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1.
Radiol. bras ; 54(4): 265-269, July-Aug. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287743

ABSTRACT

Abstract Radiotherapy plays a central role in the palliative and curative treatment of neoplasms of the chest wall or intrathoracic structures. However, despite technical advances, radiotherapy can alter previously normal organs and tissues, those alterations presenting as various types of imaging findings. Post-radiation alterations must be promptly recognized by radiologists, in order to avoid confusion between complications of radiotherapy and the recurrence of a tumor. This pictorial essay aims to illustrate different thoracic changes after radiotherapy.


Resumo A radioterapia tem papel fundamental no tratamento curativo ou paliativo de neoplasias da parede torácica ou intratorácicas. No entanto, mesmo com o avanço das técnicas, órgãos e tecidos vizinhos podem ser acometidos e apresentar alterações que devem ser reconhecidas pelos radiologistas, de maneira a evitar confusão com recidiva das lesões inicialmente tratadas, ou mesmo com outras complicações do tratamento oncológico. O objetivo deste ensaio iconográfico é ilustrar as diferentes consequências torácicas da radioterapia.

6.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eRW5772, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154099

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Ground-glass opacity is a very frequent and unspecified finding in chest computed tomography. Therefore, it admits a wide range of differential diagnoses in the acute context, from viral pneumonias such as influenza virus, coronavirus disease 2019 and cytomegalovirus and even non-infectious lesions, such as vaping, pulmonary infarction, alveolar hemorrhage and pulmonary edema. For this diagnostic differentiation, ground glass must be correlated with other findings in imaging tests, with laboratory tests and with the patients' clinical condition. In the context of a pandemic, it is extremely important to remember the other pathologies with similar findings to coronavirus disease 2019 in the imaging exams.


RESUMO A opacidade em vidro fosco é uma alteração muito frequente e pouco específica na tomografia computadorizada de tórax. Ela admite grande leque de diagnósticos diferenciais no contexto agudo, desde pneumonias virais, como as causadas pelo vírus influenza, pela doença do coronavírus 2019 e pelo citomegalovírus, até mesmo lesões de origem não infecciosa, como vaping , infarto pulmonar, hemorragia alveolar e edema pulmonar. Para essa diferenciação diagnóstica, deve-se correlacionar o vidro fosco com os demais achados nos exames de imagem, exames laboratoriais e quadro clínico do paciente. É de suma importância, no contexto de pandemia, recordar as demais patologias com os achados semelhantes aos da doença do coronavírus 2019 nos exames de imagem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/classification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Influenza, Human/diagnostic imaging
7.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO6363, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345970

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the role of chest computed tomography in patients with COVID-19 who presented initial negative result in reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Methods A single-center, retrospective study that evaluated 39 patients with negative RT-PCR for COVID-19, who underwent chest computed tomography and had a final clinical or serological diagnosis of COVID-19. The visual tomographic classification was evaluated according to the Consensus of the Radiological Society of North America and software developed with artificial intelligence for automatic detection of findings and chance estimation of COVID-19. Results In the visual tomographic analysis, only one of them (3%) presented computed tomography classified as negative, 69% were classified as typical and 28% as indeterminate. In the evaluation using the software, only four (about 10%) had a probability of COVID-19 <25%. Conclusion Computed tomography can play an important role in management of suspected cases of COVID-19 with initial negative results in RT-PCR, especially considering those patients outside the ideal window for sample collection for RT-PCR.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o papel da tomografia computadorizada de tórax em pacientes com COVID-19 que apresentaram reação em cadeia da polimerase via transcriptase reversa (RT-PCR) inicial falsamente negativa. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo de centro único que avaliou 39 pacientes com RT-PCR negativa para COVID-19, submetidos à tomografia computadorizada de tórax e que tiveram diagnóstico final clínico ou serológico de COVID-19. A classificação tomográfica visual foi avaliada de acordo com o Consenso da Radiological Society of North America e o software desenvolvido com inteligência artificial para detecção automática de achados e estimativa de probabilidade de COVID-19. Resultados Na análise tomográfica visual, somente um deles (3%) apresentou tomografia computadorizada classificada como tendo resultado negativo, 69% foram classificados como típicos e 28% como indeterminados. Na avaliação com uso de software, somente quatro (cerca de 10%) tiveram probabilidade de COVID-19 <25%. Conclusão A tomografia computadorizada pode desempenhar papel importante no manejo de casos suspeitos de COVID-19 com RT-PCR inicialmente negativa, principalmente levando-se em consideração os pacientes que estão fora da janela ideal para coleta de amostra para RT-PCR.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Artificial Intelligence , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung
9.
Clinics ; 76: e2476, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153979

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation between the two tomographic classifications for coronavirus disease (COVID-19), COVID-19 Reporting and Data System (CORADS) and Radiological Society of North America Expert Consensus Statement on Reporting Chest Computed Tomography (CT) Findings Related to COVID-19 (RSNA), in the Brazilian population and to assess the agreement between reviewers with different experience levels. METHODS: Chest CT images of patients with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-positive COVID-19 were categorized according to the CORADS and RSNA classifications by radiologists with different levels of experience and who were initially unaware of the RT-PCR results. The inter- and intra-observer concordances for each of the classifications were calculated, as were the concordances between classifications. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients were included in this study. The RSNA classification showed an almost perfect inter-observer agreement between reviewers with similar experience levels, with a kappa coefficient of 0.892 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.788-0.995). CORADS showed substantial agreement among reviewers with similar experience levels, with a kappa coefficient of 0.642 (95% CI, 0.491-0.793). There was inter-observer variation when comparing less experienced reviewers with more experienced reviewers, with the highest kappa coefficient of 0.396 (95% CI, 0.255-0.588). There was a significant correlation between both classifications, with a Kendall coefficient of 0.899 (p<0.001) and substantial intra-observer agreement for both classifications. CONCLUSION: The RSNA and CORADS classifications showed excellent inter-observer agreement for reviewers with the same level of experience, although the agreement between less experience reviewers and the reviewer with the most experience was only reasonable. Combined analysis of both classifications with the first RT-PCR results did not reveal any false-negative results for detecting COVID-19 in patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Brazil , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Observer Variation , Betacoronavirus
10.
Radiol. bras ; 53(4): 255-261, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136082

ABSTRACT

Abstract China was the epicenter for the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which quickly spread to other Asian countries and later to Western countries; subsequently, COVID-19 was categorized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Diagnosis primarily depends on viral detection in respiratory samples; however, available kits are limited, lack high sensitivity, and have a long turnaround time for providing results. In this scenario, computed tomography has emerged as an efficient and available high-sensitivity method, allowing radiologists to readily recognize findings related to COVID-19. The objective of this article is to demonstrate the main tomographic findings in symptomatic respiratory patients with COVID-19 to assist medical professionals during this critical moment.


Resumo A doença pelo novo coronavírus (COVID-19) teve epicentro na China e rapidamente se espalhou pelos demais países asiáticos e, posteriormente, para os países ocidentais, sendo definida como pandemia pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. O diagnóstico da COVID-19 é primariamente dependente da pesquisa do vírus nas vias aéreas superiores, mas os kits para sua confirmação ainda são limitados, não apresentam sensibilidade elevada e os resultados são demorados. Nesse cenário, a tomografia computadorizada surge como método eficiente e disponível e com alta sensibilidade, cabendo a nós radiologistas reconhecer prontamente os achados relacionados a essa doença. O objetivo deste artigo é demonstrar os principais achados tomográficos de tórax em pacientes sintomáticos respiratórios infectados pela COVID-19, de modo a auxiliar os colegas nesse momento crítico.

11.
Radiol. bras ; 53(3): 201-207, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136075

ABSTRACT

Abstract Radiologists should be familiar with the main techniques of knee cartilage repair and the imaging methods available for its evaluation, in order to optimize the postoperative follow-up of patients. The objective of this study was to present a series of clinical cases seen at our facility, illustrating the main techniques necessary for the repair of knee cartilage, as well as the magnetic resonance imaging techniques used in the postoperative evaluation and the relevant radiological findings.


Resumo Radiologistas devem estar familiarizados com as principais técnicas de reparo cirúrgico da cartilagem do joelho e os métodos de imagem disponíveis para sua avaliação, no intuito de otimizar o seguimento pós-operatório do paciente. O presente estudo tem por finalidade, por meio de uma coletânea de casos do nosso serviço, ilustrar as principais técnicas cirúrgicas aplicadas ao reparo da cartilagem do joelho, bem como as técnicas de ressonância magnética usualmente utilizadas na avaliação pós-operatória e os achados radiológicos relevantes.

12.
Radiol. bras ; 53(1): 56-62, Jan.-Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057049

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hip arthroplasty is a widely used and successful orthopedic procedure for the treatment of degenerative, inflammatory, or traumatic joint disease. The procedure promotes significant pain relief, as well as recovery of limb function, reduction of disability, and better quality of life. However, there are related complications, which have characteristic imaging aspects. In the present study, we review the literature and exemplify such complications using images obtained at our facility, illustrating the main radiological aspects of complications such as heterotopic ossification, periprosthetic fractures, osteolysis, infection, wear, and dislocation.


Resumo A artroplastia de quadril é um procedimento cirúrgico ortopédico amplamente utilizado e de grande sucesso para tratamento da doença articular, seja esta degenerativa, inflamatória ou traumática, promovendo importante melhora da dor, recuperação da função do membro, redução da incapacidade e melhora da qualidade de vida. Entretanto, existem complicações relacionadas, as quais possuem aspectos de imagem característicos. O presente estudo revisou a literatura e exemplificou essas complicações de forma ilustrativa com a experiência do nosso serviço, abordando os principais aspectos radiológicos das complicações da artroplastia de quadril, englobando ossificação heterotópica, fraturas periprotéticas, osteólise, infecção, desgaste e luxação.

13.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRW5741, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133785

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The disease caused by the new coronavirus, or COVID-19, has been recently described and became a health issue worldwide. Its diagnosis of certainty is given by polymerase chain reaction. High-resolution computed tomography, however, is useful in the current context of pandemic, especially for the most severe cases, in assessing disease extent, possible differential diagnoses and searching complications. In patients with suspected clinical symptoms and typical imaging findings, in which there is still no laboratory test result, or polymerase chain reaction is not available, the role of this test is still discussed. In addition, it is important to note that part of the patients present false-negative laboratory tests, especially in initial cases, which can delay isolation, favoring the spread of the disease. Thus, knowledge about the COVID-19 and its imaging manifestations is extremely relevant for all physicians involved in the patient care, clinicians or radiologists.


RESUMO A doença causada pelo novo coronavírus, ou COVID-19, foi descrita recentemente e tornou-se uma questão de saúde mundial. Seu diagnóstico de certeza é dado pela reação em cadeia da polimerase. A tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução, entretanto, mostra-se útil no contexto atual de pandemia, especialmente nos casos mais graves, na avaliação da extensão da doença, em possíveis diagnósticos diferenciais e na pesquisa de complicações. Em pacientes com quadro clínico suspeito e achados de imagem típicos, nos quais ainda não há resultado laboratorial ou a reação em cadeia da polimerase não se encontra disponível, ainda se discute o papel desse exame. Importante ressaltar que parte dos pacientes apresenta exames laboratoriais falsos-negativos, notadamente em casos iniciais, o que pode retardar medidas de isolamento, favorecendo a propagação da doença. Dessa forma, o conhecimento da COVID-19 e de suas manifestações nos exames de imagem é de extrema importância para os médicos envolvidos no atendimento, sejam clínicos ou radiologistas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pleural Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Pandemics , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
14.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC5831, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133760

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The COVID-19 became a pandemic in early 2020. It was found, at first, that the main manifestations of this new virus occur through respiratory and constitutional symptoms. Therefore, chest tomography was elected as the best imaging test to assess the extent of pulmonary involvement and as a good prognostic predictor for the disease. However, as new studies were produced, the gastrointestinal involvement of COVID-19 becomes more evident, with reports from patients who manifested mainly or only gastrointestinal symptoms in the course of the disease. Thus, in some cases, the initial investigation is carried out at the emergency department with an abdominal computed tomography. We report a case series of ten patients who came to the emergency department of our institution with a chief gastrointestinal complaint, and were initially submitted to an abdominal computed tomography as the first investigation. Although most of the patients did not have significant changes in the abdominal images, most reported patients had pulmonary findings visualized at the lung bases, which were later designated as typical COVID-19 pulmonary findings on chest computed tomography. Only one patient had atypical COVID-19 lung changes on chest computed tomography. All patients had a positive real-time polymerase chain reaction for COVID-19. It is imperative to alert radiologists, especially abdominal radiologists, with the possibility of COVID-19 isolated gastrointestinal symptoms. Besides, it must become a habit to radiologists to assess the pulmonary basis on abdominal scans, a site commonly affected by the new coronavirus.


RESUMO A COVID-19 foi declarada uma pandemia no início de 2020. Constatou-se, inicialmente, que as principais manifestações desse novo vírus ocorrem por meio de sintomas respiratórios e constitucionais. A tomografia do tórax foi eleita o exame de imagem para avaliar a extensão do comprometimento pulmonar e como um fator preditivo do prognóstico para a doença. No entanto, à medida que novos estudos são produzidos, o envolvimento gastrointestinal da COVID-19 torna-se mais evidente, com relatos de pacientes que manifestaram principalmente ou apenas sintomas gastrointestinais no decorrer da doença. Em alguns casos, a investigação inicial é realizada no pronto-socorro, com tomografia computadorizada do abdome. Relatamos uma série de casos de dez pacientes que compareceram ao serviço de emergência da instituição com uma queixa principal gastrointestinal e foram submetidos inicialmente a uma tomografia computadorizada de abdome como primeira investigação. Embora a maioria dos pacientes não tenha apresentado alterações significativas nas imagens abdominais, eles apresentaram achados pulmonares visualizados nas bases pulmonares, que depois foram caracterizadas como achados pulmonares típicos de COVID-19 nas tomografias de tórax subsequentes. Apenas um paciente apresentou achados atípicos para COVID-19 na tomografia. Todos os pacientes tiveram reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real positiva para o novo coronavírus. É muito importante alertar os radiologistas, principalmente os radiologistas abdominais, da possibilidade de sintomas gastrointestinais isolados no contexto da COVID-19. Além disso, deve ser um hábito para todos os radiologistas avaliar as bases pulmonares nas tomografias de abdome, local comumente afetado pela COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Abdominal Pain/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Coronavirus/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
16.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC5876, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133729

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A male patient with flu-like symptoms and tomography and laboratory diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome. He developed acute cardiac dysfunction during admission and was submitted to a cardiac magnetic resonance imaging examination, which confirmed acute myocarditis, indicating cardiac involvement by coronavirus disease 2019. A review and discussion about coronavirus disease 2019-related cardiac manifestations are reported, focusing on the imaging findings to make diagnosis.


RESUMO Paciente do sexo masculino apresentando síndrome gripal aguda com diagnóstico tomográfico e laboratorial de infecção por síndrome respiratória aguda grave. Evoluiu com disfunção cardíaca aguda durante a internação, motivo pelo qual foi submetido à ressonância magnética cardíaca, que confirmou miocardite aguda, indicando acometimento cardíaco por COVID-19. Foram realizadas revisão e discussão sobre o acometimento cardíaco na COVID-19, com ênfase nos aspectos por imagem para o diagnóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Myocarditis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging
17.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eGS5832, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133721

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Radiology departments were forced to make significant changes in their routine during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, to prevent further transmission of the coronavirus and optimize medical care as well. In this article, we describe our Radiology Department's policies in a private hospital for coronavirus disease 2019 preparedness focusing on quality and safety for the patient submitted to imaging tests, the healthcare team involved in the exams, the requesting physician, and for other patients and hospital environment.


RESUMO Os departamentos de radiologia precisaram adotar mudanças significativas em sua rotina durante a pandemia da doença causada pelo novo coronavírus, a fim de reduzir sua transmissibilidade e otimizar os cuidados médicos. Neste artigo, descrevemos as políticas adotadas pelo Departamento de Radiologia de um hospital privado durante a pandemia, com foco em qualidade e segurança de paciente submetido a exames de imagem, equipe de assistência do departamento de imagem, médico solicitante, demais pacientes e ambiente hospitalar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Radiology Department, Hospital/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Radiology Department, Hospital/standards , Disease Outbreaks , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Latin America/epidemiology
19.
Clinics ; 75: e2027, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133362

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in Wuhan city and was declared a pandemic in March 2020. Although the virus is not restricted to the lung parenchyma, the use of chest imaging in COVID-19 can be especially useful for patients with moderate to severe symptoms or comorbidities. This article aimed to demonstrate the chest imaging findings of COVID-19 on different modalities: chest radiography, computed tomography, and ultrasonography. In addition, it intended to review recommendations on imaging assessment of COVID-19 and to discuss the use of a structured chest computed tomography report. Chest radiography, despite being a low-cost and easily available method, has low sensitivity for screening patients. It can be useful in monitoring hospitalized patients, especially for the evaluation of complications such as pneumothorax and pleural effusion. Chest computed tomography, despite being highly sensitive, has a low specificity, and hence cannot replace the reference diagnostic test (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction). To facilitate the confection and reduce the variability of radiological reports, some standardizations with structured reports have been proposed. Among the available classifications, it is possible to divide the radiological findings into typical, indeterminate, atypical, and negative findings. The structured report can also contain an estimate of the extent of lung involvement (e.g., more or less than 50% of the lung parenchyma). Pulmonary ultrasonography can also be an auxiliary method, especially for monitoring hospitalized patients in intensive care units, where transfer to a tomography scanner is difficult.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Pandemics , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cough/etiology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Fever/etiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
20.
Radiol. bras ; 52(3): 155-160, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012924

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate progression rate of Bosniak category IIF complex renal cysts and the malignancy rate among surgically resected cysts. Materials and Methods: We performed a database search for complex renal cysts classified as Bosniak category IIF on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging between January 2008 and April 2016. Follow-up examinations (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) were used in order to evaluate progression (Bosniak category reclassification) and stability, the latter being defined as remaining stable for a minimum of six months. Pathology reports were used as the reference to assess the malignancy rate of surgically resected cysts. Results: A total of 152 cysts in 143 patients were included in the final analysis. Seven cysts (4.6%) were reclassified on follow-up studies, and mean time to progression was 20 months (range, 1 month to 4 years). Three cysts were surgically resected. All three were diagnosed as low-grade malignant renal cell carcinomas (RCCs): one clear cell RCC and two papillary RCCs. The remaining 145 cysts remained unchanged after a mean follow-up period of 28 months (range, 6 to 118 months). Conclusion: The progression rate in Bosniak category IIF cysts was low. Even lesions that were upgraded on follow-up remained stable, indicating an indolent behavior. Our data support the idea of conservative management of Bosniak IIF renal cyst.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a taxa de progressão das lesões císticas renais complexas Bosniak II-F e a taxa de neoplasia maligna nas lesões ressecadas cirurgicamente. Materiais e Métodos: Realizamos uma pesquisa no banco de dados da nossa instituição reunindo lesões císticas renais complexas classificadas como Bosniak II-F em exames de tomografia computadorizada ou ressonância magnética, de janeiro de 2008 a abril de 2016. Foram utilizados exames de acompanhamento (tomografia computadorizada ou ressonância magnética) para avaliar a progressão na categoria Bosniak, com um mínimo de seis meses de estabilidade. Os relatórios de patologia foram utilizados como referência para avaliar a taxa de neoplasia maligna de lesões ressecadas cirurgicamente. Resultados: Um total de 152 lesões em 143 pacientes foi incluído na análise final. Sete lesões foram reclassificadas em estudos de acompanhamento (4,6%) e o tempo médio de progressão foi de 20 meses (1 mês a 4 anos). Três pacientes tiveram cistos ressecados cirurgicamente, todos diagnosticados como carcinoma de células renais: um do subtipo células claras e dois papilíferos, todos de baixo grau. As 145 lesões restantes permaneceram inalteradas, com seguimento médio de 28 meses (6 a 118 meses). Conclusão: A taxa de progressão nos cistos categoria Bosniak II-F foi baixa. Mesmo as lesões que tiveram upgrade da categoria de Bosniak no seguimento permaneceram estáveis, indicando um comportamento indolente. Nossos dados apoiam a ideia de tratamento conservador do cisto renal Bosniak II-F.

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