Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 46
Filter
1.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3406, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1280470

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: to evaluate the acquisition of cognitive knowledge in cardiorespiratory resuscitation through training mediated by health simulation and to verify satisfaction with the teaching methodology design. Method: a study of quasi-experimental intervention, of the before and after type, with only one group. Population composed of medical students in the internship phase, nurses and resident physicians, nursing technicians and nurses of the institution's effective staff. Convenience sampling consisting of 91 participants. Data collected through the Sociodemographic and Educational Questionnaire, Knowledge Test and Simulation Design Scale. Data was organized in tables and analyzed based on absolute frequencies, measures of central tendency and dispersion, Cronbach's alpha reliability test, Wilcoxon's test. Results: the increase in cognitive learning was 81.9%, being that for nursing technicians it was 117.8 %. Wilcoxon's test showed a significant increase (p<0.0001) in knowledge. The Simulation Design Scale, displayed 4.55 of global mean. Cronbach's alpha pointed good internal consistency (0.898). Conclusion: the health simulation was effective as a learning-teaching method in cardiorespiratory resuscitation, being effective in increasing knowledge in cardiorespiratory arrest, with a great level of design satisfaction.


Objetivo: evaluar la adquisición de conocimiento cognitivo en reanimación cardiorrespiratoria a través del entrenamiento mediado por simulación de salud y verificar la satisfacción con el diseño de la metodología de enseñanza. Método: estudio de intervención cuasiexperimental, del tipo antes y después, con un único grupo. Población compuesta por estudiantes de medicina en etapa de prácticas, enfermeros y médicos residentes, técnicos de enfermería y enfermeros del personal permanente de la institución. Muestreo de conveniencia compuesto por 91 participantes. Datos recolectados a través del Cuestionario Sociodemográfico y Educativo, prueba de conocimientos y Escala de Diseño de Simulación. Los datos fueron organizados en tablas y analizados con base en frecuencias absolutas, medidas de tendencia central y dispersión, prueba de confiabilidad alfa de Cronbach, y prueba de Wilcoxon. Resultados: el aumento del aprendizaje cognitivo fue del 81,9% y para los técnicos de enfermería fue del 117,8%. La prueba de Wilcoxon mostró un aumento significativo (p<0,0001) en el conocimiento. La Escala de Diseño de Simulación presentó una media global de 4,55. El alfa de Cronbach mostró buena consistencia interna (0,898). Conclusión: la simulación de salud resultó eficaz como método de enseñanza-aprendizaje en reanimación cardiorrespiratoria, siendo eficaz para incrementar el conocimiento en parada cardiorrespiratoria, con un excelente nivel de satisfacción con respecto al diseño.


Objetivo: avaliar a aquisição de conhecimento cognitivo em reanimação cardiorrespiratória por capacitação mediada por simulação em saúde e verificar a satisfação com o design da metodologia de ensino. Método: estudo de intervenção quase-experimental, do tipo antes-depois, com único grupo. População composta por estudantes de medicina em fase de internato, enfermeiros e médicos residentes, técnicos de enfermagem e enfermeiros do quadro efetivo da instituição. Amostragem por conveniência formada por 91 participantes. Dados coletados por meio do Questionário Sociodemográfico e Educacional, teste de conhecimento e Escala do Design da Simulação. Os dados foram organizados em tabelas e analisados com base em frequências absolutas, medidas de tendência central e dispersão, teste de confiabilidade alfa de Cronbach, teste de Wilcoxon. Resultados: o incremento de aprendizagem cognitiva foi de 81,9%, sendo que para técnicos de enfermagem foi de 117,8 %. Teste de Wilcoxon apontou incremento significativo (p<0,0001) no conhecimento. A Escala do Design da Simulação, apresentou 4,55 de média global. Alpha de Cronbach apontou boa consistência interna (0,898). Conclusão: a simulação em saúde foi eficaz como método de ensino-aprendizagem em reanimação cardiorrespiratória, sendo efetiva no incremento de conhecimento em parada cardiorrespiratória, com ótimo nível de satisfação quanto ao design.


Subject(s)
Humans , Simulation Technique , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Education, Professional , High Fidelity Simulation Training , Heart Arrest , Internship and Residency , Medical Staff, Hospital , Education, Continuing
2.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349097

ABSTRACT

Introduction: For the elderly, cultural factors and social paradigms predispose to the rejection of condom use, which favors human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. The North region was the last area for the spread of HIV in Brazil. Rondônia, although with a slight decline in the HIV detection rate in recent years, is still among the states with high mortality rate due to HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Brazil. Objective: To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of the elderly patients who were hospitalized for reasons related to HIV infection in the state of Rondônia, Brazil. Methods: Descriptive study of secondary data recorded from 2010 to 2018. The cause of hospitalization was identified in the field referring to the main and secondary diagnoses of the hospitalization authorization form. Results: Between 2010 and 2018, Rondônia recorded 1,073,932 hospitalizations for any cause in the state's public hospitals. Out of these, 183,803 (17.1%) were of elderly patients over 60 years of age and 249 (0.13%) were due to HIV/AIDS. There was a progressive increase in the number of hospitalizations during the study period, as well as a predominance of younger elderly men (67.1±6.0 years old). The mean length of hospitalizations was 21.3±21.1 days and 57 (24.1%) elderly patients died. Conclusion: Despite all the progress made in HIV prevention and treatment, the state of Rondônia still has a progressive increase in hospitalizations of elderly people for reasons related to HIV/ AIDS. HIV transmission prevention strategies should be emphasized in the elderly population in the state.


Introdução: Fatores culturais e paradigmas sociais predispõem o idoso à rejeição do uso de preservativo, o que favorece a transmissão do vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) nesse grupo. A região Norte foi a última área alvo da disseminação do vírus no Brasil. Rondônia, embora com discreto declínio na taxa de detecção nos últimos anos, encontra-se entre as unidades federativas com mortalidade superior à média nacional. Objetivo: Descrever as características demográficas e clínicas dos idosos que se internaram por motivos relacionados à infecção pelo HIV em hospitais públicos de Rondônia. Métodos: Estudo descritivo de dados secundários registrados no período de 2010 a 2018. A causa da hospitalização foi identificada nos campos referentes aos diagnósticos principal e secundário da autorização de internação hospitalar (AIH). Resultados: Entre 2010 e 2018, o estado de Rondônia registrou 1.073.932 internações por todas as causas nos hospitais públicos/conveniados do SUS. Desse total, 183.803 (17,1%) foram de idosos maiores de 60 anos, das quais apenas 249 (0,13%) foram motivadas por HIV/síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS). Embora de baixa magnitude, observou-se aumento progressivo do número das hospitalizações durante período estudado. Houve um predomínio de internações de idosos do sexo masculino e na sexta década de vida (67,1±6,0 anos). O tempo médio de internação foi de 21,3±21,1 dias e 57 (24,1%) dos idosos evoluíram para óbito. Conclusão: Apesar de todo o progresso obtido na prevenção e tratamento do HIV, o estado de Rondônia ainda apresenta elevação progressiva das hospitalizações de idosos por motivos relacionados ao HIV/AIDS. Estratégias de prevenção da transmissão do HIV devem ser enfatizadas para a população de idosos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Unified Health System , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Public
3.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(2): 120-129, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132437

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In recent years, the number of cases with severe Plasmodium vivax malaria has shown an increasing trend. It is, therefore, important to identify routine laboratory markers that best characterize the acute disease phase and can serve as a tool for clinical follow-up of patients. In a cohort study, we followed 87 patients with acute P. vivax monoinfection acquired in an endemic region of the Brazilian Amazon. Forty-two different biochemical and hematological parameters frequently tested in clinical routine were evaluated at the acute phase and the convalescent phase. A total of 42 laboratory tests were performed: biochemical parameters measured were serum lipids levels, aminotransferases, bilirubin, amylase, glucose, urea, creatinine, albumin, globulin, uric acid, C-reactive protein, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein. Hematological parameters included total and differential white blood cell and platelet counts, hemoglobin concentration, mean platelet volume, platelet width distribution, and plateletcrit. Our results show that several biochemical and hematological parameters were associated with acute phase P. vivax malaria and these parameters reverted to normal values in the convalescent phase. The use of these parameters during diagnosis and follow-up of the infection is a useful clinical tool to evaluate the clinical course and therapeutic response of patients with uncomplicated vivax malaria.

4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190559, 2020. tab
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136898

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazil's western Amazon basin has the highest prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the country. Coinfection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) is also endemic. To estimate the prevalence of HBV and HDV markers in a population inhabiting the northwest portion of Mato Grosso state in the western Amazon. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of the seroprevalence of antibodies against HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) in the Três Fronteiras District northwest of Mato Grosso. Anti-HBc-positive subjects were tested for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Those positive for this marker were tested for HDV antibodies. Anti-HBc-negative participants were tested for anti-HBsAg. All tests were performed by EIA. RESULTS: A total of 623 individuals in the community were assessed; the majority (67.6%) were male, with a mean age of 30.8 ± 15.4 years. Two hundred and fourteen individuals (34.3%) were anti-HBc-positive, and 47 (7.5%) were HBsAg carriers. Only one individual was anti-HDV-positive. Among the 409 individuals without HBV infection, 18.3% were anti-HBsAg-positive. There was no association between HBV infection and known risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The study area had intermediate-to-high endemicity for HBV infection, but a low prevalence of HDV. Our serological results suggesting low vaccination-induced protection indicate a need for reinforced immunization programs in the populations of northwest Mato Grosso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis D/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Middle Aged
5.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 266-271, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013416

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Pregnant women are considered patients at risk for pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The study aim was to evaluate the gastric antral cross-sectional area using ultrasound. Method: In this prospective study, 85 scheduled term pregnant women underwent gastric ultrasound. The outcomes were the measurement of the gastric antral cross-sectional area (main outcome), the estimated gastric volume, the incidence of pregnant women at risk for pulmonary aspiration, and the association between gastric antral cross-sectional area and clinical-demographic characteristics. Gastric antral cross-sectional area and gastric volume were compared according to body mass index <30 or ≥30. Results: The median (IIQ) for gastric antral cross-sectional area was 4 cm2 (2.8-6.3), for the estimated gastric volume it was 49.8 mL (33.7-87.2), and for the gastric volume estimated in mL.kg-1 it was 0.62 mL.kg-1 (0.39-0.95). The 95th percentile [95% confidence interval (CI)] of the gastric antral cross-sectional area and the estimated gastric volume were ≤10.3 cm2 (95% CI: 7.6-15.6) and 1.42 mL.kg-1 (95% CI: 1.20-2.64), respectively. The incidence of pregnant women at risk for pulmonary aspiration was 3.5% (CI: 3.5 (1.2-9.8)). There was a positive correlation between gastric antral cross-sectional area and weight, p < 0.001 and body mass index <0.001. Patients with a body mass index ≥30 had a gastric antral cross-sectional area and an estimated gastric volume greater than those with a body mass index <30, respectively, p < 0.01 and p < 0.02. Conclusion: Measuring the gastric antral cross-sectional area of pregnant women is feasible and easy. There was positive correlation between gastric antral cross-sectional area, body weight and body mass index. The estimation of gastric volume by measuring the gastric antral cross-sectional area can identify patients at risk for pulmonary aspiration. Obese patients had a gastric antral cross-sectional area and an estimated gastric volume greater than non-obese patients.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: As gestantes são consideradas pacientes de risco para aspiração pulmonar do conteúdo gástrico. O objetivo foi avaliar a área transversal do antro gástrico por meio de ultrassonografia. Método: Neste estudo prospectivo, 85 gestantes a termo agendadas foram submetidas à ultrassonografia do antro gástrico. Os desfechos foram a mensuração da área transversal do antro gástrico (desfecho principal), a estimativa do volume gástrico, a incidência de gestantes sob risco de aspiração pulmonar, a associação entre a área transversal do antro gástrico e características clínico-demográficas. A área transversal do antro gástrico e do volume gástrico foi comparada de acordo com o índice de massa corporal < 30 ou ≥ 30. Resultados: A mediana (IIQ) da área transversal do antro gástrico foi 4 cm2 (2,8-6,3), do volume gástrico estimado 49,8 mL (33,7-87,2) e do volume gástrico estimado em mL.kg-1 de 0,62 mL.kg-1 (0,39-0,95). O percentil 95 [intervalo de confiança (IC) 95%] da área transversal do antro gástrico e do volume gástrico estimado foi ≤ 10,3 cm2 (IC 95%: 7,6-15,6) e 1,42 mL.kg-1 (IC 95%: 1,20-2,64), respectivamente. A incidência de gestantes sob risco de aspiração pulmonar foi de 3,5% (IC: 3,5 (1,2-9,8). Houve correlação positiva entre a área transversal do antro gástrico e peso, p < 0,001 e índice de massa corporal p < 0,001. As pacientes com índice de massa corporal ≥ 30 apresentaram maior área transversal do antro gástrico, e do volume gástrico estimado, do que as com índice de massa corporal < 30, respectivamente p < 0,01 e p < 0,02. Conclusão: A mensuração da área transversal do antro gástrico de gestantes é factível e fácil. A área transversal do antro gástrico correlacionou-se positivamente com peso e índice de massa corporal. A estimativa do volume gástrico através da mensuração da área transversal do antro gástrico pode identificar pacientes sob risco de aspiração pulmonar. As pacientes obesas apresentaram área transversal do antro gástrico e volume gástrico estimado maior do que as não obesas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Pyloric Antrum/diagnostic imaging , Cohort Studies , Ultrasonography/methods , Respiratory Aspiration/prevention & control , Preoperative Care/methods , Body Mass Index , Cesarean Section/methods , Prospective Studies , Gastrointestinal Contents/diagnostic imaging , Obesity/complications
6.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 28(1): e2017497, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-975203

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever a frequência e os motivos das internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária à saúde (ICSAP) ocorridas em Rondônia, Brasil, entre 2012 e 2016, e analisar sua relação com a evolução da cobertura da Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF). Métodos: estudo descritivo, com dados secundários do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde. Resultados: no período do estudo, foram autorizadas 133.958 ICSAP, correspondendo a uma taxa de 75 internações/1.000 hab.; registrou-se incremento anual paralelo da cobertura da ESF e tendência levemente decrescente das ICSAP autorizadas, embora não estatisticamente significante; em 2012, a frequência de ICSAP foi de 20,7% entre todas as hospitalizações ocorridas no estado, enquanto em 2016, esse indicador declinou para 16,7%. Conclusão: foi alta a frequência de ICSAP em Rondônia entre 2012 e 2016; embora tenha havido incremento na cobertura de ESF no mesmo período, esse aumento não foi acompanhado de mudança significativa na frequência de ICSAP registrada no estado.


Objetivo: describir la frecuencia y los motivos de las hospitalizaciones por enfermedades sensibles a cuidados de atención primaria en salud (HESCAP) en Rondônia, Brasil, entre 2012 y 2016. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, con datos del Sistema de Informaciones Hospitalarias del Sistema Único de Salud. Resultados: en el período del estudio se autorizaron 133.958 HESCAP, correspondiendo a una tasa de 75 internaciones/1.000 hab.; se registró un incremento anual de la cobertura de la Estrategia Salud de la Familia (ESF) y tendencia decreciente de las HESCAP, aunque no estadísticamente significativa; en 2012, la frecuencia de HESCAP fue del 20,7% entre todas las hospitalizaciones ocurridas en el estado, mientras que en 2016 ese indicador declinó al 16,7%. Conclusión: fue alta la frecuencia de HESCAP en Rondônia entre 2012 y 2016; aunque hubo un incremento en la cobertura de ESF en el mismo período, ese aumento no fue acompañado por un cambio significativo en la frecuencia de HESCAP registrada en el estado.


Objective: to describe the frequency and reasons for hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (HACSC) in Rondônia, Brazil, between 2012 and 2016, and to analyze their relationship with the evolution of the coverage of the family health strategy (FHS) in the same period. Methods: this was a descriptive study of secondary data from the Brazilian National Health System's Hospital Information System. Results: during the period of the study 133,958 HACSC were authorized, corresponding to a rate of 75 hospitalizations/1,000 inhab.; there was a parallel annual increase in FHS coverage and a slightly decreasing trend of authorized HACSC, although this was not statistically significant; in 2012, HACSC frequency was 20.7% in relation to all hospitalizations that occurred in the state, while in 2016 this indicator declined to 16.7%. Conclusion: HACSC frequency in Rondônia was high between 2012 and 2016; although there was an increase in FHS coverage in the same period, this increase was not accompanied by a significant change in the frequency of HACSC registered in the state.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Family Health Strategy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Health Profile , Health Status , Ecological Studies
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190145, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040609

ABSTRACT

Anti-α-Gal responses may exert a protective effect in falciparum malaria. However, the biological role of such antibodies is still unknown during Plasmodium vivax infections. We investigated IgG and IgM responses to α-Gal in individuals with vivax malaria. Anti-α-Gal IgG and IgM levels were higher in these patients than in controls, but no significant correlation was found between parasitaemia and anti-α-Gal response, nor between this response and ABO blood group status. This is the first study to investigate anti-α-Gal antibodies in P. vivax-infected patients; a larger survey is necessary to achieve a better understanding of host immune response during vivax malaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Plasmodium vivax/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic/blood , Malaria, Vivax/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic/metabolism , Malaria, Vivax/immunology , Middle Aged
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20170412, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041539

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Uric acid is one of the compounds associated with the inflammatory process in malaria. It acts as an indicator of cellular damage by activating the immune response and inflammatory process. METHODS: We measured serum concentrations of uric acid in 60 symptomatic patients before and after treatment for malarial infections caused by Plasmodium vivax. RESULTS: Lower serum concentrations of uric acid were found during the acute phase of P. vivax malaria compared to those in its convalescent phase (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients in the acute phase of malaria had lower uric acid levels than those in its convalescent phase.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Uric Acid/blood , Malaria, Vivax/blood , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Acute Disease , Malaria, Vivax/drug therapy , Middle Aged
10.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 25(1): 21-32, jan.-mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-778552

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: avaliar a completude e oportunidade das notificações, do diagnóstico e do tratamento da malária na Amazônia Legal Brasileira. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo, com dados de 23 campos das fichas de notificação registradas no Sistema de Informação de Vigilância Epidemiológica da Malária (Sivep-Malária) no período de 2003 a 2012. RESULTADOS: em 86,0% dos campos da ficha de notificação, a completude foi boa (≥90,0% de preenchimento); nas Secretarias Municipais de Saúde, 40,6% das notificações tiveram registro oportuno (0-7 dias após a notificação), e no Ministério da Saúde, 75,6% (0-30 dias após a notificação); o diagnóstico e o tratamento oportunos ocorreram em 44,6% e 45,4% dos pacientes, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: a maioria das notificações apresentou boa completude; a oportunidade no registro das notificações ficou aquém dos padrões internacionais; e a oportunidade no diagnóstico e no tratamento revelou-se abaixo das recomendações do Ministério da Saúde.


OBJETIVO: evaluar la integridad de los datos y reporte oportuno de las notificaciones, de diagnóstico y tratamiento de malaria en la Amazonía brasileña. MÉTODOS: estudio descriptivo, con datos de 23 ítems de las fichas de notificación registradas en el Sistema de Información de Malaria (Sivep-Malária), en el periodo 2003-2012. RESULTADOS: el 86,0% de los ítems de la ficha de notificación fueron completados adecuadamente (≥90,0% completado); en las secretarias municipales de salud, 40,6% de las notificaciones tuvieron registro oportuno (0-7 días después de la notificación) y en el Ministerio de Salud, 75,6% (0-30 días después de la notificación); el diagnóstico y tratamiento oportunos ocurrieron en 44,6% y 45,4% de los pacientes, respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: la mayoría de las notificaciones mostró una buena integridad; la tasa de registro oportuno de las notificaciones fue inferior a los estándares internacionales y el diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno fue inferior a lorecomendado por el Ministerio de Salud.


OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the completeness and timeliness of malaria case reporting, diagnosis and treatment in the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: this is a descriptive study using data from 23 fields of notification forms recorded on the Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance Information System (Sivep-Malaria) between 2003 and 2012. RESULTS: data completeness was good in 86,0% of fields (≥90,0% filled in); there was timely recording of 40,6% of notifications at the Municipal Health Departments (0-7 days following notification) and 75,6% at the Ministry of Health (0-30 days following notification); timely diagnosis and timely treatment occurred in 44,6% and 45,4% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: most notification forms had good completeness; timeliness in recording notifications was below international standards; timeliness of diagnosis and treatment was below the Ministry of Health recommendations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Disease Notification , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/therapy , Amazonian Ecosystem , Brazil , Epidemiology, Descriptive
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(6): 763-769, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732988

ABSTRACT

Introduction More than half of the malaria cases reported in the Americas are from the Brazilian Amazon region. While malaria is considered endemic in this region, its geographical distribution is extremely heterogeneous. Therefore, it is important to investigate the distribution of malaria and to determine regions whereby action might be necessary. Methods Changes in malaria indicators in all municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon between 2003-2004 and 2008-2009 were studied. The malaria indicators included the absolute number of malaria cases and deaths, the bi-annual parasite incidence (BPI), BPI ratios and differences, a Lorenz curve and Gini coefficients. Results During the study period, mortality from malaria remained low (0.02% deaths/case), the percent of municipalities that became malaria-free increased from 15.6% to 31.7%, and the Gini coefficient increased from 82% to 87%. In 2003, 10% of the municipalities with the highest BPI accumulated 67% of all malaria cases, compared with 2009, when 10% of the municipalities (with the highest BPI) had 80% of the malaria cases. Conclusions This study described an overall decrease in malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon region. As expected, an increased heterogeneity of malaria indicators was found, which reinforces the notion that a single ...


Subject(s)
Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Topography, Medical
12.
Cad. saúde pública ; 30(7): 1403-1417, 07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720551

ABSTRACT

This open retrospective cohort study aimed to describe the incidence of recurrent Plasmodium vivax malaria and associated factors in Porto Velho, Rondônia State, Brazil, in 2009. Data were collected from the National Information System for Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance. There were 23,365 reported P. vivax malaria cases in 2009, 23% of which were classified as relapses. Incidence density of P. vivax recurrence was 45.1/100 patient-years, mostly occurring between the 4th and 13th week after initiating treatment. Male gender, shorter time since onset of symptoms, and higher parasitemia in the initial infection increased the risk of relapse during the year, with a 10% reduction in relative risk for longer symptoms and 11% and 15% increases in relative risk for males and higher initial parasitemia, respectively. However, the results show low clinical relevance for these associations, thereby limiting their applicability to decision-making at the public health level.


Estudo de coorte histórica aberta, construída com informações registradas no Sistema de Informação de Vigilância Epidemiológica da Malária, com objetivo de descrever a incidência e os fatores associados à recidiva de malária causada pelo Plasmodium vivax em Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brasil. Foram notificados 23.365 casos de malária por P. vivax no município, sendo que 23% deles apresentaram recidiva no decorrer de 2009. A densidade de incidência de recidivas foi de 45,1/100 pacientes-ano, ocorrendo, principalmente, entre a 4a e a 13a semana após o início do tratamento. Ser homem, ter menos tempo de sintomas e ter maior nível de parasitemia na infecção inicial aumentaram o risco de recidiva no decorrer do ano, com 10% de redução relativa do risco para maior tempo de sintomas e de 11% e 15% de incremento relativo do risco para o sexo masculino e maiores níveis de parasitemia, respectivamente. Contudo, os resultados demonstram baixa relevância clínica das associações encontradas, comprometendo a sua aplicabilidade na tomada de decisão em nível de saúde pública.


Estudo de coorte histórica aberta, construída com informações registradas no Sistema de Informação de Vigilância Epidemiológica da Malária, com objetivo de descrever a incidência e os fatores associados à recidiva de malária causada pelo Plasmodium vivax em Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brasil. Foram notificados 23.365 casos de malária por P. vivax no município, sendo que 23% deles apresentaram recidiva no decorrer de 2009. A densidade de incidência de recidivas foi de 45,1/100 pacientes-ano, ocorrendo, principalmente, entre a 4a e a 13a semana após o início do tratamento. Ser homem, ter menos tempo de sintomas e ter maior nível de parasitemia na infecção inicial aumentaram o risco de recidiva no decorrer do ano, com 10% de redução relativa do risco para maior tempo de sintomas e de 11% e 15% de incremento relativo do risco para o sexo masculino e maiores níveis de parasitemia, respectivamente. Contudo, os resultados demonstram baixa relevância clínica das associações encontradas, comprometendo a sua aplicabilidade na tomada de decisão em nível de saúde pública. Recidiva; Plasmodium vivax; Malária.


Estudio de cohorte histórica abierta, construida con información registrada en el Sistema de Información de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de la Malaria, con el objetivo de describir la incidencia y los factores asociados a la reaparición de malaria, causada por el Plasmodium vivax, en Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brasil. Se notificaron 23.365 casos de malaria por P. vivax en el municipio, donde un 23% de ellos presentaron recidiva a lo largo del 2009. La densidad de incidencia de recidivas fue de 45,1/100 pacientes-año, produciéndose, principalmente, entre la 4ª y la 13ª semana tras el inicio del tratamiento. Ser hombre, tener menos tiempo síntomas y tener un mayor nivel de parasitemia en la infección inicial aumentaron el riesgo de recidiva a lo largo del año, con un 10% de reducción relativa del riesgo, para un mayor tiempo de síntomas, y de un 11% y 15% de incremento relativo del riesgo para el sexo masculino y mayores niveles de parasitemia, respectivamente. No obstante, los resultados demostraron baja relevancia clínica de las asociaciones encontradas, comprometiendo su aplicabilidad en la toma de decisiones dentro de la salud pública.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Malaria, Vivax/epidemiology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Educational Status , Incidence , Malaria, Vivax/drug therapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
13.
Rev. eletrônica enferm ; 16(1): 35-43, 20143103. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-832166

ABSTRACT

Estudo exploratório, descritivo, transversal. O objetivo foi estimar a frequência de adesão ao tratamento da malária no distrito de Três Fronteiras, município de Colniza, Mato Grosso, descrevendo os fatores que contribuem para a sua ocorrência. Participaram 27 pacientes selecionados na busca ativa. A coleta de dados foi por meio de entrevista e a medida de adesão ao tratamento deu-se pelo autorrelato e contagem de medicamentos. A frequência de adesão foi de 77,8%. Entre os fatores que contribuíram para a adesão ao tratamento da malária, destacaram-se os relacionados ao paciente, principalmente o desejo de melhorar e a confiança na efetividade dos medicamentos. A frequência de adesão encontrada foi ligeiramente inferior à de outros estudos realizados em regiões endêmicas do país. Concluindo, ações de educação em saúde sobre a necessidade de adesão ao tratamento devem ser enfatizadas e intensificadas para minimizar ou eliminar o abandono de tratamento.


This exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed with the objective to estimate the frequency of adherence to malaria treatment in the Brazilian district of Três Fronteiras, belonging to the municipality of Colniza, in the state of Mato Grosso, and describe the contributing factors. Twenty-seven patients were selected by active search. Interviews were conducted for data collection, and treatment adherence was measured considering the patients' self report and by counting medication. The frequency of adherence was 77.8%. Among the factors that contributed to malaria treatment adherence, those related to the patient, particularly regarding the will to get better and the confidence in the effectiveness of the medication were the most prevalent. The identify adherence frequency rate was lower than that reported in previous studies performed in endemic regions of Brazil. In conclusion, health education actions addressing the importance of treatment adherence must be emphasized and intensified to minimize or eliminate treatment abandonment.


Estudio exploratorio, descriptivo, transversal. Se objetivó estimar la frecuencia de adhesión al tratamiento de la malaria en el distrito de Tres Fronteras, municipio de Colniza, Mato Grosso, describiendo los factores que contribuyen al hecho. Participaron 27 pacientes seleccionados en la búsqueda activa. Datos recolectados mediante entrevista, medida de adhesión al tratamiento establecida por autorrelato y recuento de medicamentos. La frecuencia de adhesión fue del 77,8%. Entre los factores que contribuyeron a la adhesión al tratamiento de la malaria, se destacaron los relativos al paciente; en especial, el deseo de mejorar y la confianza en la efectividad de los medicamentos. La frecuencia de adhesión hallada fue ligeramente inferior a la de otros estudios realizados en regiones endémicas del país. Concluyendo, deben enfatizarse e intensificarse las acciones de educación en salud acerca de la necesidad de adhesión al tratamiento, a fin de minimizar o acabar con el abandono del mismo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/nursing , Medication Adherence
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(1): 21-28, 02/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703648

ABSTRACT

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for the diagnosis of malaria infection are expected to accurately identify submicroscopic parasite carriers. Although a significant number of PCR protocols have been described, few studies have addressed the performance of PCR amplification in cases of field samples with submicroscopic malaria infection. Here, the reproducibility of two well-established PCR protocols (nested-PCR and real-time PCR for the Plasmodium 18 small subunit rRNA gene) were evaluated in a panel of 34 blood field samples from individuals that are potential reservoirs of malaria infection, but were negative for malaria by optical microscopy. Regardless of the PCR protocol, a large variation between the PCR replicates was observed, leading to alternating positive and negative results in 38% (13 out of 34) of the samples. These findings were quite different from those obtained from the microscopy-positive patients or the unexposed individuals; the diagnosis of these individuals could be confirmed based on the high reproducibility and specificity of the PCR-based protocols. The limitation of PCR amplification was restricted to the field samples with very low levels of parasitaemia because titrations of the DNA templates were able to detect < 3 parasites/µL in the blood. In conclusion, conventional PCR protocols require careful interpretation in cases of submicroscopic malaria infection, as inconsistent and false-negative results can occur.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Carrier State/parasitology , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Malaria/parasitology , Plasmodium/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Chi-Square Distribution , Carrier State/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Genes, rRNA/genetics , Microscopy , Malaria/diagnosis , Parasitemia/diagnosis , Parasitemia/parasitology , Plasmodium/classification , Reproducibility of Results , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(1): 110-112, Jan-Feb/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703166

ABSTRACT

Introduction: We evaluated the in vitro antimalarial activity of tigecycline as an alternative drug for the treatment of severe malaria. Methods: A chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum reference strain, a chloroquine-resistant reference strain, and three clinical isolates were tested for in vitro susceptibility to tigecycline. A histidine-rich protein in vitro assay was used to evaluate antimalarial activity. Results: The geometric-mean 50% effective concentration (EC50%) of tigecycline was 535.5 nM (confidence interval (CI): 344.3-726.8). No significant correlation was found between the EC50% of tigecycline and that of any other tested antimalarial drug. Conclusions: Tigecycline may represent an alternative drug for the treatment of patients with severe malaria. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Minocycline/analogs & derivatives , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Proteins/pharmacology , Brazil , Minocycline/pharmacology , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(3): 293-298, May-Jun/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679507

ABSTRACT

Introduction American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) has been reported in every municipality of the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, but the transmission epidemiology remains poorly understood. Our study was developed in a rural area of the Nova Mutum municipality where four autochthonous cases of ACL were reported in 2009. Our aims were to describe the local phlebotomine sandfly fauna and to investigate the infection rates and infecting Leishmania species in the captured sandflies. Methods Entomological captures were performed bimonthly at 10 fixed sites close to the edge of a forested area between June 2011 and April 2012. Results A total of 3,743 phlebotomine sandflies belonging to 31 distinct species were captured. Approximately 75% of the specimens were females. The most abundant species (45.4%) was Lutzomyia antunesi, which was consistently captured at every site. Species that are epidemiologically important for ACL, such as L. flaviscutellata, L. whitmani and L. umbratilis, were also captured. L. antunesi and L. ubiquitalis were naturally infected by Leishmania braziliensis or Le. guyanensis, with minimum infection rates of 0.88% and 6.67%, respectively. Surprisingly, L. antunesi was infected by Le. infantum (synonym chagasi). Conclusions The natural infection of L. antunesi and L. ubiquitalis by Leishmania sp. suggests that these species might play a role in the zoonotic cycle of ACL in Nova Mutum. The presence of Le. infantum in L. antunesi suggests that there may be a risk of an outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Nova Mutum. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Insect Vectors/classification , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Psychodidae/classification , Brazil , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Population Density , Psychodidae/parasitology , Rural Population
17.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 54(1): 5-10, Jan.-Feb. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614889

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A contribution to the regional epidemiological profile of the most common fungal agents in Public Health Services in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, including university hospitals and polyclinics. METHODS: Clinical specimens (n = 1,496) from 1,078 patients were collected, submitted to direct mycological exam (potash or stick tape method) and cultured in specific mediums. Dermatophytic and non-dermatophytic agents were identified according to micromorphology (Ridell technique). RESULTS: The majority of the 1,496 specimens were skin (n = 985) and nail exams (n = 472). Of the 800 positive cultures, 246 (30.8 percent) corresponded to dermatophytes and 336 (42 percent) to yeasts of the genus Candida, 190 (23.7 percent) to other yeasts, 27 (3.4 percent) to non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi and one (0.1 percent) the agent of subcutaneous mycosis. Lesions considered primary occurred in greater numbers (59.5 percent) than recurrent lesions (37.4 percent), with a greater concentration of positivity occurring on the arms and legs. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbidities, allergies and diabetes mellitus were conditions associated with greater positivity in direct mycological exams and cultures. Positive culture was considered a definitive diagnosis of fungal infection and confirmed 47.8 percent of diagnostic hypotheses.


INTRODUÇÃO: Contribuição sobre o perfil epidemiológico regional referente aos agentes fúngicos mais freqüentes nos Serviços de Saúde Pública em Cuiabá-MT, incluindo policlínicas e hospitais universitários. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 1.496 espécimes clínicos colhidos a partir de 1.078 pacientes, os quais foram submetidos ao exame direto (potassa e/ou fita gomada) e cultivos em meios específicos. Os agentes foram identificados segundo micromorfologia (técnica de Ridell). RESULTADOS: Os 1.496 espécimes foram relacionados na maioria a exames de pele (n = 985), e unhas (n = 472). Dos 800 cultivos positivos, 246 (30,8 por cento) corresponderam a dermatófitos, 336 (42 por cento) a leveduras do gênero Candida, 190 (23,7 por cento) a outras leveduras, 27 (3,4 por cento) a fungos filamentosos não dermatofíticos e um (0,1 por cento) a agente de micoses subcutâneas. Lesões consideradas primárias compareceram em maior número (59,5 por cento), comparadas as recidivantes (37,4 por cento). Foi observada maior positividade em membros inferiores e superiores. CONCLUSÕES: Co-morbidades, quadros alérgicos e diabetes mellitus representaram condições associadas à maior positividade em exames micológicos diretos e cultivos. O cultivo positivo foi considerado como diagnóstico definitivo de infecção fúngica, e confirmou 47,8 por cento de hipóteses diagnósticas.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Dermatomycoses/diagnosis , Dermatomycoses/epidemiology , Hair/microbiology , Nails/microbiology , Recurrence , Risk Factors , Skin/microbiology
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(supl.1): 27-33, Aug. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597241

ABSTRACT

Reliable molecular markers are essential for a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax, which is a neglected human malaria parasite. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of P. vivax isolates from the Brazilian Amazon using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the highly polymorphic merozoite surface protein-3alpha (PvMSP-3α) gene. To accomplish this, 60 isolates of P. vivax from different endemic areas in the Brazilian Amazon were collected. The PvMSP-3α gene was amplified by nested-PCR. Three major types of the PvMSP-3α locus were detected at different frequencies: type A (68 percent), B (15 percent) and C (17 percent). A single sample showed two PCR fragments, which corresponded to infection with types A and C. PCR-RFLP analysis using the HhaI restriction enzyme for 52 isolates clearly identified 11 haplotypes, eight of which were from type A, two from type B and only one from type C. Seven other isolates did not show a clear pattern using PCR-RFLP. This result might be due to multiple clone infections. This study showed a high diversity of the PvMSP-3α gene among P. vivax isolates from the Brazilian Amazon, but also indicated that the detection performance of PCR-RFLP of the PvMSP-3α gene may not be sufficient to detect multiple clone infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigens, Protozoan , Genetic Variation , Plasmodium vivax , Protozoan Proteins , Brazil , Genetic Markers , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Plasmodium vivax
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 105(1): 62-65, Feb. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-539297

ABSTRACT

This study is the first report on genetic differences between isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from a single patient. We describe a simultaneous infection with genetically distinct isolates of P. brasiliensis in a patient with chronic paracoccidioidomycosis. The clinical isolates were obtained from lesions in different anatomical sites and were characterised by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The RAPD technique can be helpful for distinguishing between clinical isolates. Different random primers were used to characterise these clinical isolates. The RAPD patterns allowed for differentiation between isolates and the construction of a phenetic tree, which showed more than 28 percent genetic variability in this fungal species, opening new possibilities for clinical studies of P. brasiliensis. Based on these results and preliminary clinical findings, we suggest that different genotypes of P. brasiliensis might infect the same patient, inducing the active form of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , DNA, Fungal/analysis , Paracoccidioides/genetics , Paracoccidioidomycosis/microbiology , Chronic Disease , Genotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Paracoccidioides/classification , Paracoccidioides/isolation & purification , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 42(6): 661-665, Dec. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-539514

ABSTRACT

Foram avaliados 37 isolados de 10 pacientes HIV negativos e 26 positivos, em Mato Grosso. Exame direto, cultura e quimiotipagem de espécies foram realizados. Cetoconazol, itraconazol, voriconazol, fluconazol e anfotericina B foram avaliados. Foram identificadas 37 leveduras do gênero Cryptococcus spp sendo 26 de pacientes HIV- positivos (25 Cryptococcus neoformans e um Cryptococcus gattii) e 10 de HIV- negativos (cinco Cryptococcus neoformans e cinco Cryptococcus gattii). Considerando isolados clínicos (Cryptococcus neoformans) de HIV positivos observou-se resistência (8 por cento e 8,7 por cento) e susceptibilidade dose-dependência (20 por cento e 17,4 por cento) para fluconazol e itraconazol respectivamente. Para isolados de Cryptococcus neoformans oriundos de pacientes HIV negativos, observou-se susceptibilidade dose-dependência (40 por cento) ao fluconazol. Os isolados de Cryptococcus gattii provenientes de pacientes HIV- negativos mostraram-se susceptíveis a todos os antifúngicos, exceto um isolado de Cryptococcus gattii que foi susceptível dose-dependente ao fluconazol (20 por cento). O isolado proveniente do paciente HIV- positivo demonstrou resistência ao fluconazol (CIM > 256µg/mL) e itraconazol (CIM=3µg/mL).


Thirty-seven isolates from 10 HIV-negative and 26 HIV-positive patients in Mato Grosso were evaluated. Direct examination, culturing and chemotyping of species were performed. Ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole and amphotericin B were evaluated. Thirty-seven yeasts of Cryptococcus spp were identified, of which 26 were from HIV-positive patients (25 Cryptococcus neoformans and one Cryptococcus gattii) and 10 from HIV-negative patients (five Cryptococcus neoformans and five Cryptococcus gattii). The Cryptococcus neoformans clinical isolates from HIV-positive patients showed resistance (8 percent and 8.7 percent) and dose-dependent susceptibility (20 percent and 17.4 percent) to fluconazole and itraconazole, respectively. Among the Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from HIV-negative patients, there was dose-dependent susceptibility (40 percent) to fluconazole. Cryptococcus gattii isolates from HIV-negative patients were shown to be susceptible to all antifungal agents, except for one isolate of Cryptococcus gattii that showed dose-dependent susceptibility to fluconazole (20 percent). The Cryptococcus gattii isolate from an HIV-positive patient showed resistance to fluconazole (MIC > 256 »g/ml) and itraconazole (MIC = 3 »g/ml).


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Cryptococcus gattii/drug effects , Cryptococcus neoformans/drug effects , Cryptococcus gattii/genetics , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phenotype , Prospective Studies
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL