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Int. j. morphol ; 39(2)abr. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385380


SUMMARY: Infraorbital foramen (IOF) located bilaterally within the maxillary bone about 1 cm inferior to the infraorbital margin is a vital landmark when delivering local anesthesia and during surgical interventions in the midface region. A total of 122 infraorbital foramina in 61 cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images of 32 females and 29 males in the age range of 17 to 32 were analyzed to determine the shape, direction, presence of accessory foramina, size and the precise position of IOF in relation to the inferior orbital margin (IOM), maxillary midline (MM), lateral nasal wall (LNW), alveolus (ALV) and maxillary teeth in a group of Sri Lankan people. The IOF was oval in shape (80.3 % and 88.5 % on the right and left side, respectively) in a majority of individuals. The infraorbital foramina were located at a mean distance of 5.56 ± 3.95 and 4.91 ± 2.08 mm, below the IOM on the right and left side, 27.13 ± 2.6 and 26.99 ± 2.73 on the right and left side from the mid maxillary line, 11.96 ± 3.45 mm and 12.18 ± 3.35 from the LNW on the right and left side and 29.59 ± 3.59 and 29.65 ± 3.28 above the alveolar crest on the right and left side. There were no statistically significant differences between the left and right sides or between sexes. Majority of IOF (37.5 % and 55.9 % on the right and left side, respectively) were located in the vertical plane passing though the maxillary second premolar tooth.

RESUMEN: El foramen infraorbitario (FIO) ubicado bilateralmente dentro de la maxila, aproximadamente 1 cm inferior al margen infraorbitario, es un punto de referencia vital cuando se administra anestesia local y durante intervenciones quirúrgicas en la región media de la cara. Se analizaron un total de 122 forámenes infraorbitarios en 61 imágenes de tomografía computarizada de haz cónico (CBCT) de 32 mujeres y 29 hombres en un rango etario de 17 a 32 años para determinar la forma, dirección, presencia de forámenes accesorios, tamaño y posición precisa de FIO en relación con el mar- gen orbitario inferior (MOI), la línea mediana maxilar (MM), la pared nasal lateral (PNL), el alvéolo (ALV) y los dientes maxilares en un grupo de personas de Sri Lanka. En la mayoría de los adultos se observó que el FIO tenía forma ovalada (80,3 % y 88,5 % en el lado derecho e izquierdo, respectivamente) Los forámenes infraorbitarios se ubicaron a una distancia media de 5,56 ± 3,95 y 4,91 ± 2,08 mm, por debajo del MOI en los lados derecho e izquierdo; 27,13 ± 2,6 y 26,99 ± 2,73 en el lado derecho e izquierdo desde la línea maxilar mediana, 11,96 ± 3,45 mm y 12,18 ± 3,35 de la PNL en el lado derecho e izquierdo y 29,59 ± 3,59 y 29,65 ± 3,28 por encima de la cresta alveolar en los lados derecho e izquierdo. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los lados izquierdo y derecho o entre sexos. La mayoría de IOF (37,5 % y 55,9 % en el lado derecho e izquierdo, respectivamente) se ubicaron en el plano vertical que pasa por el segundo premolar maxilar.

Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-30922


Snake bite is a common cause of hospital admission in Sri Lanka. Despite this, there have been no countrywide studies or national estimates of disease burden due to snake bites in Sri Lankan hospitals. We assessed the disease burden due to snake bite in our hospitals and estimated the frequency of admissions due to bites by different snake species. Sri Lanka was divided into four zones based on climate and topography. Hospital morbidity and mortality data, which are available on an administrative district basis, were collated for the four zones. A survey of opinion among specialist physicians (the Delphi technique) was used to estimate the proportion of bites by different species, and requirements for anti-venom (AV) and intensive care facilities for management of snake bites in hospitals in each of the four zones. A study of hospital admissions due to snake bites in seven selected hospitals was also performed to validate the opinion survey. There was a clear difference in the incidence of hospital admissions due to snake bites in the different zones. Estimates of hospital admissions due to bites by different species also varied considerably between zones. These trends corresponded to estimates of requirements of AV and other supportive health care. Health care planning using data based on environmental information, rather than merely on political boundaries, could lead to targeted distribution of AV and intensive care requirements to manage snake bites.

Animals , Antivenins/economics , Climate , Cost of Illness , Delphi Technique , Geography , Health Care Surveys , Health Services Needs and Demand , Hospital Costs , Hospitalization/economics , Humans , Incidence , Critical Care , Snake Bites/economics , Snake Venoms/classification , Species Specificity , Sri Lanka/epidemiology , Topography, Medical , Viperidae/classification
Ceylon Med J ; 2002 Jun; 47(2): 48-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-47209


OBJECTIVES: To study the safety of low dose subcutaneous adrenaline given as prophylaxis against acute adverse reactions to anti-venom serum (AVS) in patients bitten by snakes. METHODS: Patients admitted with snakebite envenoming who satisfied inclusion criteria were given 0.25 ml of 1:1000 adrenaline subcutaneously immediately before administration of AVS. They were observed for adverse effects, and pulse and blood pressure (BP) were monitored. RESULTS: 51 patients [35 males, mean age 34.8 years (SD 14)] were included in the study. Adverse reactions to AVS occurred in 15 (29.4%) patients. There was one death from suspected cerebral haemorrhage, and 3 (5.9%) patients developed small haematomas at the subcutaneous injection site. There were no significant changes in mean pulse or BP following administration of subcutaneous adrenaline. CONCLUSIONS: Low dose subcutaneous adrenaline did not cause significant changes in pulse rate or BP. Although the death was unlikely to be directly related to subcutaneous adrenaline, we suggest further studies on the safety of this prophylactic treatment before its routine use.

Adrenergic Agonists/administration & dosage , Adult , Antivenins/adverse effects , Epinephrine/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Prospective Studies , Snake Bites/drug therapy
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-30639


We describe severe hepatic dysfunction associated with an attack of falciparum malaria in six Sri Lankan patients. Clinicians working in areas endemic for malaria should be made aware of this unusual complication.

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Function Tests , Malaria, Falciparum/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Sri Lanka
Ceylon Med J ; 1999 Jun; 44(2): 70-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-49036


INTRODUCTION: Cardiac effects following the bite of Burmese Russell's vipers and European vipers are well known. The question whether envenomation caused by Sri Lankan viper bites results in myocardial damage remains largely unanswered. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether myocardial damage occurs after Sri Lankan viper bites, using a highly specific and sensitive marker, troponin T. METHODS: 45 patients admitted after a definite viper bite [Russell's viper (RV), n = 13, hump-nosed viper (HNV), n = 32] were studied with regard to cardiac symptoms, ECG changes, and troponin T levels. There were no admissions with bites of other types of Sri Lankan vipers during the study period. RESULTS: Cardiac symptoms were present in a number of patients following the bite. Two patients had transient ECG changes. However, troponin T levels were not elevated in any of them. COMMENT: Myocardial damage does not seem to be an important feature of Sri Lankan Russell's and hump-nosed viper bites. This may be because of venom heterogeneity in vipers, that is based on their geographical distribution.

Adult , Animals , Electrocardiography , Female , Humans , Male , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Prospective Studies , Russell's Viper , Snake Bites/complications , Sri Lanka/epidemiology , Troponin T/blood , Viper Venoms/toxicity , Viperidae
Ceylon Med J ; 1999 Mar; 44(1): 11-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-48849


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether people who have committed parasuicide have low serum cholesterol concentrations. METHOD: All subjects admitted to the University Medical Unit, Ragama after parasuicide from 1.3.96 to 31.1.97 were matched for age, sex, presence of diabetes and arterial hypertension, substance abuse, body mass index and socioeconomic status with controls. Venous blood samples for cholesterol estimation were collected from parasuicides within 24 hours of admission. RESULTS: Analysis was done on 168 parasuicide patients [males 74; mean age for males 24 years (SD 6.2), females 19 years (SD 3.3)] and 168 matched controls. Of the parasuicide subjects, 33 had a psychiatric illness and 135 were considered to have impulsive personalities. The serum cholesterol level in parasuicide patients was not significantly different from that in controls. CONCLUSIONS: This study, the first from a developing country, did not show an association between low serum cholesterol concentrations and parasuicide.

Adult , Case-Control Studies , Cholesterol/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/blood , Prospective Studies , Self-Injurious Behavior , Sex Distribution , Sri Lanka/epidemiology , Suicide, Attempted/prevention & control , Violence
Ceylon Med J ; 1995 Mar; 40(1): 37-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-48334


Two patients with Type II decompression sickness with good recovery following delayed recompression therapy are described. These are the first two cases of successful recompression therapy for this diving hazard to be reported in Sri Lanka. The risks taken by Sri Lankan divers and prevention of diving related medical disorders are discussed.

Adult , Decompression Sickness/therapy , Humans , Male