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1.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 92(2): 181-187, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779897

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Intussusception surveillance was initiated after the nationwide introduction of live attenuated monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1). The objective is to assess the epidemiology of intussusception and compare the number of cases before and after the introduction of rotavirus vaccine. Methods: Cases of intussusception occurring between March 2006 and January 2008 were identified through a prospective enhanced passive surveillance system established in sentinel state hospitals. Retrospective review of medical records was used to identify cases, which occurred in sentinel hospitals between January 2001 and February 2006. Results: From 2001 to 2008, 331 intussusception cases were identified, 59.5% were male, with peak incidence among those 18–24 weeks of age. Overall <10% of cases were among infants 6–14 weeks of age (when the first dose of RV1 is administered). The most frequently observed signs or symptoms of intussusception included vomiting (89.4%), bloody stool (75.5%), and abdominal distention (71.8%). A majority (92.1%) of the case-patients required surgery for treatment; 31.8% of those who underwent surgery required bowel resection, and 13 (3.9%) died. Among the 21 hospitals that reported cases throughout the entire surveillance period (2001–2008), the number of intussusception events during 2007 (n = 26) and 2008 (n = 19) was not greater than the average annual number (n = 31, range 24–42) during baseline years 2001–2005. Conclusions: Although this analysis did not identify an increase in intussusception cases during the two years after RV1 introduction, these results support the need for special epidemiologic methods to assess the potential link between rotavirus vaccine and this very rare adverse event.


Resumo Objetivo: A vigilância da intussuscepção foi iniciada após a introdução da vacina monovalente viva atenuada contra rotavírus (RV1) em todo o país. O objetivo é avaliar a epidemiologia da intussuscepção e comparar a quantidade de casos antes e depois da introdução da vacina contra rotavírus. Métodos: Os casos de intussuscepção entre março de 2006 e janeiro de 2008 foram identificados por meio de um sistema de vigilância passivo prospectivo aprimorado estabelecido em hospitais-sentinela estaduais. A análise retrospectiva de prontuários médicos foi usada para identificar os casos que ocorreram em hospitais-sentinela entre janeiro de 2001 e fevereiro de 2006. Resultados: De 2001-2008, identificamos 331 casos de intussuscepção, 59,5% dos quais ocorreram em pacientes do sexo masculino, com pico de incidência entre aqueles com 18-24 semanas de idade. Em geral, < 10% dos casos ocorreram entre neonatos com 6-14 semanas de idade (quando a 1a dose de RV1 é administrada). Os sinais ou sintomas de intussuscepção observados com mais frequência incluíam vômito (89,4%), fezes com sangue (75,5%) e distensão abdominal (71,8%). A maioria (92,1%) dos pacientes precisou de cirurgia para o tratamento; 31,8% dos que se submeteram à cirurgia precisaram de ressecção intestinal e 13 (3,9%) vieram a óbito. Entre os 21 hospitais que relataram casos durante todo o período de vigilância (2001-2008), a quantidade de casos de intussuscepção em 2007 (n = 26) e 2008 (n = 19) não foi maior do que a quantidade média anual (31, faixa de 24-42) durante os anos-base de 2001-2005. Conclusões: Embora esta análise não tenha identificado um aumento nos casos de intussuscepção nos dois anos após a introdução da RV1, esses resultados justificam a necessidade de métodos epidemiológicos especiais para avaliar a possível associação entre a vacina contra rotavírus e esse evento adverso muito raro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Rotavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Intussusception/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Hospitalization , Intussusception/etiology
2.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(2): 276-284, 02/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742180

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae on the morbidity and mortality from pneumococcal meningitis in children ≤ 2 years in Brazil, from 2007 to 2012. This is a descriptive study and ecological analysis using data from the Information System on Notifiable Diseases. Pre-vaccination (2007-2009) and post-vaccination (2011-2012) periods were defined to compare incidence rates and mortality. A total of 1,311 cases and 430 deaths were reported during the study period. Incidence decreased from 3.70/100,000 in 2007 to 1.84/100,000 in 2012, and mortality decreased from 1.30/100,000 to 0.40/100,000, or 50% and 69% respectively, with the greatest impact in the 6-11 month age group. This decrease in Pneumococcal meningitis morbidity and mortality rates two years after introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine suggests its effectiveness.


