributed almost equally between positive and negative mentions but net feeling analysis indicated predominance of negative values the first day and a dynamic oscillation thereafter. A net negative feeling was registered at least during 3 different dates. Conclusions: Announcement of a HD case hoarded immigrant mentions towards this disease with a significant fraction of negative comments within SN. Because, there is no public health justification to divulgate this disease, this negative impact generated by an official clerk, could has been avoided. Analysis of SN is a useful tool to explore an infectious disease impact on public opinion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Emigrants and Immigrants , Social Stigma , Social Networking , Leprosy/psychology , Chile
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(6): 722-728, 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990858

ABSTRACT

Resumen La enfermedad de Hansen (EH) es una infección secundaria a Mycobacterium leprae, de curso crónico y que afecta preferentemente la piel y los nervios periféricos. Es una condición emergente en Chile debido a la migración humana. Presentamos un caso que afectó a un trabajador inmigrante desde Haití, que presentó antes de su arribo múltiples lesiones cutáneas en placas, con hipoestesia y madarosis unilateral. El diagnóstico de la forma multibacilar se estableció por los hallazgos clínicos, la presencia de bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes en una muestra cutánea y la detección de células inflamatorias alrededor de los terminales nerviosos y granulomas en una biopsia de piel, desde donde se amplificaron segmentos específicos de los genes rpoB y hsp65 de M. leprae. El paciente fue tratado con el esquema combinado estándar de la OMS para la forma multibacilar durante un año, con regresión parcial de las lesiones. Durante el seguimiento se detectó por RPC una disminución del número de copias del gen rpoB de M. leprae en muestras nasofaríngeas hasta el sexto mes. El registro de enfermedades de notificación obligatoria demuestra un incremento reciente de casos de EH en Chile, todos relacionados con población migrante. La enfermedad de Hansen es una nueva condición clínica y los clínicos deben estar atentos a esta posibilidad diagnóstica. Las pruebas moleculares pueden ayudar en el diagnóstico y seguimiento.


Hansen's disease (HD) is caused by Mycobacterium leprae. It has a chronic course and preferentially affects the skin and the peripheral nerves. It's an emergent infection in Chile due to migration waves. This case report affecting a migrant worker from Haiti that presented several compatible skin lesions, with hypoesthesia and unilateral madarosis that appeared before arrival. The diagnosis of a multibacillary form was established by clinical findings, presence of fast acid bacilli on a direct skin smear, and inflammatory cell surrounding nerve endings and granulomas on skin biopsy. Besides, specific rpoB and hsp65 gene segments from M. leprae were amplified from skin samples. Patient was treated with the WHO standard combined regimen for multibacillary forms during one year showing partial regression of skin lesions. Nasopharyngeal samples showed the presence of M. leprae rpoB copies detected by PCR decreasing until six months of therapy. Notifiable diseases databases showed a recent increment of cases, all related to migrant population. Hansen's disease is a new condition in Chile and clinicians should be aware of this possibility. Molecular tools may facilitate diagnosis and follow up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Leprosy/diagnosis , Mycobacterium leprae/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Communicable Diseases, Emerging
17.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(6): 731-732, 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042651

ABSTRACT

Resumen En Chile se han descrito ocasionalmente casos de meningitis zoonótica por Streptococcus suis ligados a criaderos de cerdos en el sur del país. Presentamos el caso de una mujer que desarrolló un cuadro de meningitis aguda bacteriana por este agente dos días después de manipular un cerdo faenado. No tenía crianza de cerdos ni visitaba granjas de animales. El diagnóstico fue establecido por el cultivo del LCR. Desarrolló una hipoacusia profunda que no mejoró a pesar del uso de corticoesteroides ni tratamiento antimicrobiano, sin otras complicaciones. La meningitis por S. suis es una condición emergente y ligada a porcinos en diferentes formas. La hipoacusia es una complicación frecuente con este agente.


Zoonotic meningitis by Streptococcus suis has been described occasionally in Chile and linked to pig farmers in the south of the country. We report a female case that developed acute bacterial meningitis by this agent, two days after handling a piece of raw swine meat. She did not participate on swine breeding nor visited farms. Diagnosis was obtained by CSF culture. A severe hearing loss and not recovered despite corticosteroids use and antimicrobial treatment, without others complications. Meningitis by S. suis is emerging as a new pathogen and linked to swine in different forms. Hypoacusis happens frequently with this agent.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Streptococcus suis/isolation & purification , Meningitis, Bacterial/microbiology , Hearing Loss/etiology , Streptococcal Infections/complications , Meningitis, Bacterial/complications , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnosis
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(5): 490-497, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978062

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El personal de salud está expuesto a experimentar accidentes con sangre y otros fluidos biológicos potencialmente infectantes en su práctica clínica; la atención de estos eventos implica costos importantes, los que son susceptibles de reducir. Objetivo: Describir aspectos generales de los accidentes laborales y los costos asociados al manejo. Material y Método: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo. Se tomaron las notificaciones de exposición a fluidos en el personal de salud entre los años 2010 y 2015 y se calcularon los costos por concepto de atención de los afectados. Resultados: Se reportaron 189 exposiciones a fluido de riesgo durante el período estudiado con un promedio de 31 accidentes anuales. El 83,5% de las fuentes estudiadas fueron negativas para VIH, VHB y VHC, 12,6% fue accidente con fuente desconocida y sólo 3,7% fue positivo a alguno de estos virus. Los costos asociados al manejo de las exposiciones de riesgo fueron de $2.765.890 anuales (4,274 USD) y un costo medio de $ 73.171 por evento manejado (113 USD); cerca de 80% de esta cifra corresponde al protocolo de manejo básico. Conclusión: Las exposiciones a fluidos de riesgo en el personal de salud son frecuentes, y la atención de los afectados tiene un costo importante. Estas cifras son susceptibles de reducir en la medida que se previenen las exposiciones a fluidos, a través de las distintas estrategias validadas y al otorgar al trabajador de la salud un escenario seguro para su práctica diaria.


Background: Health personnel are exposed to accidents with blood and other potentially infectious biological fluids in their clinical practice. Management of these events has high costs that are likely to be reduced. Aim: To give a general description of work accidents and their associated costs. Material and Method: All healthcare workers reports of exposure to blood or risk fluids between 2010 and 2015, were included. Health care costs were calculated. Records were analyzed in a retrospective manner. Results: 189 exposures to risk fluids were reported during the study period with an average of 31 accidents per year. 83.5% of the studied sources were negative for HIV, HBV and HCV, 12.6% was with unknown source and only 3.7% was positive for any of them. The costs associated with management of risk exposures was $ 2,765,890 Chilean pesos/year (4,274 USD). The average cost per event was $ 73,171 Chilean pesos (113 USD). Approximately 80% of this figure corresponds to basic management protocol. Conclusion: Exposure to risk fluids in health personnel is frequent and has a high cost. This cost can be reduced by the application of prevention measures to give the healthcare workers a safer environment for their daily practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Personnel, Hospital , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/economics , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Chile , Retrospective Studies , Occupational Exposure , Disease Notification , Hospitals, Military
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(5): 447-452, oct. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899741

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La neumonía asociada a la ventilación mecánica (NAVM) es un evento adverso que aumenta la morbi-mortalidad y costos. Genera días adicionales de hospitalización y de procedimientos diagnósticos y terapéuticos para su tratamiento. No existen datos actualizados nacionales respecto al exceso de costos por NAVM. Objetivo: Dimensionar el costo de las NAVM en un hospital general de la Región Metropolitana. Pacientes y Métodos: Aplicación del protocolo caso-control de costos de infecciones intrahospitalarias de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) y cálculo directo de gasto en exceso por evento de NAVM. Se comparó el exceso de días de hospitalización, de antimicrobianos en dosis diaria definida (DDD) y de cultivos. Resultados: Se recolectaron 18 casos de NAVM entre los años 2012 y 2015 en pacientes adultos. Se seleccionaron 18 controles pareados por edad y género. Se observó una mayor estadía promedio de 6,1 días en los casos (p < 0,05), una mayor prescripción de antimicrobianos (diferencia promedio de 11,7 DDD, sin significancia estadística) y un exceso de solicitud de cultivos con una diferencia promedio de 3,2 (p < 0,05). El costo unitario por NAVM fue de 4.475 USD. Conclusiones: Los eventos de NAVM generan una mayor estadía hospitalaria, consumo de recursos diagnósticos y terapéuticos.


Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an adverse event that increases morbidity, mortality and costs due to a prolonged stay and requirement of microbiological studies and antimicrobial therapy. There is not recent data of VAP costs in Chile. Aim: To evaluate additional costs in adult patients with VAP compared to controls in a general hospital in the Metropolitan Area. Patients and Methods: Use of the PAHO paired casecontrol protocol for cost evaluation associated to nosocomial infections and estimation of cost in excess per VAP event. Length of stay (LOS) in excess, antimicrobial consumption in daily-defined doses (DDD), and number of microbiological studies were compared between both groups. Results: From 2012 to 2015, 18 patients with VAP events were identified with their respective controls. LOS exceeded 6.1 days on average among patients with VAP respect to controls (p < 0.05). DDD was higher among patients with VAP (difference 11.7 DDD) as well as number of cultures (3.2 higher on average, p < 0.05). Cost in excess per VAP event reached 4,475 USD. Conclusions: In our Centre, VAP events are associated to a higher LOS, antimicrobial consumption and microbiological studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/economics , Chile , Statistics, Nonparametric , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/drug therapy , Hospitals, General/economics , Length of Stay/economics , Anti-Infective Agents/economics , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(4): 319-325, ago. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899718

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: No hay criterios establecidos para distinguir las flebitis de causa infecciosa de las no infecciosas. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de un programa de intervención en la tasa de flebitis de tipo infecciosa (asociada a bacteriemia sin otro foco o pus local) y no infecciosa (el resto). Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio intervencional en tres etapas: diagnóstico de situación basal, intervención y evaluación. Resultados: Se detectaron 10 casos de flebitis infecciosa y 186 no infecciosas. Las flebitis infecciosas disminuyeron con la intervención (0,2 a 0,04 eventos por 1.000 días camas; p = 0,02) pero no las no infecciosas (2,3 a 2,3 por 1.000 días camas). Cinco casos con flebitis infecciosa tuvieron bacteriemia, uno de ellos con endocarditis y reemplazo valvular y otro con shock séptico y desenlace fatal. Ninguno de los casos en el grupo no infeccioso se complicó o falleció. Las flebitis infecciosas se presentaron más tarde que las otras (4,1 versus 2,4 días; p = 0,007) y se asociaron a fiebre (40% vs 5,9%, p = 0,004). Las flebitis no infecciosas se asociaron al uso de compuestos irritantes (OR 6,1; IC95 1,3-29, p < 0,05). Conclusiones: El programa demostró un impacto favorable para disminuir sólo las flebitis de tipo infecciosa. La distinción parece ser relevante porque las infecciosas se asocian a fiebre, complicaciones o letalidad, parecen responder a programas de prevención y son más tardías.


Background: There is no consensus definition to distinguish infectious from non-infectious phlebitis associated to peripheral venous catheter. Aims: To evaluate the impact of an intervention program on the rate of infectious (those associated to bacteremia or local purulent discharge) and non-infectious phlebitis (the rest) and identify differential features. Methods: Interventional study developed in three stages: basal measurement, intervention, and evaluation. Results: Ten infectious and 186 non-infectious phlebitis were registered. Infectious phlebitis diminished after intervention (0.2 to 0.04 events per 1,000 bed-days; p = 0.02) but not the rest (2.3 per 1,000 bed-days before and after). Five of 10 patients with infectious phlebitis had bacteremia, one with infectious endocarditis and valve replacement, and other with septic shock and a fatal outcome. None of the patients in the non-infectious group presented complications. Infectious phlebitis appeared later (mean 4.1 versus 2.4 days; p = 0.007) and were associated to fever (40% vs 5.9%, p = 0.004). Non-infectious phlebitis was associated to irritating compounds (OR 6.1; IC95 1.3-29, p < 0.05). Conclusions: The intervention program demonstrated a favorable impact only on the rate of infectious phlebitis. Distinction appears to be relevant because those of infectious origin are associated with fever, complications or death, respond to an intervention program, and emerge lately.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Phlebitis/etiology , Catheterization, Peripheral/adverse effects , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Phlebitis/classification , Device Removal
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL