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Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 69(9): e20230167, set. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514722


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Due to the speed of development observed in breast cancer, several studies aimed at discovering new biomarkers have been carried out in order to arrive at an early diagnosis. As survivin plays a fundamental role in the evasion of apoptosis in tumor cells, the aim of this study was to verify the expression profile of the survivin gene in paraffin-embedded breast tumor samples and associate it with the clinical characteristics of the patients. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, for which 100 tumor samples were obtained from cancer patients treated throughout the year 2019 at Instituto de Mama do Cariri (Juazeiro do Norte, in the state of Ceará). This study included women over 30 years old who had confirmed breast cancer through anatomopathological examination but excluded those with non-neoplastic breast comorbidities, other neoplasms, or chronic diseases. Survivin gene expression was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The expression of survivin is associated with the lack of expression of estrogen (p=0.027) and progesterone (p>0.0005) receptors. It means that survivin expression is higher in patients in which labeling was absent for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor. CONCLUSION: Our data reinforce that survivin expression is higher in estrogen receptor-patients, thus representing an additional prognostic tool.

ABCS health sci ; 48: e023304, 14 fev. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518577


INTRODUCTION: Bone marrow transplants primarily depend on people who previously registered to be donors. From then on, the search for compatibility between donor and recipient begins. OBJECTIVE: To describe the historical landmarks and the legal apparatus of bone marrow donor banks in Brazil based on an integrative review. METHODS: LILACS database and PubMed and SciELO journals were used. The term bone marrow transplantation was the descriptor. Eligibility criteria were: articles with the theme of Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) and studies carried out on the national territory. RESULTS: A total of 88,855 articles were identified, among which 185 met the eligibility criteria. After they were thoroughly read, 14 articles were selected. The studies pointed out fragments that dealt with important historical landmarks for the establishment of bone marrow transplantation as a conventional treatment for oncohematological diseases. CONCLUSION: The use of BMT has a history of more than thirty years in Brazil. However, none of the articles identified specifically addresses the historical content of bone marrow transplantation.

Tissue Donors , Bone Marrow Transplantation/history , Bone Marrow Transplantation/legislation & jurisprudence , Stem Cell Transplantation , Brazil
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 69(1): 61-65, Jan. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422589


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate serum 25(OH)D concentrations in the homebound elderly people and relate them to level of dementia, nutritional risk, and route of dietary administration. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving 207 bedridden elderly people assisted by the Home Care Service in the city of Santo André - SP, from June to December 2016. The following factors were evaluated: dietary intake of vitamin D, arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness, calf circumference, nutritional risk by Mini-Nutritional Assessment, level of dementia by the adapted Clinical Dementia Rating questionnaire, and laboratory tests such as serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, alkaline phosphatase, serum calcium, and parathormone. RESULTS: The mean age of the elderly people was 81.6 (9.2) years. Deficiency of 25(OH)D was observed in 76.3% of the elderly people. There was an inverse correlation between serum concentrations of 25(OH)D: parathormone (r=-0.418, p<0.001) and alkaline phosphatase (r=-0.188, p=0.006) and a direct correlation with serum calcium (r=-0.158, p=0.022). Logistic regression showed that vitamin D deficiency was directly and independently associated with oral feeding (odds ratio 7.71; 95%CI 2.91-20.40). CONCLUSION: Bedridden households showed high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency without association with nutritional risk and level of dementia. Oral diet was associated with vitamin D deficiency, possibly due to low consumption of source foods.

Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 21: eAO0251, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440076


ABSTRACT Objective To compare serum amyloid A concentrations between overweight and eutrophic children and adolescents and to relate it to lipid profiles, glucose tolerance, and carotid intima-media thickness. Methods One hundred children and adolescents (mean age: 10.8±3.16 years) were included and divided into two groups: overweight and non-overweight. The following were evaluated: Z-score body mass index, carotid intima-media thickness, lipid metabolism biomarkers (lipid profile and apolipoproteins A1 and B), inflammatory biomarkers (ultra-sensitive C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A), and glucose homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Results The groups were homogeneous in age, sex, and pubertal stage. Higher levels of triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and carotid intima-media thickness were observed in the overweight group. In the multivariate analysis, age (OR=1.73; 95%CI: 1.16-2.60, p=0.007), Z-score body mass index (OR=3.76; 95%CI: 1.64-8.59, p=0.002), apolipoprotein-B (OR=1.1; 95%CI: 1.01-1.2, p=0.030), and carotid intima-media thickness (OR=5.00; 95%CI: 1.38-18.04, p=0.014) were independently associated with serum amyloid A levels above the fourth quartile of the studied sample (>9.4mg/dL). Conclusion Overweight children and adolescents had higher serum amyloid A concentrations than eutrophic children. There was an independent association between higher concentrations of serum amyloid A and Z-score, body mass index, apolipoprotein B, and carotid intima-media thickness, indicating the importance of this inflammatory biomarker in identifying the early risk of atherosclerosis.

Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 57(supl.1): 11s, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1442143


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To compare the incidence of covid-19 symptoms between informal home-based workers and a control group and to assess the association of these cases with blood elements concentrations and other relevant risk factors for Sars-Cov-2 infection. METHODS Welders chemically exposed to potentially toxic elements (PTEs) (n = 26) and control participants (n = 25) answered questionnaires on adherence to social distancing and signs and symptoms of the disease for five months during the covid-19 pandemic. After follow-up, covid-19 serology tests were performed on a subsample of 12 chemically exposed workers and 20 control participants. Before the pandemic, PTE concentrations in blood (As, Mn, Ni, Cd, Hg, Sb, Sn, Cu, Zn, and Pb) were measured by ICP-MS. RESULTS The chemically exposed group had higher lead and cadmium levels in blood (p < 0.01). The control group presented lower adherence to social distancing (p = 0.016). Although not significant, welders had a 74% greater chance of having at least one covid-19 symptom compared with control participants, but their adherence to social distancing decreased this chance by 20%. The use of taxis for transportation was a risk factor significantly associated with covid-19 symptoms. CONCLUSION The lower adherence to social distancing among the control group greatly influences the development of covid-19. The literature lacks data linking exposure to PTEs and Sars-Cov-2 infection and/or severity. In this study, despite chemical exposure, working from home may have protected welders against covid-19, considering that they maintained greater social distancing than control participants.

Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 69(12): e20230812, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521504


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of irisin in type 2 diabetes mellitus and its association with metabolic alterations and obesity. METHODS: A cross-sectional case-control study was conducted on participants treated at Centro Universitário FMABC between August 2018 and July 2019, by comparing a control group (n=14) with type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (n=16). The control group consisted of participants aged above 21 years with no chronic diseases, diabetes, smoking, or illicit drug use. The type 2 diabetes mellitus group included patients aged above 21 years, who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for at least 5 years (glycated hemoglobin>7%). Exclusion criteria were not willing to continue, recent hospitalization, and failure to meet inclusion criteria. Biochemical parameters included blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, plasma irisin levels, and irisin gene expression in peripheral blood. RESULTS: Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients exhibited significantly higher plasma glucose levels [143 (40) vs. 92 (13) mg/dL, *p<0.05] and glycated hemoglobin levels [7.1% (1.6) vs. 5.6% (0.5), *p<0.05] compared to the control group. Irisin gene expression in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients was lower 0.02288 (0.08050) than the control group 8.506e-006 (1.412e-005) (p=0.06). Correlation analysis revealed a positive association between irisin expression and body mass index in type 2 diabetes mellitus (Rho=0.5221, 95%CI -0.058 to 0.838, p=0.06), while plasma irisin showed a negative correlation with body mass index (Rho=-0.656, 95%CI -0.836 to 0.215, p=0.03). No significant correlations were found between plasma glucose or glycated hemoglobin levels and irisin expression. CONCLUSION: The data suggests that body mass index directly influences plasma irisin levels and the regulation of irisin gene expression, possibly linking irisin to adiposity changes observed in obesity-related type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 82: e0046, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515079


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on the profile of emergency eye-related visits and compare the findings with the same period before the pandemic. Methods Cross-sectional study performed during one year at a reference eye hospital. Cases registered at the emergency Municipal Hospital Complex of Santo Andre, Brazil, between March, 2019 and February, 2020 were included in the study as the Pre-pandemic group. Cases registered between March, 2020 and February, 2021 were included as the Pandemic group. Cases were classified according to the International Classification of Diseases ICD-10 and Related Health Problems. Results There was a decrease of 52.1% in the emergency eye care visits during the pandemic period (n=9,198) when compared to the pre-pandemic period (n=19,220), with significant reductions in nonspecific cases (-98.1%), postoperative visits (-67.0%), disorders of the conjunctiva (-54.1%), tear film (-49.4%) and refraction (-85.6%) during the pandemic period. Conditions such as retina disorders (+202.7%), sclera disorders (+76.2%), orbit disorders (+20.2%), glaucoma (+66.6%) and trauma (+19.4%) have shown increased rates, as well as those related to eyelids (+186.9%), cornea (+33.4%), uvea (+40.2%), and herpes (+55.3%). Conclusion A drastic reduction in the number of eye-related emergency visits was observed during the Covid-19 pandemic, outlining a new profile of care, with higher frequency of sight-threatening conditions and lower frequency of contagious and non-specific diagnosis.

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos da pandemia da Covid-19 no perfil dos atendimentos oftalmológicos de emergência e comparar os achados com os do período anterior à pandemia. Métodos Estudo transversal realizado ao longo de 1 ano em um hospital oftalmológico de referência. Casos registrados no Complexo Hospitalar Municipal de Emergências de Santo André (SP, Brasil) entre março de 2019 e fevereiro de 2020 foram incluídos no estudo como Grupo Pré-Pandemia. Os casos registrados entre março de 2020 e fevereiro de 2021 foram incluídos no Grupo Pandemia. Os casos foram classificados de acordo com a Classificação Internacional de Doenças e Problemas Relacionados à Saúde. Resultados Houve redução de 52,1% no número de atendimentos oftalmológicos de emergência durante o período pandêmico (n=9.198) quando comparado ao pré-pandêmico (n=19.220), com reduções significativas em casos inespecíficos (-98,1%), visitas pós-operatórias (-67,0%), distúrbios da conjuntiva (-54,1%), filme lacrimal (-49,4%) e refração (-85,6%) durante o período de pandemia. Condições como distúrbios da retina (+202,7%), distúrbios da esclera (+76,2%), distúrbios da órbita (+20,2%), glaucoma (+66,6%) e trauma (+19,4%) apresentaram taxas aumentadas, bem como aquelas relacionadas a pálpebras (+186,9%), córnea (+33,4%), úvea (+40,2%) e herpes (+55,3%). Conclusão Observou-se drástica redução no número de atendimentos oftalmológicos durante a pandemia da Covid-19, delineando um novo perfil de atendimento, com maior frequência de quadros que levam à baixa de visão e à menor frequência de diagnósticos contagiosos e inespecíficos.

J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(4): 390-398, July-Aug. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386113


Abstract Objective: The nutritional status resultant from dietary habits along with socioeconomic conditions and the school environment are directly related to the individual's health condition not only in their childhood but also throughout adulthood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of socioeconomic factors on the anthropometric profile and to analyze a probable association between this profile and biochemical markers in children attending public daycare centers. Methods: It is a transversal study developed in a probability sample of clusters of children from 6 months to 5 years old. Anthropometric and socioeconomic data were gathered at the CMEIs, questionnaires on the nutritional status were applied and blood was collected at the Family Health Units (USFs). Results: Female children are three times more likely to be underweight; in families with five members, it is 1/3 more likely that children of higher-educated parents are overweight. Among the results of the biochemical tests, hypervitaminosis A was a relevant aspect, positively correlating with copper (p=0.005) and zinc (p=0.008). Conclusion: Therefore, since the influence of the family is an important predictor of overweight and its future outcomes related to nutritional deficiencies and inadequate dietary intake, educational interventions are vital as a way to pave the path to prevention.

ABCS health sci ; 47: e022207, 06 abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372363


INTRODUCTION: Several studies have shown that early mobilization is safe and beneficial for patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs), especially for those with mechanical ventilation (MV). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the benefits of early mobilization physiotherapeutic techniques applied to patients who suffered craniocerebral trauma (CCT). METHODS: This is an experimental study that evaluated clinical data from 27 patients. In sedated patients, mobilization and passive stretching were performed on the upper and lower limbs; in those without sedation, active-assisted, free and resisted exercises were included. RESULTS: The experimental group was composed of 51.8% of the participants and the control group by 48.2%, the majority being male (81.5%) with a median age of 43 years. The patients in the experimental group had an average of 9.5 days (2.2-14.7) of mechanical ventilation (MV), and those belonging to the control group, of 17 days (7-21.7) with MV (p=0.154). The patients in the experimental group had an average of 13.5 days in the ICU, against an average of 17 days in the control group (p=0.331), and an average of 20.5 days in hospital against 24 days in the control group (p=0.356). CONCLUSION: Early mobilization should be applied to critically ill patients as it can decrease the length of stay in the ICU and the hospital.

INTRODUÇÃO: Diversos estudos têm mostrado que a mobilização precoce é segura e benéfica para pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva (UTIs), especialmente para aqueles com ventilação mecânica (VM). OBJETIVO: Investigar os benefícios das técnicas fisioterapêuticas de mobilização precoce aplicada aos pacientes que sofreram traumatismo cranioencefálico (TCE). MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo quasi-randomizado, que incluiu 27 com TCE divididos em dois grupos: controle (n=13) e experimental (n=14) pacientes. No grupo experimental, os pacientes sedados foram submetidos à mobilização e alongamentos passivos nos membros superiores e inferiores; naqueles sem sedação, foram incluídos exercícios ativo-assistidos, livres e resistidos. RESULTADOS: O grupo experimental foi composto por 51,8% dos participantes da pesquisa e o grupo controle por 48,2%, sendo a maioria do sexo masculino (81,5%) com mediana de idade de 43 anos. Os pacientes do grupo experimental apresentaram média de 9,5 dias (2,2-14,7) de ventilação mecânica, e os pertencentes ao grupo controle, de 17 dias (7-21,7) com de VM (p=0,154). Os pacientes do grupo experimental apresentaram média de 13,5 dias de internação em UTI, contra média de 17 dias do grupo controle (p=0,331), e média de 20,5 dias de internação hospitalar contra 24 dias do grupo controle (p=0,356). CONCLUSÃO: A mobilização precoce é uma técnica que deve ser aplicada em pacientes críticos dentro das UTIs, pois pode diminuir o tempo de internação na UTI e hospitalar.

Humans , Male , Female , Physical Therapy Department, Hospital , Early Ambulation , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Hospitals, State
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(4): 482-489, Apr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376145


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the quality of primary health care services through self-reports by caregivers of children and adolescents living in quilombola communities in Brazil. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study in accordance with the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology). Exposure variables included sociodemographic characteristics; and outcome variable was the quality of primary health care offered to quilombola children and adolescents. RESULTS: A total of 68 individuals participated in the survey. Quilombolas have a low income, a lower level of education, do not work, and receive government benefits. Our results showed that the quality of primary health care, measured by the experience of caregivers of quilombola children and adolescents, generally presents satisfactory values. CONCLUSION: The quality of primary health care has generally satisfactory values. However, as these results differ from most studies, more research should be conducted.

Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 30: e3620, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1389119


Resumo Objetivo: verificar a estabilidade do cloridrato de vancomicina em soluções de selo antimicrobiano sem e com associação de heparina sódica segundo a temperatura e tempo de associação. Método: estudo experimental delineado para análise de potencial hidrogeniônico e concentração por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência de soluções de cloridrato de vancomicina (n=06) e cloridrato de vancomicina e heparina sódica (n=06). Submeteram-se as soluções estudadas à ausência de luz, 22°C e 37°C. Análises em triplicadas (n=192) ocorreram no momento inicial (T0), três (T3), oito (T8) e 24 horas (T24) após preparo. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância (p≤0,05). Resultados: a concentração do antimicrobiano a 22°C apresentou redução (T0-T8) e posterior elevação (T24); o potencial hidrogeniônico diminuiu significativamente ao longo do tempo. Em 37°C a concentração aumentou em até T3 e reduziu em T24, com redução de potencial hidrogeniônico até 24 horas. A concentração das soluções de cloridrato de vancomicina e heparina sódica apresentaram variação com redução a 22°C acompanhada de aumento de potencial hidrogeniônico. Observou-se formação de precipitado por inspeção visual da associação cloridrato de vancomicina e heparina sódica (T3). Conclusão: evidenciou-se estabilidade farmacológica do cloridrato de vancomicina (5 mg/mL) e incompatibilidade física com heparina sódica (100 UI/mL) após três horas de associação nas soluções de selo antimicrobiano estudadas.

Abstract Objective: to verify the stability of vancomycin hydrochloride in antimicrobial seal solutions with and without association of heparin sodium according to temperature and association time. Method: an experimental study designed for the analysis of hydrogenionic potential and concentration by means of high-efficiency liquid chromatography of vancomycin hydrochloride (n=06) and vancomycin hydrochloride and heparin sodium (n=06). The solutions studied were submitted to absence of light, as well as to 22°C and 37°C. Analyses in triplicate (n=192) were performed at the initial moment (T0) and three (T3), eight (T8) and 24 hours (T24) after preparation. The data were submitted to analysis of variance (p≤0.05). Results: concentration of the antimicrobial at 22°C presented a reduction (T0-T8) and a subsequent increase (T24); hydrogenionic potential decreased significantly over time. At 37°C, the concentration increased up to T3 and decreased at T24, with a reduction of hydrogenionic potential up to 24 hours. Concentration of the vancomycin hydrochloride and heparin sodium solutions varied with a reduction at 22°C, accompanied by increased hydrogenionic potential. Precipitate formation was observed by visual inspection of the vancomycin hydrochloride-heparin sodium association (T3). Conclusion: pharmacological stability of vancomycin hydrochloride (5 mg/mL) and physical incompatibility with heparin sodium (100 IU/mL) were evidenced after three hours of association in the antimicrobial seal solutions studied.

Resumen Objetivo: verificar la estabilidad del clorhidrato de vancomicina en soluciones de sellado antimicrobiano solo y combinado con heparina sódica según la temperatura y el tiempo de combinación. Método: estudio experimental diseñado para analizar el potencial de hidrógeno y la concentración por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución de soluciones de clorhidrato de vancomicina (n=06) y de clorhidrato de vancomicina y heparina sódica (n=06). Las soluciones estudiadas fueron sometidas a ausencia de luz, 22°C y 37°C. Se realizaron análisis por triplicado (n=192) en el momento inicial (T0), a las tres (T3), ocho (T8) y 24 horas (T24) después de la preparación. Los datos fueron sometidos a análisis de varianza (p≤0,05). Resultados: la concentración de antimicrobiano a 22°C mostró una reducción (T0-T8) y un posterior aumento (T24); el potencial de hidrógeno disminuyó significativamente con el tiempo. A 37°C, la concentración aumentó hasta T3 y disminuyó en T24, el potencial de hidrógeno disminuyó hasta las 24 horas. La concentración de las soluciones de clorhidrato de vancomicina y heparina sódica mostró variación con la reducción a 22°C acompañada de un aumento del potencial de hidrógeno. Mediante inspección visual se observó la formación de un precipitado al combinar clorhidrato de vancomicina y heparina sódica (T3). Conclusión: el clorhidrato de vancomicina (5 mg/ml) presentó evidencia de estabilidad farmacológica e incompatibilidad física con la heparina sódica (100 UI/ml) después de las tres horas de haberse realizado la combinación en las soluciones de sellado antimicrobiano estudiadas.

Heparin , Vancomycin/chemistry , Drug Stability , Catheter-Related Infections , Central Venous Catheters
J. Bras. Patol. Med. Lab. (Online) ; 58: e4152022, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375703


ABSTRACT Lung cancer is the first in terms of incidence and mortality, being responsible worldwide for about 1.8 million deaths. In Brazil 31,270 new cases were diagnosed in 2018, 18,740 in men and 12,350 in women. One of the main challenges about lung cancer is performing an early diagnosis, in most cases the disease is detected in the late stages, which implies in poor prognoses. Tumor biomarkers are hugely relevant in early diagnosis, understanding of carcinogenesis, prognostic determination and therapeutic choice. The present paper reviews non-small cell lung cancer biomarkers described in the literature and their diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic applications, intervention and therapeutic control for individualized therapy. Although there is still a vast universe to be explored, studies reveal a promising future for lung cancer treatment with increasingly personalized and assertive therapies that increase the chances of progression-free survival.

RESUMO O câncer de pulmão é o primeiro em incidência e mortalidade, sendo responsável mundialmente por cerca de 1,8 milhão de mortes. No Brasil, 31.270 casos novos foram diagnosticados em 2018, sendo 18.740 em homens e 12.350 em mulheres. Um dos principais desafios do câncer de pulmão é o diagnóstico precoce, na maioria das vezes a doença é detectada em fases tardias, o que implica em mau prognóstico. Os biomarcadores tumorais são extremamente relevantes no diagnóstico precoce, compreensão da carcinogênese, determinação do prognóstico e escolha terapêutica. O presente trabalho revisa biomarcadores de câncer de pulmão de células não pequenas descritos na literatura e suas aplicações diagnósticas, prognósticas e terapêuticas, intervenção e controle terapêutico para terapia individualizada. Embora ainda exista um vasto universo a ser explorado, estudos revelam um futuro promissor para o tratamento do câncer de pulmão com terapias cada vez mais personalizadas e assertivas que aumentam as chances de sobrevida livre de progressão.

Eng. sanit. ambient ; 26(6): 1043-1049, nov.-dez. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350712


RESUMO A vigilância da qualidade dos esgotos sanitários pode representar uma ferramenta complementar para monitoramento de doenças infecciosas e prevenção de surtos epidêmicos, especialmente quando a capacidade para testes clínicos é limitada. Dessa maneira, o presente estudo descreve o detalhamento técnico de um método de baixo custo para a concentração e extração de ácidos nucleicos de amostras de esgoto sanitário como etapa prévia para a detecção de vírus e outros agentes patogênicos. Para validar a metodologia proposta, após as etapas de concentração e extração, analisaram-se a presença do ácido ribonucleico do SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nas amostras, por meio de reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real. O ácido ribonucleico do vírus foi detectado em 80% das amostras de esgoto sanitário analisadas, comprovando o êxito do procedimento metodológico adotado. A detecção precoce de um patógeno associado ao trabalho de equipes multidisciplinares possibilita a prática da vigilância epidemiológica, que auxilia na tomada de decisões na Saúde Única — união indissociável entre a saúde animal, humana e ambiental.

ABSTRACT Sewage quality surveillance can represent a complementary tool for monitoring infectious diseases and preventing epidemic outbreaks, especially when the capacity for clinical testing is limited. Thus, the present study describes the technical details of a low-cost method for concentrating and extracting nucleic acids from sewage samples, as a preliminary step for the detection of viruses and other pathogens. To validate the proposed methodology, after the concentration and extraction steps, the presence of the SARS coronavirus-2 (COVID-19) in the samples was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The virus' ribonucleic acid was detected in 80% of the sewage samples analyzed, proving the success of the methodological procedure adopted. The early detection of a pathogen associated with the work of multidisciplinary teams allows the practice of epidemiological surveillance, which assists in making decisions about One Health — an inseparable union between animal, human, and environmental health.

J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 31(3): 476-483, Sep.-Dec. 2021. graf, map, tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1356367


INTRODUCTION: With the arrival of the SARS-CoV-2 (Coronavirus 2 of severe acute respiratory syndrome) pandemic in Brazil, especially in the city of São Paulo, there was a need to apply social isolation policies associated with testing, covering all municipalities. The Clinical Analysis Laboratory of Centro Universitário FMABC was one of the first laboratories to receive certification and qualification to perform RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase reaction followed by polymerase chain reaction) tests in the metropolitan region of São Paulo OBJECTIVE: Aim to analyze the influence of adopting social isolation on the incidence of positivity in COVID-19 tests in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil METHODS: a descriptive study carried out from March to May 2020, epidemiological data were collected from each unit served and organized by the data controllership team of the Clinical Analysis Laboratory of FMABC. Epidemiological, demographic, and laboratory data were extracted from the Matrix® outpatient data management system. Clinically suspected cases and confirmed by laboratory tests (RT-PCR and serological tests) were entered. The tests were divided into serological tests using the RT-PCR molecular test, on samples of nasopharyngeal mucosal scrapings collected with sterile Swab RESULTS: It were evaluated PCR test and antibody presence (IgA, IgM and IgG) in blood samples of 16.297 patients. 22.718 tests were performed for the diagnosis of COVID-19, both RT-PCR (10.410 tests) and serological tests to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, IgA, IgM and IgG, a total of 16.297 patients were assessed, 63% women and 37% men. It was observed that the social isolation policies adopted during this period contained the massive expansion of contamination, at least while the social isolation rates were above 55% CONCLUSION: The data of this study demonstrated the effectiveness of social isolation in containing the positive contamination of SARS-CoV-2 in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, at least for the first three months

INTRODUÇÃO: com a chegada da pandemia de SARS-CoV-2 (Coronavirus 2 da síndrome respiratória aguda grave) ao Brasil, especialmente na cidade de São Paulo, houve a necessidade de aplicar medidas de distanciamento social associado a testagem, que abrangesse todos os municípios. A região metropolitana de São Paulo compreende 39 municípios e possui uma rede de laboratórios habilitados a realizar a testagem para a detecção do coronavírus, tanto testes sorológicos quanto moleculares. O Laboratório de Análises Clínicas do Centro Universitário ABC/FMABC foi um dos primeiros laboratórios a receber a certificação e habilitação para realizar os testes RT-PCR (reação da transcriptase reversa seguida pela reação em cadeia da polimerase) na região metropolitana de São Paulo OBJETIVO: analisar a influência da adoção do isolamento social na incidência de positividade nos testes de COVID-19 em região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil MÉTODO: estudo descritivo realizado no período de março a maio de 2020, os dados epidemiológicos foram coletados de cada unidade atendida e organizada pela equipe de controladoria de dados do Laboratório de Análises Clínicas da FMABC. Os dados epidemiológicos, demográficos e laboratoriais foram extraídos do sistema Matrix® de gerenciamento de dados ambulatoriais. Foram inseridos os casos clinicamente suspeitos e confirmados por testes de laboratório (RT-PCR e testes sorológicos). Os testes foram divididos em testes sorológicos no teste molecular RT-PCR, em amostras de raspado de mucosa nasofaríngea coletada com Swab estéril RESULTADOS: foram avaliados o teste de RT-PCR e a presença de anticorpos (IgA, IgM e IgG) em amostras de sangue de 16.297 pacientes. Foram realizados 22.718 testes para o diagnóstico de COVID-19, tanto RT-PCR (10.410 testes), quanto testes sorológicos para detecção de anticorpos anti-SARS-CoV-2, IgA, IgM e IgG, um total de 16.297 pacientes foram avaliados, 63% mulheres e 37% homens. Observou-se que as políticas de isolamento social adotadas nesse período continham a expansão massiva da contaminação, pelo menos enquanto as taxas de isolamento social eram superiores a 55% CONCLUSÃO: nossos dados demonstraram a efetividade do isolamento social na retenção da positividade da contaminação do SARS-CoV-2 nas cidades contempladas pelo serviço de testagem do Centro Universitário Saúde ABC, pelo menos nos três primeiros meses

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Quarantine , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Metropolitan Zones , Incidence , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 31(2): 291-301, May-Aug. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1340088


INTRODUCTION: metabolic syndrome (SM) is a set of metabolic imbalances that are associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, in addition to other chronic non-communicable diseases. SM has been gaining prominence in the scientific community mainly due to link with the increase of the obesity epidemic in the worldOBJECTIVE: To analyze the factors associated with metabolic syndrome and its prevalence in a vulnerable population in the Northern Region of BrazilMETHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with artisanal fishers from the state of Tocantins, and data collected between 2016 and 2017 were used. The outcome variable for MS was defined according to the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. The following variables were assessed: socioeconomic and demographic information, fish consumption, and smoking. For statistical and data analysis, the Shapiro-Wilk test, Poisson regression, Student's t-test, and interquartile regression were evaluatedRESULTS: The general prevalence rate (PR) of MS was 31.9% higher in women than in men. The factors associated with MS were economic class and smoking, and there was an association between socioeconomic class and smoking (p=0.015). The most prevalent component was abdominal obesity with a rate of 62.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 54.5, 70.5). The prevalence of MS in terms of sex (PR=2.27, 95% 1.04 CI, 4.92, p=0.037), smoking (PR=2.40, 95% CI, 30, p=0.003) and years of professional experience (>10 PR=2.07, 95% CI 1.06, 4.05, p=0.033) was also assessedCONCLUSION: In the present study, the prevalence of SM was associated with smoking and socioeconomic status, which is considered high when compared to the worldwide prevalence. These findings highlight the importance of looking at public policies so that health services can develop actions that generate greater adherence to good health practices by the population

INTRODUÇÃO: A síndrome metabólica (SM) é um conjunto de desequilíbrios metabólicos que estão associados ao desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares, diabetes mellitus tipo 2 além de outras doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. A SM vem ganhando destaque na comunidade científica principalmente por sua ligação com o aumento da epidemia de obesidade no mundoOBJETIVO: Analisar os fatores associados à síndrome metabólica e sua prevalência em população vulnerável da Região Norte do BrasilMÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com pescadores artesanais do estado do Tocantins, e foram utilizados dados coletados entre 2016 e 2017. A variável desfecho para SM foi definida de acordo com os critérios da International Diabetes Federation. As seguintes variáveis foram avaliadas: informações socioeconômicas e demográficas, consumo de peixe e tabagismo. Para análise estatística e de dados, foram avaliados o teste de Shapiro - Wilk, regressão de Poisson, teste t de Student e regressão interquartilRESULTADOS: A taxa geral de prevalência (RP) da SM foi 31,9% maior em mulheres do que em homens. Os fatores associados à SM foram classe econômica e tabagismo e houve associação entre classe socioeconômica e tabagismo (p = 0,015). O componente mais prevalente foi obesidade abdominal com uma taxa de 62,5% (intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC]: 54,5, 70,5). A prevalência de SM em termos de sexo (RP = 2,27, IC 95% 1,04, 4,92, p = 0,037), tabagismo (RP = 2,40, IC 95%, 30, p = 0,003) e anos de experiência profissional (> 10 RP = 2,07, IC 95% 1,06, 4,05, p = 0,033) também foi avaliadoCONCLUSÃO: No presente estudo, a prevalência de SM esteve associada ao tabagismo e ao nível socioeconômico, sendo considerada elevada quando comparada a prevalência mundial. Esses achados assinalam a importância de um olhar das políticas públicas para que os serviços de saúde possam desenvolver ações que geram maior adesão as boas práticas de saúde pela população

Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Metabolic Syndrome , Vulnerable Populations , Life Style , Obesity
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 31(2): 302-309, May-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1340089


INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, access to health care is a constitutional right guaranteed by the Unified Health System that provides, in its guiding principles, universality, and equity of access to health servicesOBJECTIVE: To analyze the factors associated with the quilombola population's access to health servicesMETHODS: Cross-sectional study with 91,085 quilombolas. To measure the absence of access to health, the variables sex, ethnicity, work, disability, age group, illiteracy, place of residence, and average family income were used. The lack of access to health services was due to the identification of health care establishments by quilombola families in the Cadastro Único database. The association between socioeconomic characteristics and the lack of access to health services were assessed using the chi-square test and the measures of magnitude of the association and respective confidence intervals were estimated by Poisson Regression with robust varianceRESULTS: Among the factors associated with access to health services for the quilombola population, it is observed that the group with the highest risk is the elderly quilombolas, who declare themselves indigenous and who reside in the central west region It is noted that in 2004 there was a reduction in the lack of access to health by quilombolas to health services, however, between 2005 and 2015, there is an increase in the lack of access to health by quilombolas, after that period there is an ascendancy of access to health by this populationCONCLUSION: Several factors are associated with access to health by quilombola populations, which, related to the inequalities experienced by this population, directly impact government actions

INTRODUÇÃO: No Brasil, o acesso à saúde é um direito constitucional garantido a partir do Sistema Único de Saúde que prevê, em seus princípios norteadores, a universalidade e a equidade de acesso aos serviços de saúdeOBJETIVO: Analisar os fatores associados ao acesso da população quilombolas aos serviços de saúdeMÉTODO: Estudo transversal com 91.085 quilombolas. Para mensurar a ausência do acesso à saúde utilizou-se as variáveis sexo, etnia, trabalho, deficiência, faixa etária, analfabetismo, local de domicílio e a renda média familiar. A ausência do acesso aos serviços de saúde se deu a partir da identificação dos estabelecimentos de assistência à saúde pelas famílias quilombolas na base de dados do Cadastro Único. A associação entre as características socioeconômicas e a ausência do acesso aos serviços de saúde foram avaliadas pelo teste qui-quadrado e as medidas de magnitude da associação e respectivos intervalos de confiança foram estimados por Regressão de Poisson com variância robustaRESULTADOS: Dentre os fatores associados ao acesso aos serviços de saúde da população quilombolas, observa-se que o grupo com maior risco é os quilombolas idosos, que se autodeclaram indígenas e que residem na região centro oeste. Nota-se que no ano de 2004 houve uma redução na ausência do no acesso à saúde dos quilombolas aos serviços de saúde, entretanto entre 2005 a 2015 iniciou-se um aumento na ausência do acesso à saúde, a partir desse período uma ascendência do acesso à saúde por parte dessa populaçãoCONCLUSÃO: Diversos fatores estão associados ao acesso à saúde pelas populações quilombolas, os quais, relacionado às desigualdades vivenciadas por essa população, impactam diretamente nas ações governamentais

Humans , Male , Female , Unified Health System , Information Systems , Ethnicity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vulnerable Populations , Health Services Accessibility
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 31(2): 310-317, May-Aug. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1340090


INTRODUCTION: Due to the high incidence and mortality rates that cancer has, the World Health Organization (WHO) defines it as a public health problem and points out that there are approximately 10 million people affected by cancer, the estimate for the year 2020 will be 16 million of sick individuals.One of the most frequent neoplasms in the world, Prostate Cancer (CaP) (1.1 million), occupies 4th place, being behind only lung cancer (1.8 million), breast (1.7 million), and intestine (1.4 million). In the year 2012, approximately 1,112,000 new global cases of CaP were registered, with about 307,000 deathsOBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological profile of mortality from prostate cancer and the access of patients to health among Brazilian regionsMETHODS: Ecological study based on secondary data from between the years 2000 and 2015. Mortality, hospitalization, and population were collected at the DATASUS. The variables were related to the epidemiological profile of CaP among Brazilian regions, stratified by the number of hospitalizations, of deaths, admission fee, mortality rate, and age group (40 to 79 years). The study looks at a time trend and gains access to health and mortality using regression modelsRESULTS: The northern showed a greater decrease in cases from 40-59 years (β: -1,800; -0.46). Southeast, with a small reduction only between 40 and 44 years old (β: -0.345 and p: 0.665). Northeast, South, and Center-West regions did not express a drop in the hospitalization rate, with the greatest growth between 65 and 69 years old (β: 7,862; 11,346; and p> 0.05). The Midwest had the greatest increase between 55 and 59 years (β: 3,660, p: 0.098), followed by 65 to 69 years (β: 3,491, p: 0.314). Mortality rates indicated a reduction in the Southeast (β: - 0.440) and South (β: -0.361CONCLUSION: This study found an association with various environmental and economic cultures in each Brazilian region, being an important resource for the development of health services and their access to the population

INTRODUÇÃO: Devido às altas taxas de incidência e mortalidade que o câncer apresenta, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) define-o como um problema de saúde pública e aponta que existem aproximadamente 10 milhões de pessoas afetadas pelo câncer, a estimativa para o ano de 2020 será 16 milhões de doentes. Uma das neoplasias mais frequentes do mundo, o Câncer de Próstata (CaP) (1,1 milhão) ocupa a 4ª colocação, ficando atrás apenas do câncer de pulmão (1,8 milhão), mama (1,7 milhão) e intestino (1,4 milhões). No ano de 2012, foram registrados aproximadamente 1.112.000 novos casos globais de CaP, com cerca de 307.000 óbitosOBJETIVO: Analisar o perfil epidemiológico da mortalidade por câncer de próstata e o acesso de pacientes à saúde entre as regiões brasileirasMÉTODO: Estudo ecológico baseado em dados secundários entre os anos de 2000 e 2015. A mortalidade, hospitalização e população foram coletadas no DATASUS. As variáveis foram relacionadas ao perfil epidemiológico, entre as regiões brasileiras, estratificadas pelo número de internações; de mortes; taxa de admissão; taxa de mortalidade e faixa etária (40 a 79 anos). O estudo analisa uma tendência temporal e obtém acesso à saúde e mortalidade usando modelos de regressãoRESULTADOS: O Norte apresentou uma queda maior nos casos de 40 a 59 anos (β: -1,800; -0,46). Sudeste, com pequena redução apenas entre 40 e 44 anos (β: -0,345 e p: 0,665). As regiões Nordeste, Sul e Centro-Oeste não apresentaram queda na taxa de internação, com maior crescimento entre 65 e 69 anos (β: 7.862; 11.346; e p> 0,05). O Centro-Oeste teve o maior aumento entre 55 e 59 anos (β: 3.660, p: 0,098), seguido de 65 a 69 anos (β: 3.491, p: 0,314). As taxas de mortalidade indicaram redução no Sudeste (β: - 0,440) e Sul (β: -0,361CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo encontrou associação com várias culturas ambientais e econômicas em cada região brasileira, sendo um recurso importante para o desenvolvimento de serviços de saúde e seu acesso à população

Humans , Male , Female , Prostatic Neoplasms , Health Profile , Mortality , Universal Access to Health Care Services , Hospital Care , Hospitalization , Ecological Studies
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(11): 1503-1508, Nov. 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1143639


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To characterize the effects of nasal aspiration with Proetz® in peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) in pediatric sinusitis (PS) patients with nasal obstruction. METHODS: This is a non-randomized descriptive-analytical clinical trial with a quantitative approach. The sample comprised 30 children. Initially, the PNIF was measured and the Visual Analogical Scale (VAS) was used for nasal obstruction, followed by the nasal aspiration procedure. The SNOT-22 questionnaire was applied to the legal guardian of each child, and one week later, it was reapplied for the sake of follow-up. RESULTS: 16 (53.3%) patients were females and 14 (46.7%) were males, with an average age of 6.4±1.8 years (between 4 and 10 years of age). Analyses of the VAS for obstruction before the intervention revealed that 10 of the participants (33.3%) presented moderate levels, and 20 of them (66.7%) severe levels. However, after the Proetz® method was applied, all the samples (n=30) had mild levels. The PNIF significantly increased after the technique was used, with an improvement of 23.4% in mean values. There was no significant correlation between the VAS and the PNIF. CONCLUSION: Nasal aspiration with the Proetz® method significantly improved the clinical condition of sinusitis patients with nasal obstruction according to the visual analogical scale, the PNIF, and the SNOT-22 questionnaire. No correlation between the VAS and the PNIF could be found. The study confirms the importance of non-pharmacological interventions in the treatment of sinusitis in children, thus resulting in an improvement in their quality of life.

RESUMO OBJETIVO: Caracterizar os efeitos da aspiração nasal com Proetz® no pico do fluxo inspiratório nasal (Pnif) em pacientes com sinusite pediátrica (SP) com obstrução nasal. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um ensaio clínico analítico descritivo, não randomizado, com abordagem quantitativa. A amostra foi composta por 30 crianças. Inicialmente, o Pnif foi medido e a escala visual analógica (EVA) foi utilizada para obstrução nasal, seguida do procedimento de aspiração nasal. O questionário Snot-22 foi aplicado ao responsável legal de cada criança e, uma semana depois, foi reaplicado para fins de acompanhamento. RESULTADOS: Dezesseis (53,3%) pacientes eram do sexo feminino e 14 (46,7%) do sexo masculino, com idade média de 6,4±1,8 anos (entre 4 e 10 anos). A análise da EVA para obstrução antes da intervenção revelou que dez dos participantes (33,3%) apresentaram níveis moderados e 20 deles (66,7%), níveis graves. No entanto, após a aplicação do método Proetz®, todas as amostras (n=30) apresentaram níveis leves. O Pnif aumentou significativamente após a utilização da técnica, com uma melhoria de 23,4% nos valores médios. Não houve correlação significativa entre EVA e Pnif. CONCLUSÃO: A aspiração nasal com o método Proetz® melhorou significativamente o quadro clínico de pacientes com sinusite com obstrução nasal, de acordo com a escala visual analógica, o Pnif e o questionário Snot-22. Não foi encontrada correlação entre EVA e Pnif. O estudo confirma a importância de intervenções não farmacológicas no tratamento da sinusite em crianças, resultando em melhoria na sua qualidade de vida.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Sinusitis/therapy , Quality of Life , Nasal Obstruction , Surveys and Questionnaires , Visual Analog Scale
ABCS health sci ; 45: e020027, 02 jun 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129782


INTRODUCTION: Frailty is a multidimensional syndrome that increases the vulnerability in the elderly, decreasing physiological reserves, intensifying the functional decline, being associated with numerous physical changes, determining greater risks to the elderly's health. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between frailty and sociodemographic conditions of the elderly met in primary care facilities in the city of Cajazeiras, northeastern Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study, conducted in July 2015, with 823 elderly people through semi-structured questionnaire containing the proposed frailty criteria by Linda Fried and colleagues, and analyzed using SPSS version 21. The Chi-Square test was used to assess the association between variables, considering p<0.05 as statistically significant. The sociodemographic data were collected using an instrument created by the authors. RESULTS: The prevalence of frailty was 23.8% and is associated with older age groups (70-90 years) and older people who did not attend school (25.5%), and the main criterion of frailty found among the elderly was "slow walk" (71.7%). CONCLUSION: The frailty in elderly from Northeastern Brazil is associated with higher age and illiteracy.

INTRODUÇÃO: A fragilidade é uma síndrome multidimensional que aumenta a vulnerabilidade em idosos, causando diminuição das reservas fisiológicas, aumento do declínio funcional e está associada a inúmeras alterações físicas, determinando maiores riscos à saúde do idoso. OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação entre fragilidade e condições sociodemográficas de idosos atendidos em Unidades Básicas de Saúde da cidade de Cajazeiras, nordeste do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, realizado em julho de 2015, com 823 idosos, por meio de questionário semiestruturado contendo os critérios de fragilidade propostos por Linda Fried e analisado pelo SPSS versão 21. Utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado para verificar a associação entre as variáveis, considerando-se estatisticamente significativo p<0,05. Coletaram-se os dados sociodemográficos por meio de instrumento elaborado pelos autores. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de fragilidade foi de 23,8% e está associada a faixa etária mais velha (70-90 anos), idosos que não frequentaram a escola (25,5%), e a principal característica de fragilidade encontrada entre os idosos era "lenta" (71,7%). CONCLUSÃO: A fragilidade em idosos do Nordeste Brasileiro está associada à idade e ao analfabetismo.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Socioeconomic Factors , Aging , Health Centers , Demography , Frail Elderly , Frailty , Cross-Sectional Studies
ABCS health sci ; 45(Supl. 3): e020103, 10 June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252368


INTRODUCTION: The incidence of cystoid macular edema (CME) after cataract surgery varies substantially and depending on the diagnostic method used. In addition, other factors that influence the incidence of CME are the technique of surgery and the associated comorbidities. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of EMC after uncomplicated phacoemulsification surgery, using the spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: The incidence of subclinical and clinical CME was evaluated in 14 patients who underwent uncomplicated phacoemulsification surgery, using OCT before the surgical procedure and after seven and 28 days after it. The volunteers could not use a prostaglandin analogue or present any retinopathy that compromised visual acuity. RESULTS: The incidence of clinically significant CME was 6.4%, however retinal thickening by OCT was observed in all patients in the fourth postoperative week. Regarding gender and laterality, the percentages were similar. CONCLUSION: In this study, we obtained a low incidence of EMC in patients assisted at this center, corroborating multicenter studies.

Humans , Male , Female , Postoperative Period , Cataract , Macular Edema/epidemiology , Macular Edema/diagnostic imaging , Phacoemulsification , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity , Eye Health Services