El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el impacto de la vacunación contra el Streptococcus pneumoniae en la morbilidad y mortalidad de la meningitis neumocócica en niños ≤ 2 años en Brasil, 2007-2012. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo ecológico que analiza los datos del Sistema de Información Enfermedades de Notificación Obligatoria en Brasil. El período previo (2007-2009) y posterior a la vacunación (2011-2012) fueron examinados para comparar las tasas de incidencia y mortalidad. 1.311 casos de meningitis neumocócica con 430 muertes se registraron durante el período de estudio. Hubo una disminución de la incidencia de 3,70 casos por 100.000 habitantes en 2007, a 1,84/100.000 en 2012, mientras que la tasa de mortalidad cayó 1,30 a 0,40 óbitos/100.000, se produjeron reducciones del 50% y 69%, respectivamente, con mayores impactos identificados entre los niños de 6-11 meses de edad. Los resultados indican una reducción en la morbilidad y mortalidad por meningitis neumocócica dos años después de la introducción de la vacuna conjugada antineumocócica 10-valente, lo que sugiere su eficacia.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o impacto da vacinação contra o Streptococcus pneumoniae na morbidade e mortalidade por meningite pneumocócica em crianças ≤ 2 anos, no Brasil, entre 2007-2012. Este é um estudo descritivo com análise ecológica, utilizando dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação. Foram definidos os períodos pré-vacinal (2007-2009) e pós-vacinal (2011-2012) para comparar as taxas de incidência e mortalidade. Foram identificados 1.311 casos e 430 óbitos no período do estudo. A taxa de incidência diminuiu de 3,70/100.000 no ano de 2007 para 1,84/100.000 em 2012, e a mortalidade reduziu de 1,30/100.000 para 0,40/100.000, o que significa uma redução de 50% e 69%, respectivamente, com maior impacto identificado na faixa etária de 6 a 11 meses. Os resultados indicam uma diminuição nos indicadores de morbidade e mortalidade de meningite pneumocócica, observados dois anos após a introdução da vacina pneumocócica conjugada 10-valente, sugerindo sua efetividade.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Streptococcus pneumoniae/immunology , Vaccination
3.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 30(4): 335-341, oct. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-606847

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate knowledge of rubella and acceptability of vaccination and identify sources of health information among brazilian adults to inform communication strategies for a national vaccination campaign to eliminate rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). METHODS: From 5-8 July 2008 a qualitative telephone survey was conducted among a nonprobabilistic sample of brazilian adults 18 to 65 years of age (n = 1 023) from all five geographic regions of Brazil to measure knowledge of rubella and willingness to receive the vaccine and to identify sources of health information. Frequencies of responses were stratified by respondents' sex, age, education, and income. RESULTS: Although 69.9 percent of respondents said they knew what rubella was, actual knowledge of the disease was limited, with only 29.9 percent answering affirmatively when asked if they would recognize symptoms of rubella infection. Self-reported knowledge increased with increasing age, education, and income, and was higher among women than men. A total of 94.5 percent of the respondents expressed willingness to be vaccinated for rubella elimination. The most frequently mentioned sources of health information were television and doctors. CONCLUSIONS: Despite limited knowledge of rubella, brazilian adults expressed willingness to be vaccinated for disease elimination.


OBJETIVO: Evaluar el conocimiento de la rubéola y la aceptabilidad de la vacunación antirrubeólica, y determinar las fuentes de información sanitaria en los adultos brasileños, con objeto de fundamentar las estrategias de comunicación de una campaña nacional de vacunación dirigida a eliminar la rubéola y el síndrome de rubéola congénita (SRC). MÉTODOS: Del 5 al 8 de julio del 2008 se llevó a cabo una encuesta telefónica cualitativa en una muestra no probabilística de adultos brasileños de 18 a 65 años de edad (n = 1 023) de las cinco regiones geográficas del Brasil, con objeto de evaluar el conocimiento de la rubéola y la disposición a recibir la vacuna antirrubeólica, y determinar las fuentes de información sanitaria. Las frecuencias de las respuestas se estratificaron según el sexo, la edad, el nivel educativo y los ingresos de los entrevistados RESULTADOS: Aunque 69,9 por ciento de los entrevistados dijeron que sabían lo que era la rubéola, el conocimiento real de la enfermedad era limitado, ya que solo 29,9 por ciento respondieron afirmativamente cuando se les preguntó si reconocerían los síntomas de esta infección. El grado de conocimiento notificado por los propios entrevistados aumentó con la edad, el nivel educativo y los ingresos, y fue mayor en las mujeres que en los hombres. El 94,5 por ciento de los entrevistados expresaron su disposición a vacunarse con objeto de eliminar la rubéola. Las fuentes de información sanitaria mencionadas con mayor frecuencia fueron la televisión y los médicos. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de tener un conocimiento limitado de la rubéola, los adultos brasileños expresaron su disposición a vacunarse con objeto de eliminar la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Health Behavior , Health Education , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Mass Vaccination , Rubella Vaccine , Rubella Syndrome, Congenital/prevention & control , Brazil , Communication , Health Care Surveys , Health Promotion , Immunization Programs , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Qualitative Research , Rubella Syndrome, Congenital/epidemiology , Self Report , Social Marketing
4.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 30(1): 7-14, jul. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-608282

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe an adapted version of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) methodology for rapid monitoring of vaccination coverage and its use as a supervisory tool to guide decision-making and strategies for end-stage vaccination activities ("mopup" operations) following a six-week national rubella elimination campaign in Brazil. METHODS: Vaccination coverage assessments modeled on a variation of PAHO's rapid house-to-house coverage monitoring methodology were conducted by Brazilian municipalities following mass immunization of adults and adolescents from August to December 2008. Results of monitoring assessments conducted in 3 658 (65.7 percent) of 5 564 municipalities were reported to Brazil's National Immunization Program. RESULTS: Information on vaccination against rubella was obtained from more than 1.5 million Brazilians (2.1 percent of the 70.1 million people targeted for immunization) during vaccination coverage monitoring. According to the assessment data, vaccination targets of 95 percent coverage were reached in 2 175 (59.5 percent) of the 3 658 municipalities that reported results. The percentage of municipalities that reached coverage targets was lower than administrative coverage estimates (number of vaccine doses administered divided by the immunization target population). These results informed targeted "mop-up" campaigns to reach unvaccinated populations. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid coverage monitoring implemented at the local level proved useful for deciding when to conclude vaccination activities and where to focus additional efforts to achieve desired coverage.


Describir una versión adaptada de la metodología de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) para el monitoreo rápido de la cobertura de vacunación. Exponer su uso como herramienta de supervisión para guiar la toma de decisiones y las estrategias para las actividades de vacunación finales (campañas "de barrido") después de una campaña nacional de eliminación de la rubéola de 6 semanas de duración en el Brasil. MÉTODOS: Los municipios brasileños llevaron a cabo una evaluación de la cobertura de vacunación basada en una variante de la metodología de monitoreo rápido "casa por casa" de la OPS, después de una campaña masiva de vacunación de adultos y adolescentes efectuada entre agosto y diciembre del 2008. Los resultados de las evaluaciones de seguimiento realizadas en 3 658 (65,7 por ciento) de 5 564 municipios se comunicaron al Programa Nacional de Vacunación del Brasil. RESULTADOS: Mediante el monitoreo de la cobertura de vacunación se obtuvo información sobre la vacunación antirrubeólica de más de 1,5 millones de brasileños (2,1 por ciento de los 70,1 millones de destinatarios de la inmunización). Según estos datos, se alcanzó la meta de vacunación (cobertura del 95 por ciento) en 2 175 (59,5 por ciento) de los 3 658 municipios que presentaron resultados. El porcentaje de municipios que alcanzaron la meta de cobertura fue menor que las estimaciones de cobertura administrativa (cantidad de dosis de vacuna administradas dividida por la población destinataria de la inmunización). Estos resultados se usaron para las campañas de vacunación "de barrido" a fin de alcanzar a las poblaciones no vacunadas. CONCLUSIONES: El monitoreo rápido de la cobertura de vacunación en el nivel local resultó útil para decidir cuándo concluir las actividades de vacunación y en qué aspectos se debían concentrar los esfuerzos posteriores para lograr la cobertura deseada.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Population Surveillance/methods , Rubella/prevention & control , Vaccination , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Pan American Health Organization , Urban Health
5.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 29(4): 243-251, abr. 2011. graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-587822

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe rubella outbreaks and control strategies in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul before rubella elimination. METHODS: We analyzed rubella and congenital rubella syndrome surveillance data for the state of Rio Grande do Sul and calculated age- and gender-specific incidence of confirmed rubella cases in 2007. We obtained data on measles-rubella doses administered during the outbreak from the state immunization program and reviewed the timing of suspect case notification and implementation of control measures. RESULTS: Of 2 842 confirmed rubella cases reported to the state health department in 2007, 2 145 (75.5 percent) were in males (39.5 cases per 100 000 population) and 697 (24.5 percent) were in females (12.3 per 100 000 population). Incidence among 15- to 39-year-olds was 1.8 to 5.5 times higher in males than in females. Rubella genotype 2B was detected in nasopharyngeal specimens from 13 patients from multiple chains of transmission. Eight children were born with congenital rubella syndrome (5.9 cases per 100 000 births in 2008). Delayed notification of initial cases hampered early control efforts, resulting in outbreak spread throughout the state. Rubella transmission was interrupted after mass vaccination of adult men and women as part of a national vaccination campaign. CONCLUSIONS: Routine vaccination strategies and mass vaccination of adolescents and adults for accelerated rubella control and elimination should target men and women.


OBJETIVO: Describir los brotes de rubéola y las estrategias para el control de la enfermedad anteriores a la eliminación de la rubéola en el estado brasileño de Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron los datos de vigilancia epidemiológica sobre la rubéola y el síndrome de rubéola congénita del estado de Rio Grande do Sul y se calculó la incidencia específica por edad y sexo de los casos confirmados de rubéola en el 2007. A partir del programa de vacunación estatal se obtuvieron datos sobre las dosis de vacunación antisarampionosa y antirrubeólica administradas durante el brote y se analizaron el momento de notificación de los casos sospechosos y la puesta en práctica de medidas de control. RESULTADOS: De los 2842 casos confirmados de rubéola notificados al departamento de salud estatal en el 2007, 2 145 (75,5 por ciento) correspondieron a hombres (39,5 casos por 100000 habitantes) y 697 (24,5 por ciento) a mujeres (12,3 por 100000 habitantes). La incidencia en las personas de 15 a 39 años de edad fue de 1,8 a 5,5 veces mayor en los varones que en las mujeres. En 13 pacientes provenientes de distintas cadenas de transmisión se detectó el genotipo 2B del virus de la rubéola en muestras obtenidas de la nasofaringe. Nacieron 8 niños con síndrome de rubéola congénita (5,9 casos por 100000 nacimientos en el 2008). La demora en la notificación de los casos iniciales obstaculizó la adopción temprana de medidas de control, lo que hizo que el brote se propagara a todo el estado. La transmisión de la rubéola se interrumpió después de la vacunación masiva de varones y mujeres adultos como parte de una campaña nacional de vacunación. CONCLUSIONES: Las estrategias de vacunación sistemática y la vacunación masiva de adolescentes y adultos tendientes a acelerar el control y la eliminación de la rubéola deben dirigirse tanto a varones como a mujeres.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Disease Outbreaks , Rubella Vaccine , Rubella/epidemiology , Rubella/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Vaccination/methods
6.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-173522

ABSTRACT

Community surveys of healthcare-use determine the proportion of illness episodes not captured by health facility-based surveillance, the methodology used most commonly to estimate the burden of disease in Africa. A cross-sectional survey of households with children aged less than five years was conducted in 35 of 686 census enumeration areas in rural Bondo district, western Kenya. Healthcare sought for acute episodes of diarrhoea or fever in the past two weeks or pneumonia in the past year was evaluated. Factors associated with healthcare-seeking were analyzed by logistic regression accounting for sample design. In total, 6,223 residents of 981 households were interviewed. Of 1,679 children aged less than five years, 233 (14%) had diarrhoea, and 736 (44%) had fever during the past two weeks; care at health facilities was sought for one-third of these episodes. Pneumonia in the past year was reported for 64 (4%) children aged less than five years; 88% sought healthcare at any health facility and 48% at hospitals. Seeking healthcare at health facilities was more likely for children from households with higher socioeconomic status and with more symptoms of severe illness. Health facility and hospital-based surveillance would underestimate the burden of disease substantially in rural western Kenya. Seeking healthcare at health facilities and hospitals varied by syndrome, severity of illness, and characteristics of the patient.

8.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 13(2): 278-288, June 2010. graf, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-551159

ABSTRACT

No Brasil, os Dias Nacionais de Vacinação (DNV) são realizados duas vezes ao ano para manter a eliminação da poliomielite e prover a vacinação de rotina para crianças menores de cinco anos. Poucos estudos examinam fatores associados à participação das crianças brasileiras nos Dias Nacionais de Vacinação ou a contribuição desses dias de vacinação para a cobertura com as vacinas recomendadas. MÉTODOS: Inquérito domiciliar com amostragem por conglomerados realizado nas 26 capitais e no Distrito Federal. Foram estudadas as datas de aplicação das vacinas, verificando-se a participação das crianças entre 19 e 35 meses de idade no DNV mais recente, ou o motivo alegado para não fazê-lo. Os dados obtidos foram cotejados com dados administrativos. RESULTADOS: Das 17.749 crianças incluídas no inquérito, 16.213 (91 por cento) participaram no último DNV. Crianças que receberam vacinas no setor privado tiveram menor participação (84 por cento) no DNV. Em 13 capitais, as estimativas de cobertura baseadas no número de doses aplicadas foram superiores às do inquérito. Entre as crianças que não participaram no último DNV, os principais motivos de não participação foram decisão dos pais, orientação médica, a criança estar doente e fatores associados com a organização do DNV. No total, 15 por cento das crianças incluídas receberam pelo menos uma dose de vacina além da vacina oral contra poliomielite no último DNV, incluindo vacinas contra febre amarela, hepatite B, tríplice viral (sarampo-rubéola-caxumba) e difteria-tétano-pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae tipo b. CONCLUSÕES: Nas capitais brasileiras, os dias nacionais de vacinação continuam tendo altos níveis de participação da população e oferecem oportunidades para recuperação da cobertura vacinal. Os motivos para não comparecer aos DNV evidenciam a necessidade de se estudar estratégias diferenciadas de comunicação para incorporação destas crianças.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Immunization Programs , Mass Vaccination , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus Vaccines
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 43(3): 234-239, May-June 2010. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-548515

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To review measles IgM-positive cases of febrile rash illnesses in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, over the five-year period following interruption of measles virus transmission. METHODS: We reviewed 463 measles IgM-positive cases of febrile rash illness in the State of São Paulo, from 2000 to 2004. Individuals vaccinated against measles < 56 days prior to specimen collection were considered to be exposed to the vaccine. Serum from the acute and convalescent phases was tested for evidence of measles, rubella, parvovirus B19 and human herpes virus-6 infection. In the absence of seroconversion to measles immunoglobulin-G, measles IgM-positive cases were considered false positives in individuals with evidence of other viral infections. RESULTS: Among the 463 individuals with febrile rash illness who tested positive for measles IgM antibodies during the period, 297 (64 percent) were classified as exposed to the vaccine. Among the 166 cases that were not exposed to the vaccine, 109 (66 percent) were considered false positives based on the absence of seroconversion, among which 21 (13 percent) had evidence of rubella virus infection, 49 (30 percent) parvovirus B19 and 28 (17 percent) human herpes virus-6 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Following the interruption of measles virus transmission, thorough investigation of measles IgM-positive cases is required, especially among cases not exposed to the vaccine. Laboratory testing for etiologies of febrile rash illness aids interpretation of these cases.


INTRODUÇÃO: Revisar os casos de doenças febris exantemáticas com IgM reagente contra o sarampo, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, durante os cinco anos seguidos a interrupção da transmissão do vírus do sarampo. MÉTODOS: Nós revisamos 463 casos de doenças febris exantemáticas com IgM reagente contra o sarampo, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, de 2000 a 2004. Indivíduos vacinados contra o sarampo 56 dias antes da coleta de amostra foram considerados expostos à vacina. Soros da fase aguda e de convalescença foram testados para a evidência de infecção de sarampo, rubéola, parvovírus B19 e herpes vírus 6. Na ausência de soroconversão para imunoglobulina G contra o sarampo, casos com IgM reagente contra o sarampo foram considerados falsos positivos em pessoas com evidência de outras infecções virais. RESULTADOS: Entre as 463 pessoas com doenças febris exantemáticas que testaram positivo para anticorpos IgM contra o sarampo durante o período, 297 (64 por cento) pessoas foram classificadas como expostas à vacina. Entre os 166 casos não expostos à vacina, 109 (66 por cento) foram considerados falsos positivos baseado na ausência de soroconversão, dos quais 21 (13 por cento) tiveram evidência de infecção por vírus da rubéola, 49 (30 por cento) parvovírus B19 e 28 (17 por cento) infecção por herpes vírus humano 6. CONCLUSÕES: Após a interrupção da transmissão do vírus do sarampo é necessária exaustiva investigação dos casos com IgM reagente contra o sarampo, especialmente dos casos não expostos à vacina. Testes laboratoriais para etiologias das doenças febris exantemáticas ajudam na interpretação destes casos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exanthema/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Measles Vaccine/immunology , Measles virus/immunology , Measles/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Exanthema/epidemiology , False Positive Reactions , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Population Surveillance , Parvoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Parvoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Roseolovirus Infections/diagnosis , Roseolovirus Infections/epidemiology , Rubella/diagnosis , Rubella/epidemiology
10.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 25(3): 270-279, Mar. 2009. graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-515989

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive review of data on pneumococcal disease incidence in Latin America and the Caribbean and project the annual number of pneumococcal disease episodes and deaths among children < 5 years of age in the region. METHODS: We carried out a systematic review (1990 to 2006) on the burden of pneumococcal disease in children < 5 years of age in the region. We summarized annual incidence rates and case fatality ratios using medians and interquartile ranges for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) (including all-IPD and separately abstracting pneumococcal meningitis, pneumonia, bacteremia, and sepsis data), pneumonia (all cause and radiologically confirmed), and acute otitis media by age group: < 1 year, < 2 years, and < 5 years. We modeled age-specific cumulative incidence of disease obtained from standard Kaplan-Meier analysis and projected data to obtain regional estimates of disease burden. We adjusted burden estimates by serotype coverage, vaccination coverage, and vaccine efficacy to estimate the number of cases and deaths averted. RESULTS: Of 5 998 citations identified, 26 papers from 10 countries were included. The estimated annual burden of pneumonia, meningitis, and acute otitis media caused by pneumococcus in children < 5 years of age ranged from 980 000 to 1 500 000, 2 600 to 6 800, and 980 000 to 1 500 000, respectively. An estimated 12 000 to 28 000 deaths due to pneumococcal disease occur in the region annually. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine could save 1 life per 1 100 and prevent 1 case per 13 children vaccinated. CONCLUSION: A substantial burden of pneumococcal disease in the region is potentially preventable with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and should be considered in regional vaccine decision making. Results are limited by the very few studies, conducted in selected settings, included in this review.


OBJETIVO: Realizar una revisión amplia de los datos sobre la incidencia de la enfermedad neumocócica en América Latina y el Caribe y proyectar el número anual de episodios de la enfermedad y de defunciones entre niños menores de 5 años de edad en la región. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo una revisión sistemática (1990-2006) sobre la carga de la enfermedad neumocócica en niños < 5 años en la región. Las incidencias anuales y las tasas de letalidad se compendiaron mediante las medianas y los rangos intercuartiles de la enfermedad neumocócica invasiva (en su conjunto y por separado para meningitis, neumonía, bacteremia y sepsis neumocócicas), la neumonía (todos los casos confirmados mediante radiología) y la otitis media aguda, por grupos de edad: < 1 año, < 2 años y < 5 años. Se modeló la incidencia acumulada de la enfermedad específica para la edad mediante el análisis estándar de Kaplan-Meier y se proyectaron los datos para obtener estimados regionales de la carga de la enfermedad. Para estimar el número de casos y muertes evitados se ajustaron los estimados de la carga según la cobertura de los serotipos bacterianos, la cobertura de la vacunación y la eficacia de la vacuna. RESULTADOS: De las 5 998 referencias identificadas se seleccionaron 26 artículos de 10 países. La carga anual estimada de neumonía, meningitis y otitis media aguda causadas por neumococos en niños < 5 años varió entre 980 000 y 1 500 000, 2 600 y 6 800, y 980 000 y 1 500 000, respectivamente. Se estimó que en la región podrían morir anualmente entre 12 000 y 28 000 niños debido a la enfermedad neumocócica. La vacuna antineumocócica conjugada podría salvar una vida por cada 1 100 niños vacunados y evitar un caso de enfermedad por cada 13. CONCLUSIONES: Se podría evitar una parte substancial de la carga de enfermedad neumocócica en la región mediante la aplicación de vacunas antineumocócicas conjugadas y esto se debe tener en cuenta al tomar decisiones sobre la vacunación...


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Latin America/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control
11.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 24(3): 161-168, sept. 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-495414

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Widespread use of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines has dramatically reduced the burden of Hib disease throughout the Americas. Few studies have evaluated the impact of Hib vaccination on non-culture-confirmed disease. This study analyzed trends in probable bacterial meningitis before and after the introduction of Hib vaccine in the Dominican Republic and estimated vaccine effectiveness against Hib meningitis. METHODS: Meningitis cases among children < 5 years of age were identified from admission records of the main pediatric hospital in Santo Domingo during 1998-2004. Laboratory criteria were used to classify meningitis cases with probable bacterial etiology; confirmed cases had positive bacterial culture or antigen detection in cerebrospinal fluid. Cumulative incidence rates of confirmed and probable bacterial meningitis were calculated for children living in the National District. Confirmed cases of Hib meningitis were enrolled in a case-control study with age- and neighborhood-matched control children to calculate vaccine effectiveness. RESULTS: Before vaccine introduction, annual rates of meningitis with probable bacterial etiology were 49 cases per 100 000 children < 5 years old; Hib accounted for 60 percent of confirmed bacterial cases. During 2002-2004, after vaccine introduction, annual rates of probable bacterial meningitis were 65 percent lower at 16 cases per 100 000, and Hib accounted for 26 percent of confirmed cases. Rates of Hib meningitis and probable bacterial meningitis with no determined etiology declined by 13 and 17 cases per 100 000, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of Hib vaccine substantially reduced the incidence of confirmed and probable bacterial meningitis in the Dominican Republic. The estimated impact of Hib vaccination was twice as great when non-culture-confirmed disease was included.


OBJETIVOS: El uso generalizado de la vacuna contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib) ha permitido reducir radicalmente la carga de enfermedad por Hib en las Américas. Pocos estudios han evaluado el impacto de la vacunación contra Hib sobre los casos no confirmados mediante cultivo. En este estudio se analizaron las tendencias en el número de casos probables de meningitis bacteriana antes y después de la introducción de la vacuna contra Hib en la República Dominicana y se estimó la eficacia de la vacuna contra la meningitis. MÉTODOS: Se identificaron los casos de meningitis en niños menores de 5 años a partir de los registros de ingreso del principal hospital pediátrico de Santo Domingo entre 1998 y 2004. Los casos de meningitis con probable etiología bacteriana se clasificaron según criterios de laboratorio; los casos confirmados contaban con cultivo bacteriano positivo o detección de antígenos específicos en el líquido cefalorraquídeo. Se calcularon las tasas de incidencia acumulada de casos confirmados y probables de meningitis en los niños que vivían en el Distrito Nacional. Los casos confirmados de meningitis por Hib se incorporaron a un estudio de casos y controles -pareados según la edad y el barrio de residencia- para calcular la eficacia de la vacuna. RESULTADOS: Antes de la introducción de la vacuna, la tasa anual de meningitis de posible etiología bacteriana era de 49 casos por 100 000 niños menores de 5 años; de los casos confirmados de origen bacteriano, 60 por ciento fue por Hib. En el período 2002-2004, después de la introducción de la vacuna, la tasa anual de meningitis de posible etiología bacteriana fue de 16 casos por 100 000, es decir 65 por ciento más baja, y 26 por ciento de los casos confirmados correspondieron a Hib. Las tasas de meningitis por Hib y de posible origen bacteriano de etiología desconocida se redujeron en 13 y 17 casos por 100 000, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: La introducción de la vacuna...


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Bacterial Capsules/administration & dosage , Haemophilus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Haemophilus influenzae type b/isolation & purification , Meningitis, Haemophilus/epidemiology , Meningitis, Haemophilus/microbiology , Dominican Republic/epidemiology
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