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Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 48, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1289985


ABSTRACT Interrupted time series analyses were conducted to measure the impact of social distancing policies (instituted on March 22, 2020) and of subsequent mandatory masking in the community (instituted on May 4, 2020) on the incidence and effective reproductive number of COVID-19 in São Paulo State, Brazil. Overall, the impact of social distancing both on incidence and Rt was greater than the incremental effect of mandatory masking. Those findings may reflect either a small impact of face masking or the loosening of social distancing after mandatory use of masks.

Humans , COVID-19 , Brazil , Basic Reproduction Number , SARS-CoV-2 , Masks
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(5): 373-379, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142559


Abstract Background Infection control interventions can be erroneously interpreted if outcomes are assessed in short periods. Also, statistical methods usually applied to compare outcomes before and after interventions are not appropriate for analyzing time series. Aims To analyze the impact of a bundle directed at reducing the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and other device-associated infections in two medical-surgical intensive care units (ICU) in Brazil. Methods Our study had a quasi-experimental design. Interrupted time series analyses (ITS) was performed assessing monthly rates of overall healthcare-associated infections (HCAI), VAP, laboratory-confirmed central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), from January 2007 through June 2019. Moreover, multivariate ITS was adjusted for seasonality in Poisson regression models. An intervention based on a bundle for VAP prevention was introduced in August 2010. Findings The intervention was followed by sustained reduction in overall HCAI, VAP and CLABSI in both ICU. Continuous post-intervention trends towards reduction were detected for overall HCAI and VAP. Conclusion Interventions aimed at preventing one specific site of infection may have sustained impact on other HCAI, which can be documented using time series analyses.

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200527, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136904


Abstract Even though most current recommendations include the general use of masks to prevent community transmission of SARS-Cov-2, the effectiveness of this measure is still debated. The studies on this policy include physical filtering tests with inanimate microparticles, randomized clinical trials, observational studies, ecological analyses, and even computational modeling of epidemics. Much of the so-called evidence is inferred from studies on different respiratory viruses and epidemiological settings. Heterogeneity is a major factor limiting the generalization of inferences. In this article, we reviewed the empirical and rational bases of mask use and how to understand these recommendations compared to other policies of social distancing, restrictions on non-essential services, and lockdown. We conclude that recent studies suggest a synergistic effect of the use of masks and social distancing rather than opposing effects of the two recommendations. Developing social communication approaches that clarify the need to combine different strategies is a challenge for public health authorities.

Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/instrumentation , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Masks , Coronavirus Infections , Betacoronavirus
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200475, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136874


Abstract Two decades ago, Robert Proctor coined the term agnotology to refer to the study of ignorance that stems from scientific research. Amid the coronavirus disease pandemic, the world is witnessing the greatest natural experiment ever, and countries have adopted different response strategies. An evaluation of the effectiveness of different policies will play a valuable role in preparing for future public health emergencies. However, controversial issues such as the timing and pathways of viral emergence, the effectiveness of social distancing and lockdown strategies, and the use of antimalarial drugs as therapy have still not been fully resolved. This serves as a fertile breeding ground for agnotological strategies, whereby scientific studies are deliberately or unintentionally designed to create distractions or draw conclusions that are not supported by research findings. Researchers, public health authorities, and healthcare workers should be equipped to identify such agnotological strategies, distinguish them from scientific fraud, and avoid drawing misleading inferences based on an irrational adherence to hypotheses and a lack of criticism of implausible results.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Research Design , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Scientific Misconduct , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(2): 99-105, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951629


ABSTRACT Introduction: Staphylococcus spp. - both S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA) and coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) - are relevant agents of healthcare-associated infections. Therefore, the rapid recognition of MRSA and methicillin-resistant CoNS from blood stream infections is critically important for patient management. It is worth noting that inappropriate empiric therapy has been associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Material and methods: In this study we evaluated a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (multiplex PCR) standardized to detect Staphylococcus spp., S. aureus, and mecA gene-encoded oxacillin resistance directly from blood culture bottles. A total of 371 blood cultures with Gram-positive microorganisms confirmed by Gram-stain were analyzed. Results from multiplex PCR were compared to phenotypic characterization of isolates. Results: Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 85 (23.0%) blood cultures and CoNS in 286 (77.0%). There was 100% agreement between phenotypic and multiplex PCR identification. Forty-three (50.6%) of the 85 S. aureus carried the mecA gene and among the 286 CoNS, 225 (78.7%) were positive for the mecA gene. Conclusions: The multiplex PCR assay developed here was found to be sensitive, specific, rapid, and showed good agreement with the phenotypic results besides being less expensive. This PCR method could be used in clinical laboratories for rapid identification and initiation of specific and effective treatment, reducing patient mortality and morbidity. Furthermore, this method may reduce misuse of antimicrobial classes that are more expensive and toxic, thus contributing to the selection of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus spp.

Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Blood/microbiology , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Penicillin-Binding Proteins/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Oxacillin/pharmacology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Bacteremia/microbiology , Penicillin-Binding Proteins/isolation & purification , Blood Culture , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(6): 833-838, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041437


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Wounds can be colonized by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). METHODS: We evaluated the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in the wounds of patients treated at Basic Health Units in Brazil and identified risk factors associated with their presence. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of S. aureus and MRSA were 51.5% and 8.7%, respectively. There was a correlation between the presence of S. aureus in wounds and nostrils (p<0.01). A positive association was detected between S. aureus infection and previous benzylpenicillin use (p=0.02). No associations were observed for MRSA. CONCLUSIONS: Multidrug-resistant pathogens are present in primary healthcare settings in Brazil.

Humans , Male , Female , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Wounds and Injuries/microbiology , Primary Health Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(3): 182-187, Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841777


BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a disease that affects many countries around the world, including Brazil. Recently, a subtype of Latin American-Mediterranean family strain was identified and characterised by RDRio. The strain has been associated with different characteristics of the disease. OBJECTIVES In the present study we investigated the association of epidemiological, clinical, radiological and bacteriological variables with pulmonary tuberculosis caused by RDRioMycobacterium tuberculosis strain in large regions of São Paulo. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study in 530 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, diagnosed using sputum culture, from two regions of the São Paulo state in Brazil. The samples were brought to São Paulo reference laboratories for epidemiological, clinical, radiological and bacteriological analyses, and the data were obtained from a TB notification system. RDRio genotyping and Spoligotyping of the samples were performed. For the analysis of the categorical variables we used the chi-square test or the Fisher’s exact test, and for the continuous variables, the Mann-Whitney test. In addition, a logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Differences with p < 0.05 were considered significant. FINDINGS The RDRio deletion was identified in 152 (28.7%) samples. In the univariate analysis, both the age groups above 25 years and alcohol consumption were associated with the RDRio deletion. The multivariate analysis confirmed the association of the RDRio deletion with the age groups: 25-35 years old [OR: 2.28 (1.02-5.07; p = 0.04)] and 36-60 years old (OR: 2.36 (1.11-5.05); p = 0.03], and also with alcohol consumption [OR: 1.63 (1.05-2.54); p = 0,03]. MAIN CONCLUSIONS In this study, we identified new factors associated with the M. tuberculosis of the RDRio deletion strains infection.

Adult , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Bacterial Typing Techniques
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 51: 119, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903238


ABSTRACT To summarize the historical events and drivers underlying public policy for the prevention and control of healthcare-associated infections in Brazil and in the United Kingdom. In doing so, the article aims to identify lessons and recommendations for future development of public policy. The analysis is based on a historical overview of national healthcare-associated infections programs taken from previously published sources. Findings highlight how the development of healthcare-associated infections prevention and control policies followed similar trajectories in Brazil and the United Kingdom. This can be conceptualized around four sequential phases: Formation, Consolidation, Standardization, and Monitoring and Evaluation. However, while we identified similar phases of development in Brazil and the United Kingdom, it can be seen that the former entered each stage around 20 years after the latter.

Humans , Public Health Administration , Public Policy , Cross Infection/prevention & control , National Health Programs , Brazil/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Cross Infection/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Health Policy
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 50(1): 43-49, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-776512


Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify the occurrence of surgical site infection (SSI) and its risk factors in patients undergoing colon surgery in a tertiary hospital located in the countryside of the state of São Paulo. METHOD Retrospective cohort study, with collection of information contained in the medical records of patients undergoing colon surgery in the period between January 2010 and December 2013. The studied variables were the possible risk factors related to the patient, to demographic characteristics and the surgical procedure. RESULTS In total, were evaluated 155 patients with an overall SSI incidence of 16.7%. A statistically significant association was found both in the univariate as in the multivariate analysis between the SSI and the following variables: male gender, Charlson index and mechanical bowel preparation. CONCLUSION The understanding of health professionals about the factors that influence the incidence of SSI in colon surgery may contribute to the quality of care provided to surgical patients, from effective actions to minimize the risk of infections.

Resumen OBJETIVO Identificar la ocurrencia de infección de sitio quirúrgico (ISQ) y sus factores de riesgo en pacientes sometidos a cirugías de colon, en un hospital terciario del interior del Estado de São Paulo. MÉTODO Estudio de cohorte no concurrente, mediante relevamiento de informaciones contenidas en las fichas de pacientes sometidos a cirugías de colon en el período comprendido entre enero de 2010 y diciembre de 2013. Las variables estudiadas fueron los posibles factores de riesgo vinculados con el paciente, los rasgos demográficos y el procedimiento quirúrgico. RESULTADOS Fueron evaluados 155 pacientes, con una incidencia global de ISQ del 16,7%. Se encontró asociación estadísticamente significativa tanto en el análisis univariado como en el multivariado entre la ISQ y las siguientes variables: sexo masculino, puntuación de Charlson y preparación mecánica intestinal. CONCLUSIÓN La comprensión de los profesionales de la salud acerca de los factores que influencian la incidencia de ISQ en las cirugías de colon puede contribuir a la calidad de la asistencia prestada al paciente quirúrgico mediante acciones efectivas que minimicen los riesgos de infecciones.

Resumo OBJETIVO Identificar a ocorrência de infecção de sítio cirúrgico (ISC) e seus fatores de risco em pacientes submetidos a cirurgias de cólon, em um hospital terciário do interior paulista. MÉTODO Estudo de coorte não concorrente, por meio do levantamento de informações contidas nos prontuários de pacientes submetidos a cirurgias de cólon no período compreendido entre janeiro de 2010 e dezembro de 2013. As variáveis estudadas foram os possíveis fatores de risco ligados ao paciente, às características demográficas e ao procedimento cirúrgico. RESULTADOS Foram avaliados 155 pacientes, com uma incidência global de ISC de 16,7%. Encontrou-se associação estatisticamente significativa tanto na análise uni quanto na multivariada entre a ISC e as seguintes variáveis: sexo masculino, pontuação de Charlson e preparo mecânico intestinal. CONCLUSÃO A compreensão dos profissionais de saúde sobre os fatores que influenciam a incidência de ISC nas cirurgias de cólon pode contribuir para a qualidade da assistência prestada ao paciente cirúrgico a partir de ações efetivas que minimizem os riscos de infecções.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Colon/surgery , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
Rev. saúde pública ; 49: 1-7, 27/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742282


OBJECTIVE To evaluate if temperature and humidity influenced the etiology of bloodstream infections in a hospital from 2005 to 2010. METHODS The study had a case-referent design. Individual cases of bloodstream infections caused by specific groups or pathogens were compared with several references. In the first analysis, average temperature and humidity values for the seven days preceding collection of blood cultures were compared with an overall “seven-days moving average” for the study period. The second analysis included only patients with bloodstream infections. Several logistic regression models were used to compare different pathogens and groups with respect to the immediate weather parameters, adjusting for demographics, time, and unit of admission. RESULTS Higher temperatures and humidity were related to the recovery of bacteria as a whole (versus fungi) and of gram-negative bacilli. In the multivariable models, temperature was positively associated with the recovery of gram-negative bacilli (OR = 1.14; 95%CI 1.10;1.19) or Acinetobacter baumannii (OR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.16;1.37), even after adjustment for demographic and admission data. An inverse association was identified for humidity. CONCLUSIONS The study documented the impact of temperature and humidity on the incidence and etiology of bloodstream infections. The results correspond with those from ecological studies, indicating a higher incidence of gram-negative bacilli during warm seasons. These findings should guide policies directed at preventing and controlling healthcare-associated infections. .

OBJETIVO Avaliar se temperatura e umidade influenciam a etiologia das infecções na corrente sanguínea em hospital, no período de 2005 a 2010. MÉTODOS O estudo teve delineamento caso-referência. Casos individuais de infecções de corrente sanguínea por patógenos ou grupos de interesse foram comparados com diferentes referências. Na primeira etapa, valores médios de temperatura e umidade, para os sete dias que precederam a coleta de culturas de sangue, foram comparados com a “média-móvel de ordem 7” para todos os dias do período do estudo. A segunda etapa incluiu somente os casos com culturas positivas. Foram realizadas análises por regressão logística para avaliar a influência dos parâmetros meteorológicos imediatos sobre a etiologia dessas infecções, ajustando os resultados para dados demográficos, tempo e unidade de internação. RESULTADOS Temperatura e umidade mais elevadas foram associadas às infecções de corrente sanguínea causadas por bactérias como um todo (versus fungos) e por bacilos Gram-negativos. Nos modelos multivariados, a temperatura foi positivamente associada com o isolamento nas culturas de bacilos Gram-negativos (OR = 1,14; IC95% 1,10;1,19) ou A. baumannii (OR = 1,26; IC95% 1,16;1,37), mesmo após ajuste para dados demográficos e de internação. Associação inversa foi identificada por umidade. CONCLUSÕES O estudo documentou o impacto de temperatura e umidade sobre incidência e etiologia de infecções da corrente sanguínea. Os resultados são coerentes com os relatados em estudos ecológicos, apontando para maior incidência de bacilos Gram-negativos durante as estações quentes. Esses achados devem orientar as estratégias direcionadas à prevenção e controle de infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde. .

Humans , Bacteremia/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Hot Temperature/adverse effects , Humidity/adverse effects , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Weather
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1401-1407, Oct.-Dec. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741293


The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and risk factors for the acquisition of MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) as the main cause of skin and soft tissue infections. S. aureus were characterized for the presence of PVL, TSST-1 and mecA genes. SCCmec typing was carried out in mecA positive strains and PFGE was performed only in these strains. During the study period, 127 outpatients attending a dermatology clinical the Botucatu Medical School, a regional tertiary hospital in Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil, were diagnosed with active skin infections. A total 66 (56.9%) S. aureus strains were isolated. The methicillin resistance gene mecA was detected in seven (10.6%) S. aureus strains. The SCCmec types detected in the seven mecA-positive S. aureus strains were type Ia in one, type II in three, and type IV in three. The PVL gene was detected in 10 (15.1%) in sensitive strains. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed non-clonal diversity among the isolates. The risk factors associated with MRSA acquisition in this study were previous ciprofloxacin use and working in a healthcare environment. The risk factors indicate plausible routes of CA-MRSA transmission among the subjects studied.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Disease Outbreaks , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/microbiology , Brazil , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterotoxins/genetics , Exotoxins/genetics , Genetic Variation , Leukocidins/genetics , Molecular Epidemiology , Molecular Typing , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Skin/microbiology , Superantigens/genetics
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(5): 583-588, Sep-Oct/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728910


Introduction Recently, pathogen ecology has been recognized as an important epidemiological determinant of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important agents known to cause HAIs. It is widespread in healthcare settings and exhibits seasonal variations in incidence. Little is known about the impact of competition with other hospital pathogens on the incidence of A. baumannii infection. Methods We conducted an ecological study, enrolling patients who presented with healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (HA-BSIs) from 2005 to 2010 at a 450-bed teaching hospital in Brazil. HA-BSIs were said to be present when bacteria or fungi were recovered from blood cultures collected at least three days after admission. Monthly incidence rates were calculated for all HA-BSIs (overall or caused by specific pathogens or groups of pathogens). Multivariate Poisson regression models were used to identify the impacts of the incidence of several pathogens on the incidence of A. baumannii. Results The overall incidence rate of HA-BSI caused by A. baumannii was 2.5 per 10,000 patient-days. In the multivariate analysis, the incidence of HA-BSI caused by A. baumannii was negatively associated with the incidence rates of HA-BSI due to Staphylococcus aureus (rate ratio [RR]=0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.80-0.97), Enterobacter spp. (RR=0.84; 95%CI=0.74-0.94) and a pool of less common gram-negative pathogens. Conclusions Our results suggest that competition between pathogens influences the etiology of HA-BSIs. It would be beneficial to take these findings into account in infection control policies. .

Humans , Acinetobacter baumannii , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Hospitals, Teaching , Incidence
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(2): 235-238, Mar-Apr/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710349


Introduction Surgical site infections (SSIs) often manifest after patients are discharged and are missed by hospital-based surveillance. Methods We conducted a case-reference study nested in a prospective cohort of patients from six surgical specialties in a teaching hospital. The factors related to SSI were compared for cases identified during the hospital stay and after discharge. Results Among 3,427 patients, 222 (6.4%) acquired an SSI. In 138 of these patients, the onset of the SSI occurred after discharge. Neurological surgery and the use of steroids were independently associated with a greater likelihood of SSI diagnosis during the hospital stay. Conclusions Our results support the idea of a specialty-based strategy for post-discharge SSI surveillance. .

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Patient Discharge , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Hospitals, Teaching , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(6): 735-740, Nov-Dec/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-698064


Introduction Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by the intracellular protozoan Leishmania donovani complex. VL may be asymptomatic or progressive and is characterized by fever, anemia, weight loss and the enlargement of the spleen and liver. The nutritional status of the patients with VL is a major determinant of the progression, severity and mortality of the disease, as it affects the clinical progression of the disease. Changes in lipoproteins and plasma proteins may have major impacts in the host during infection. Thus, our goal was evaluate the serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, glucose, albumin, globulin and total protein levels, as well as the body composition, of VL patients before and after treatment. Methods Nutritional evaluation was performed using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess body composition. Biochemical data on the serum total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, glucose, albumin, globulin and total protein were collected from the medical charts of the patients. Results BIA indicated that both pre-treatment and post-treatment patients exhibited decreased phase angles compared to the controls, which is indicative of disease. Prior to treatment, the patients exhibited lower levels of total body water compared to the controls. Regarding the biochemical evaluation, patients with active VL exhibited lower levels of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and albumin and higher triglyceride levels compared to patients after treatment and the controls. Treatment increased the levels of albumin and lipoproteins and decreased the triglyceride levels. Conclusions Our results suggest that patients with active VL present biochemical and nutritional changes that are reversed by treatment. .

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Nutrition Assessment , Albumins/analysis , Body Mass Index , Globulins/analysis , Glucose/analysis , Lipids/blood , Proteins/analysis
Rev. saúde pública ; 47(5): 881-889, out. 2013. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-700219


OBJETIVO Descrever a investigação do surto de febre amarela silvestre e as principais medidas de controle realizadas no estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS Estudo descritivo do surto de febre amarela silvestre na região sudoeste do estado, entre fevereiro e abril de 2009. Foram avaliados casos suspeitos e confirmados em humanos e primatas não humanos. A investigação entomológica, em ambiente silvestre, envolveu captura em solo e copa de árvore para identificação das espécies e detecção de infecção natural. Foram realizadas ações de controle de Aedes aegypti em áreas urbanas. A vacinação foi direcionada para residentes dos municípios com confirmação de circulação viral e nos municípios contíguos, conforme recomendação nacional. RESULTADOS Foram confirmados 28 casos humanos (letalidade 39,3%) em áreas rurais de Sarutaiá, Piraju, Tejupá, Avaré e Buri. Foram notificadas 56 mortes de primatas não humanos, 91,4% do gênero Alouatta sp . A epizootia foi confirmada laboratorialmente em dois primatas não humanos, sendo um em Buri e outro em Itapetininga. Foram coletados 1.782 mosquitos, entre eles Haemagogus leucocelaenus , Hg. janthinomys/capricornii , Sabethes chloropterus , Sa. purpureus e Sa. undosus . O vírus da febre amarela foi isolado de um lote de Hg. leucocelaenus procedente de Buri. A vacinação foi realizada em 49 municípios, com 1.018.705 doses aplicadas e o registro de nove eventos adversos graves pós-vacinação. CONCLUSÕES Os casos humanos ocorreram entre fevereiro e abril de 2009 em áreas sem registro de circulação do vírus da febre amarela há mais de 60 anos. A região encontrava-se fora da área com recomendação de vacinação, com alto percentual da p...

OBJETIVO Describir la investigación de brote de fiebre amarilla silvestre y las principales medidas de control realizadas en el estado de Sao Paulo. MÉTODOS Estudio descriptivo del brote de fiebre amarilla silvestre en la región suroeste del Estado, entre febrero y abril de 2009. Se evaluaron casos sospechosos y confirmados en humanos y primates no humanos. La investigación entomológica, en ambiente silvestre, involucró capturo en suelo y copa de árboles para identificación de las especies y detección de infección natural. Se realizaron acciones de control de Aedes aegypti en áreas urbanas. La vacunación fue direccionada a residentes de los municipios con confirmación de circulación viral y en los municipios contiguos, siguiendo recomendación nacional. RESULTADOS Se confirmaron 28 casos en humanos (letalidad 39,3%) en áreas rurales de Sarutaiá, Pirajú, Tejupá, Avaré y Buri. Se notificaron 56 muertes de primates no humanos, 91,4% del género Allouatta sp. La epizootia fue confirmada laboratorialmente en dos primates no humanos siendo uno de Buri y el otro de Itapetininga. Se colectaron 1.782 mosquitos, entre ellos Haemagogus leucocelaenus, Hg. janthinomys/capricornii, y Sabethes chloropterus, Sa. purpureus y Sa. undosus. El virus de la fiebre amarilla fue aislado de un lote de Hg. leucocelaenus procedente de Buri. La vacunación fue realizada en 49 municipios, con 1.018.705 dosis aplicadas y el registro de nueve eventos adversos graves post-vacunación. CONCLUSIONES Los casos humanos ocurrieron entre febrero a abril de 2009 en áreas sin registro de circulación del virus de la fiebre amarilla por más de 60 años. La región se encontraba fuera del área de recomendación de vacunación, con alto porcentaje de población susceptible. La adopción oportuna de medidas de control permitió ...

OBJECTIVE To describe the investigation of a sylvatic yellow fever outbreak in the state of Sao Paulo and the main control measures undertaken. METHODS This is a descriptive study of a sylvatic yellow fever outbreak in the Southwestern region of the state from February to April 2009. Suspected and confirmed cases in humans and in non-human primates were evaluated. Entomological investigation in sylvatic environment involved capture at ground level and in the tree canopy to identify species and detect natural infections. Control measures were performed in urban areas to control Aedes aegypti . Vaccination was directed at residents living in areas with confirmed viral circulation and also at nearby cities according to national recommendation. RESULTS Twenty-eight human cases were confirmed (39.3% case fatality rate) in rural areas of Sarutaiá, Piraju, Tejupá, Avaré and Buri. The deaths of 56 non-human primates were also reported, 91.4% were Allouatta sp. Epizootics was confirmed in two non-human primates in the cities of Itapetininga and Buri. A total of 1,782 mosquitoes were collected, including Haemagogus leucocelaenus , Hg. janthinomys/capricornii , and Sabethes chloropterus, Sa. purpureus and Sa. undosus . Yellow fever virus was isolated from a group of Hg. Leucocelaenus from Buri. Vaccination was carried out in 49 cities, with a total of 1,018,705 doses. Nine serious post-vaccination adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS The cases occurred between February and April 2009 in areas with no recorded yellow fever virus circulation in over 60 years. The outbreak region occurred outside the original recommended vaccination area with a high percentage of susceptible population. The fast adoption of control measures interrupted the human transmission within a month and the confirmation of viral circulation in humans, monkeys and mosquitoes. The results allowed the identification of new areas of viral circulation but ...

Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Culicidae/classification , Insect Vectors/classification , Yellow Fever/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks , Yellow Fever/veterinary
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(1): 88-91, Jan.-Feb. 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-666801


INTRODUCTION: While the incidence of HIV infection and AIDS is increasing in small Brazilian cities, epidemiological studies are often conducted in large urban centers. METHODS: Our group conducted a retrospective analysis of survival determinants among 358 patients who attended a reference unit in a small city. RESULTS: Death risk was lower among men that had sex with men, patients with an HIV-seropositive partner, and those admitted after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was available. CONCLUSIONS: The study documents the striking beneficial effect of HAART. The finding of other groups with improved survival may aid in the development of programmatic strategies.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , HIV Infections/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 43(6): 611-614, Nov.-Dec. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-569416


INTRODUCTION: Even before the 2009 pandemics, influenza in healthcare workers (HCW) was a known threat to patient safety, while Influenza vaccine coverage in the same group was generally low. Identification of predictors for HCW adherence to Influenza vaccination has challenged infection control committees. METHODS: Our group conducted a cross-sectional survey in December 2007, interviewing 125 HCWs from a teaching hospital to identify adherence predictors for Influenza vaccination. The outcomes of interest were: A - adherence to the 2007 vaccination campaign; B - adherence to at least three yearly campaigns in the past five years. Demographic and professional data were assessed through univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Of the HCWs interviewed, 43.2 percent were vaccinated against Influenza in 2007. However, only 34.3 percent of HCWs working in healthcare for more than five years had adhered to at least three of the last five vaccination campaigns. Multivariate analysis showed that working in a pediatric unit (OR = 7.35, 95 percentCI = 1.90-28.44, p = 0.004) and number of years in the job (OR = 1.32, 95 percentCI = 1.00-1.74, p = 0.049) were significant predictors of adherence to the 2007 campaign. Physicians returned the worst outcome performances in A (OR = 0.40, 95 percentCI = 0.16-0.97, p = 0.04) and B (OR = 0.17, 95 percentCI = 0.05-0.60, p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Strategies to improve adherence to Influenza vaccination should focus on physicians and newly-recruited HCWs. New studies are required to assess the impact of the recent Influenza A pandemics on HCW-directed immunization policies.

INTRODUÇÃO: Mesmo antes da pandemia de 2009, o acometimento de profissionais da área da saúde (PAS) pela influenza já era uma ameaça conhecida para pacientes internados. A cobertura vacinal desse grupo era geralmente baixa. A identificação de preditores de adesão de PAS à vacinação contra influenza é um desafio para Comissões de Controle de Infecção. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo transversal em Dezembro de 2007, entrevistando 125 PAS de um hospital de ensino para identificar preditores de adesão à vacinação contra influenza. Os desfechos de interesse foram: A - adesão à campanha de 2007; B - adesão a pelo menos três campanhas nos últimos cinco anos. Dados demográficos e profissionais foram analisados em modelos univariados e multivariados. RESULTADOS: Dos entrevistados, 43,2 por cento haviam sido vacinados em 2007. No entanto, apenas 34,3 por cento daqueles trabalhando há mais de cinco anos aderiram a três ou mais campanhas nesse período. Análise multivariada demonstrou que trabalhar em enfermaria pediátrica (OR = 7.35, 95 por cento CI = 1.90-28.44, p = 0,004) e o número de anos no emprego (OR = 1.32, 95 por cento CI = 1.00-1.74, p = 0.049) foram preditores significantes de adesão em 2007. Médicos tiveram má performance nos desfechos A (OR = 0,40, 95 por cento CI = 0.16-0.97, p = 0,04) e B (OR = 0,17, 95 por cento CI = 0,05-0,60, p = 0,006). CONCLUSÕES: Estratégias para aumentar adesão à vacinação contra influenza devem priorizar médicos e PAS admitidos recentemente ao emprego. Novos estudos são necessários para abordar o impacto da recente pandemia de influenza sobre as políticas de vacinação para PAS.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, Teaching , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 43(6): 629-632, Nov.-Dec. 2010. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-569420


INTRODUCTION: Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major threat in healthcare settings. The use of antimicrobials can influence the incidence of resistant strains by direct and indirect mechanisms. The latter can be addressed by ecological studies. METHODS: Our group attempted to analyze the relation between the use of antipseudomonal drugs and the incidence of MDR-PA among 18 units from a 400-bed teaching hospital. The study had a retrospective, ecological design, comprising data from 2004 and 2005. Data on the use of four antimicrobials (amikacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime and imipenem) were tested for correlation with the incidence of MDR-PA (defined as isolates resistant to the four antimicrobials of interest) in clinical cultures. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Significant correlations were determined between use and resistance for all antimicrobials in the univariate analysis: amikacin (standardized correlation coefficient = 0.73, p = 0.001); ciprofloxacin (0.71, p = 0.001); ceftazidime (0.61, p = 0.007) and imipenem (0.87, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, only imipenem (0.67, p = 0.01) was independently related to the incidence of multidrug-resistant strains. CONCLUSIONS: These findings share similarities with those reported in individual-based observational studies, with possible implications for infection control.

INTRODUÇÃO: Pseudomonas aeruginosa multirresistente é uma grande ameaça a pacientes nos serviços de saúde. O uso de antimicrobianos pode influenciar a incidência de isolados resistentes por mecanismos diretos e indiretos. Estudos ecológicos são indicados para avaliação conjunta desses mecanismos. MÉTODOS: Foi analisada a relação entre o uso de antimicrobianos antipseudomonas e a incidência de PAMR em 18 unidades de um hospital de 400 leitos. O estudo teve delineamento ecológico retrospectivo, abordando dados dos anos de 2004 e 2005. Dados sobre uso de quatro antimicrobianos (amicacina, ciprofloxaxina, ceftazidima e imipenem) foram testados para correlação com a incidência de PAMR (resistente aos quatro antimicrobianos de interesse). Análises univariadas e multivariadas foram realizadas por regressão linear. RESULTADOS: Na análise univarida, foram encontradas correlações significantes entre uso e resistência para os quatro antimicrobianos testados: amicacina (coeficiente de correlação padronizado = 0,73; p = 0,001), ciprofloxacina (0,71; p = 0,001), ceftazidima (0,61; p = 0,007) e imipenem (0,87, p < 0,001). Na análise univariada, somente imipenem (0,67; p = 0,01) foi relacionado de forma indepentente à incidência de PAMR. CONCLUSÕES: Esses achados apresentam semelhanças com outros obtidos em estudos observacionais de base individual, e têm implicância práticas para o controle de infecção em hospitais.

Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Hospitals, Teaching , Incidence , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pseudomonas Infections/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 13(6): 398-402, Dec. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-546006


Nasopharyngeal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) often precedes the development of nosocomial infections. In order to identify risk factors for MRSA colonization, we conducted a case-case-control study, enrolling 122 patients admitted to a medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU). All patients had been screened for nasopharyngeal colonization with S. aureus upon admission and weekly thereafter. Two case-control studies were performed, using as cases patients who acquired colonization with MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), respectively. For both studies, patients in whom colonization was not detected during ICU stay were selected as control subjects. Several potential risk factors were assessed in univariate and multivariable (logistic regression) analysis. MRSA and MSSA were recovered from nasopharyngeal samples from 27 and 10 patients, respectively. Independent risk factors for MRSA colonization were: length-of-stay in the ICU (Odds Ratio [OR]=1.12, 95 percentConfidence Interval[CI]=1.06-1.19, p<0.001) and use of ciprofloxacin (OR=5.05, 95 percentCI=1.38-21.90, p=0.015). The use of levofloxacin had a protective effect (OR=0.08, 95 percentCI=0.01-0.55, p=0.01). Colonization with MSSA was positively associated with central nervous system disease (OR=7.45, 95 percentCI=1.33-41.74, p=0.02) and negatively associated with age (OR=0.94, 95 percentCI=0.90-0.99, p=0.01). In conclusion, our study suggests a role for both cross-transmission and selective pressure of antimicrobials in the spread of MRSA.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Intensive Care Units , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Case-Control Studies , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
Rev. latinoam. enferm ; 17(5): 677-682, Sept.-Oct. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-532884


Nasopharyngeal colonization with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is common in critically ill patients, but its effect on patient prognosis is not fully elucidated. A retrospective cohort study was carried out enrolling 122 patients from an intensive care unit who were screened weekly for nasopharyngeal colonization with MRSA. The outcomes of interest were: general mortality and mortality by infection. Several exposure variables (severity of illness, procedures, intercurrences and MRSA nasopharyngeal colonization) were analyzed through univariate and multivariable models. Factors significantly associated with mortality in general or due to infection were: APACHE II and lung disease. The performance of surgery predicted favorable outcomes. MRSA colonization did not predict mortality in general (OR=1.02; 95 percentCI=0.35-3.00; p=0.97) or by infectious causes (OR=0.96; 95 percentCI=0.33-2.89; p=0.96). The results suggest that, in the absence of severity of illness factors, colonization with MRSA is not associated with unfavorable outcomes.

La colonización nasofaríngea por el Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (Methicillin-resistant S.aureus - MRSA) es común en pacientes críticamente enfermos, pero su efecto sobre el pronóstico no está completamente esclarecido. Fue realizado un estudio de Cohorte retrospectivo con 122 pacientes de una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva que realiza semanalmente exámenes para constatar la colonización nasofaríngea por MRSA. Lo encontrado de interés fue: mortalidad general y mortalidad por causas infecciosas. Diversas variables de exposición (gravedad, procedimientos ocurrencias y colonización nasofaríngea por MRSA) fueran analizadas en modelos univariados y multivariados. Los factores asociados significativamente a la mortalidad en general o por causas infecciosas fueran: APACHE II y enfermedad pulmonar. La realización de cirugía predijo mejor el pronóstico. La colonización por MRSA no predijo la mortalidad en general (OR=1.02; IC95 por ciento=0.35-3.00; p=0.97) o por causas infecciosas (OR=0.96; IC95 por ciento=0.33-2.89; p=0.96). Los resultados sugieren que, en la ausencia de factores de gravedad, la colonización por MRSA no se asocia al peor pronóstico.

A colonização de nasofaringe por Staphylococcus aureus, resistente à meticilina (Methicillin-resistant S.aureus - MRSA), é comum em pacientes criticamente doentes, mas seu significado prognóstico não é inteiramente conhecido. Realizou-se estudo de coorte retrospectivo com 122 pacientes de uma unidade de terapia intensiva que realizaram triagem semanal para colonização por MRSA. Os desfechos de interesse foram: mortalidade geral e mortalidade por infecção. Diversas variáveis de exposição (gravidade, procedimentos, intercorrências e colonização nasofaríngea por MRSA) foram analisadas em modelos univariados e multivariados. Fatores significativamente associados à mortalidade geral ou por infecção foram: APACHE II e doença pulmonar. A colonização por MRSA não foi preditora de mortalidade geral (OR=1,02; IC95 por cento=0,35-3; p=0,97) ou por infecção (OR=0,96; IC95 por cento=0,33-2,89; p=0,96). Os resultados sugerem que, na ausência de fatores de gravidade, a colonização por MRSA não caracteriza pior prognóstico.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Intensive Care Units , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Cohort Studies , Cross Infection/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Retrospective Studies