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Autops. Case Rep ; 10(3): e2020202, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131837


Radiation-induced brachial plexus neuropathy (RIBPN) is a rare and delayed non-traumatic injury to the brachial plexus, which occurs following radiation therapy to the chest wall, neck, and/or axilla in previously treated patients with cancer. The incidence of RIBPN is more common in patients treated for carcinoma of the breast and Hodgkin lymphoma. With the improvement in radiation techniques, the incidence of injury to the brachial plexus following radiotherapy has dramatically reduced. The currently reported incidence is 1.2% in women irradiated for breast cancer. The progression of symptoms is gradual in about two-thirds of cases; the patients may initially present with paresthesia followed by pain, and later progress to motor weakness in the affected limb. We present the case of a 68-year-old female patient with breast cancer submitted to surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy in the year 2000. Eighteen years later, she developed symptoms and signs compatible with RIBPN and was successfully submitted to omentoplasty for pain control. Omentoplasty is an alternative treatment for RIBPN refractory to conservative treatment, which seems to be effective in improving neuropathic pain. However, postoperative worsening of the motor strength is a real possibility, and all candidates for this type of surgery must be informed about the risk of this complication.

Humans , Female , Aged , Radiation Injuries/therapy , Brachial Plexus Neuropathies/therapy , Pain, Intractable/etiology , Postoperative Complications , Neurosurgery
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 37(4): 285-290, 15/12/2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362679


Objective To present the functional outcomes of distal nerve transfer techniques for restoration of elbow flexion after upper brachial plexus injury. Method The files of 78 adult patients with C5, C6, C7 lesions were reviewed. The attempt to restore elbow flexion was made by intraplexus distal nerve transfers using a fascicle of the ulnar nerve (group A, n » 43), or a fascicle of themedian nerve (group B, n » 16) or a combination of both (group C, n » 19). The result of the treatment was defined based on the British Medical Research Council grading system: muscle strength < M3 was considered a poor result. Results The global incidence of good/excellent results with these nerve transfers was 80.7%, and for different surgical techniques (groups A, B, C), it was 86%, 56.2% and 100% respectively. Patients submitted to ulnar nerve transfer or double transfer (ulnar þ median fascicles transfer) had a better outcome than those submitted to median nerve transfer alone (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the outcome of ulnar transfer and double transfer. Conclusion In cases of traumatic injury of the upper brachial plexus, good and excelent results in the restoration of elbow flexion can be obtained using distal nerve transfers.

Ulnar Nerve/transplantation , Nerve Transfer/rehabilitation , Nerve Transfer/statistics & numerical data , Elbow Joint , Median Nerve/transplantation , Medical Records , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Nerve Transfer/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Brachial Plexus Neuropathies/surgery
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(11): 796-800, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888274


ABSTRACT Objective: Restoration of the sensitivity to sensory stimuli in complete brachial plexus injury is very important. The objective of our study was to evaluate sensory recovery in brachial plexus surgery using the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) as the donor. Methods: Eleven patients underwent sensory reconstruction using the ICBN as a donor to the lateral cord contribution to the median nerve, with a mean follow-up period of 41 months. A protocol evaluation was performed. Results: Four patients perceived the 1-green filament. The 2-blue, 3-purple and 4-red filaments were perceptible in one, two and three patients, respectively. According to Highet's scale, sensation recovered to S3 in two patients, to S2+ in two patients, to S2 in six patients, and S0 in one patient. Conclusion: The procedure using the ICBN as a sensory donor restores good intensity of sensation and shows good results in location of perception in patients with complete brachial plexus avulsion.

RESUMO Objetivo: A restauração da sensibilidade em pacientes com lesão completa do plexo braquial é muito importante. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a recuperação sensitiva em cirurgia do plexo braquial utilizando o nervo intercostobraquial (NICB) como doador. Métodos: Onze pacientes foram submetidos a reconstrução sensitiva usando o NICB como doador para a contribuição lateral do nervo mediano, com tempo de acompanhamento pós-operatório médio de 41 meses. Um protocolo de avaliação foi realizado. Resultados: Quatro pacientes perceberam o filamento 1-verde. Os filamentos 2-azul, 3-roxo e 4-vermelho foram percebidos por um, dois e três pacientes, respectivamente. Um paciente não apresentou recuperação sensitiva. Dois pacientes obtiveram recuperação S3, dois S2+, seis S2 e um S0, pela escala de Highet. Conclusão: O procedimento usando o NICB como doador promove boa intensidade de recuperação sensitiva e bons resultados são obtidos quanto ao local de percepção em pacientes com avulsão completa do plexo braquial.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Brachial Plexus/surgery , Brachial Plexus/injuries , Nerve Transfer/methods , Hand/surgery , Intercostal Nerves/transplantation , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Recovery of Function , Hand/physiology , Nerve Regeneration
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(9): 667-670, Sept. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888326


ABSTRACT The treatment of complete post-traumatic brachial plexus palsy resulting in a flail shoulder and upper extremity remains a challenge to peripheral nerve surgeons. The option of upper limb amputation is controversial and scarcely discussed in the literature. We believe that elective amputation still has a role in the treatment of select cases. The pros and cons of the procedure should be intensely discussed with the patient by a multidisciplinary team. Better outcomes are usually achieved in active patients who strongly advocate for the procedure.

RESUMO O tratamento das paralisias completas após lesões traumáticas do plexo braquial que resultam em um membro superior completamente paralisado permanecem como um desafio aos cirurgiões de nervos periféricos. A opção de amputar o membro superior é controversa e raramente discutida na literatura. Acreditamos que a amputação eletiva ainda tem utilidade no tratamento de casos selecionados. Os prós e contras do procedimento devem ser intensamente discutidos com o paciente por uma equipe multidisciplinar. Os melhores resultados são geralmente obtidos em pacientes atuantes que reivindicam vigorosamente o procedimento.

Humans , Male , Arm/surgery , Brachial Plexus/surgery , Plastic Surgery Procedures/methods , Amputation, Surgical/methods , Pain Measurement , Brachial Plexus/injuries , Elective Surgical Procedures , Brachial Plexus Neuropathies , Upper Extremity
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(7): 439-445, July 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888293


ABSTRACT Objective Few donors are available for restoration of sensibility in patients with complete brachial plexus injuries. The objective of our study was to evaluate the anatomical feasibility of using the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) as an axon donor to the lateral cord contribution to the median nerve (LCMN). Methods Thirty cadavers were dissected. Data of the ICBN and the LCMN were collected, including diameters, branches and distances. Results The diameters of the ICBN and the LCMN at their point of coaptation were 2.7mm and 3.7mm, respectively. The ICBN originated as a single trunk in 93.3% of the specimens and bifurcated in 73.3%. The distance between the ICBN origin and its point of coaptation to the LCMN was 54mm. All ICBNs had enough extension to reach the LCMN. Conclusion Transfer of the ICBN to the LCMN is anatomically feasible and may be useful for restoring sensation in patients with complete brachial plexus injuries.

RESUMO Objetivo Poucos doadores estão disponíveis para a restauração da sensibilidade em pacientes com lesões completas do plexo braquial (LCPB). O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a viabilidade anatômica do uso do nervo intercostobraquial (NICB) como doador de axônios para a contribuição do cordão lateral para o nervo mediano (CLNM). Métodos Trinta cadáveres foram dissecados. Os dados do NICB e do CLNM foram coletados: diâmetros, ramos e distâncias. Resultados Os diâmetros do NICB e da CLNM no ponto de coaptação foram 2,7mm e 3,7mm, respectivamente. O NICB originou-se como um único tronco em 93,3% dos espécimes e bifurcou-se em 73,3%. A distância entre a origem do NICB e seu ponto de coaptação com a CLNM foi de 54mm. Todos os NICBs tiveram extensão suficiente para alcançar a CLNM. Conclusão A transferência do NICB para a CLNM é anatomicamente viável e pode ser útil para restaurar a sensibilidade em pacientes com LCPB.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brachial Plexus/injuries , Nerve Transfer/methods , Intercostal Nerves/transplantation , Sensation , Brachial Plexus/surgery , Cadaver , Feasibility Studies , Intercostal Nerves/anatomy & histology
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 34(2): 128-133, jun. 2015. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1781


A síndrome do túnel cubital é responsável pela neuropatia do nervo ulnar, sendo superada em frequência apenas pela síndrome do túnel do carpo. O nervo ulnar apresenta anatomia complexa podendo sofrer compressão em distintos pontos ao longo de seu trajeto, por isso o entendimento das nuances clínicas e da anatomia pormenorizada assim como da técnica cirúrgica meticulosa torna-se essencial no tratamento desta patologia.

The cubital tunnel syndrome is responsible for the ulnar nerve neuropathy, this condition is surpassed in frequency only by carpal tunnel syndrome. The ulnar nerve has complex anatomy andmay suffer compression at different points along its path, so understanding the clinical nuances and detailed anatomy as well asmeticulous surgical technique becomes essential in the treatment of this pathology.

Humans , Cubital Tunnel Syndrome/surgery , Cubital Tunnel Syndrome/diagnosis , Cubital Tunnel Syndrome/therapy , Ulnar Nerve/anatomy & histology
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 70(8): 590-592, Aug. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-645369


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of absent thumb pain sensation in newborns and young infants with birth brachial plexopathy. METHODS: We evaluated 131 patients with birth brachial plexopathy with less than two months of age. Pain sensation was evoked by thumb nail bed compression to evaluate sensory fibers of the upper trunk (C6). The patients were followed-up monthly. Patients with less than antigravity elbow flexion at six months of age were considered to have a poor outcome. RESULTS: Thirty patients had absent thumb pain sensation, from which 26 showed a poor outcome. Sensitivity of the test was 65% and specificity was 96%. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of thumb pain sensation should be included in the clinical assessment of infants with birth brachial plexopathy.

OBJETIVO: Avaliar o valor prognóstico da hipoestesia dolorosa no polegar em recém-nascidos e lactentes jovens com plexopatia braquial obstétrica. MÉTODOS: Avaliamos 131 pacientes com plexopatia braquial obstétrica com menos de dois meses de idade. A sensação dolorosa foi provocada pela compressão do leito ungueal do polegar para avaliar fibras sensitivas do tronco superior (C6). Os pacientes foram seguidos mensalmente. Prognóstico desfavorável foi atribuído aos pacientes sem força antigravitacional para flexão do cotovelo aos seis meses de idade. RESULTADOS: Trinta pacientes apresentaram hipoestesia dolorosa do polegar, dos quais 26 tiveram prognóstico desfavorável. A sensibilidade do teste foi de 65% e a especificidade 96%. CONCLUSÃO: A avaliação da sensibilidade dolorosa do polegar deve ser incluída na avaliação clínica de pacientes com plexopatia braquial obstétrica.

Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Birth Injuries/physiopathology , Brachial Plexus Neuropathies/diagnosis , Brachial Plexus/injuries , Hypesthesia/diagnosis , Pain Threshold/physiology , Thumb/physiopathology , Birth Injuries/complications , Brachial Plexus Neuropathies/physiopathology , Brachial Plexus/physiopathology , Elbow Joint/physiology , Prognosis , Range of Motion, Articular , Sensitivity and Specificity
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 70(7): 514-519, July 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-642976


Desmoid-type fibromatosis is an uncommon and aggressive neoplasia, associated with a high rate of recurrence. It is characterized by an infiltrative but benign fibroblastic proliferation occurring within the deep soft tissues. There is no consensus about the treatment of those tumors. We present a surgical series of four cases, involving the brachial plexus (two cases), the median nerve and the medial brachial cutaneous nerve. Except for the last case, they were submitted to multiple surgical procedures and showed repeated recurrences. The diagnosis, the different ways of treatment and the prognosis of these tumoral lesions are discussed. Our results support the indication of radical surgery followed by radiotherapy as probably one of the best ways to treat those controversial lesions.

A fibromatose do tipo desmoide é uma lesão tumoral agressiva e rara, associada a alto índice de recorrência. É caracterizada pela fibroblástica infiltrativa, porém benigna, que ocorre no interior de tecidos moles profundos. Não existe consenso com relação ao tratamento desses tumores. Apresentamos uma série cirúrgica de quatro casos comprometendo o plexo braquial (dois casos), o nervo mediano e o nervo cutâneo medial do braço. Com exceção do último caso, todos foram submetidos a múltiplos procedimentos cirúrgicos e apresentaram recorrências repetidas. São discutidos o diagnóstico, as diferentes formas de tratamento e o prognóstico dessas lesões tumorais. Nossos resultados apoiam o conceito de que cirurgia radical seguida por radioterapia é uma das melhores formas de se tratar essas controvertidas lesões.

Adult , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Fibromatosis, Aggressive/surgery , Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms/surgery , Brachial Plexus , Fibromatosis, Aggressive/diagnosis , Median Nerve , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms/diagnosis
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 69(4): 666-669, Aug. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-596834


Lesions of lumbar plexus are uncommon and descriptions of surgical access are derived from vertebral spine approaches. METHOD: The extraperitoneal anterolateral approach to the lumbar plexus was performed in six adult fresh cadavers. The difficulties on dissection were related. RESULTS: An exposure of all distal elements of lumbar plexus was possible, but a cranial extension of the incision was needed to reach the iliohypogastric nerve in all cases. Ligation of vessels derived from common iliac artery was necessary for genitofemoral and obturator nerves exposure in two cases. The most proximal part of the lumbar roots could be identified only after dissection and clipping of most lumbar vessels. CONCLUSION: The extraperitoneal anterolateral approach allows appropriate exposure of terminal nerves of lumbar plexus laterallly to psoas major muscle. Cranial extension of the cutaneous incision may be necessary for exposure of iliohypogastric nerve. Roots exposure increases the risk of vascular damage.

As lesões do plexo lombar são incomuns e as descrições dos acessos cirúrgicos são derivadas de vias de acesso à coluna vertebral. MÉTODO: A via extraperitoneal anterolateral foi realizada em seis cadáveres para o acesso ao plexo lombar. Eventuais dificuldades na dissecção foram relatadas. RESULTADOS: Tal acesso permitiu a exposição dos elementos distais do plexo lombar, mas uma extensão cranial da incisão foi necessária para a exposição do nervo iliohipogástrico. Para a exposição dos nervos genitofemoral e obturador houve a necessidade da ligadura de vasos originados da artéria ilíaca comum em 2 casos. As raízes foram identificadas somente após dissecção e ligadura dos vasos lombares. CONCLUSÃO: O acesso anterolateral extraperitoneal permite uma exposição adequada dos nervos terminais do plexo lombar lateralmente ao músculo psoas maior. Uma extensão cranial da incisão pode ser necessária para exposição do nervo iliohipogástrico. A exposição das raízes implica em maior risco de lesão vascular.

Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Lumbosacral Plexus/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Lumbosacral Region/anatomy & histology , Lumbosacral Region/innervation , Lumbosacral Region/surgery , Psoas Muscles/innervation , Psoas Muscles/surgery
RBM rev. bras. med ; 68(1/2)jan.-fev. 2011.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-583284


Hidrocefalia é uma complicação comum da hemorragia subaracnoidea (HSA) por ruptura de aneurisma e, de acordo com o tempo de aparecimento após o sangramento, pode ser classificada em aguda, subaguda ou crônica. A entidade clínica da hidrocefalia crônica após a HSA está bem estabelecida, porém suas características clínicas e fatores correlacionados são controversos. Os autores discutem sobre os fatores preditivos para hidrocefalia crônica em pacientes com hemorragia subaracnoidea por ruptura de aneurisma e sua correlação com a presença de sangue no líquor, quantidade de sangue visualizada à tomografia após a hemorragia, localização do aneurisma, o efeito de uma drenagem liquórica contínua, ocorrência de hidrocefalia aguda, grau de hemorragia subaracnoidea (classificação de Fisher), o efeito da drenagem das cisternas, alterações na circulação liquórica, ocorrência de vasoespasmo, dentre outros.

Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 68(1): 115-118, Feb. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-541200


Fusiform and dolichoectatic aneurysms are challenging lesions to treat with direct clipping. Treatment of these aneurysms often requires alternative surgical strategies, including extracranial-intracranial bypass, wrapping, or clip-wrap techniques. Nonetheless, these alternatives methods of treatment have been underused and frequently overlooked. Objective: To report a series of nine cases of otherwise untreatable aneurysms managed using the clip-wrap technique and discuss its surgical nuances. Method: In the last four years, 9 cases of ruptured aneurysms treated by the clip-wrap techniques were identified in the Division of Neurological Surgery, University of São Paulo, School of Medicine. Results: The aneurysms were located at middle cerebral artery (2), anterior choroidal artery (1), anterior communicating artery (1), carotid ophthalmic (3), posterior cerebral artery (1) and posterior-inferior cerebellar artery (1). Three were dolichoectatic, 4 were unsuitable to complete surgical clipping because parent or efferent vessels arises from the aneurysm sac (1 MCA, 1 AcomA, 1 CO, 1 PICA aneurysms) and two, although ruptured aneurysms, were too small (<2mm) to be directly clipped. No early or late rebleeding was observed after 2 years mean follow-up. One patient deceased due to pulmonary tromboembolism. Conclusion: Clip-wrap techniques for the treatment of fusiform and otherwise unclippable aneurysms seem to be safe and it can be associated with a low rate of acute or delayed postoperative complications. It can prevent rebleeding and represents an improvement when compared with the natural history.

Aneurismas fusiformes são lesões de difícil tratamento e frequentemente necessitam de técnicas alternativas de tratamento, incluindo anastomose extra-intracranial ou técnicas de "clip-wrap". Contudo o uso destas técnicas é frequentemente esquecido e negligenciado. Objetivo: Descrever retrospectivamente casuística de nove casos de aneurismas não clipáveis tratados com a técnicas de "clip-wrap" e discutir as nuances cirúrgicas. Resultados: Revisão dos últimos quatro anos da casuística da Divisão de Clínica Neurocirúrgica do HCFMUSP mostrou que 384 casos eram de aneurismas rotos. Destes, 9 eram de aneurismas não clipáveis tratados com a técnica de "clip-wrap". Destes, 2 aneurismas eram de artéria cerebral media, 1 de artéria coroidéia anterior, 1 de artéria comunicante anterior, 3 de artéria oftálmica, 1 de artéria cerebral posterior e 1 de PICA. Três eram lesões ectásicas, 4 não puderam ser completamente clipados devido a relação de aneurismas com vasos eferentes, aferentes ou perfurantes, e dois, apesar de rotos eram pequenos demais para serem clipados (<2,0 mm). Sangramento precoce ou tardio não foram observados, em um seguimento médio de 2 anos. Conclusão: A técnica descrita é segura e está associada com baixa incidência de complicações agudas ou tardias. Ela previne ressangramanto e representa um avanço em relação à história natural destas lesões.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aneurysm, Ruptured/surgery , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Neurosurgical Procedures/instrumentation , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome