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Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 954-961, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153438


Abstract The aim of present study is to characterize the resistance and virulence profile of enterococci isolated from aquaculture excavated ponds and masonry tanks (6 samples) in southern Brazil. Samples were cultured in selective medium, 10 colonies were randomly selected from each sample, which were identified by MALDI-TOF and tested against 13 antimicrobials. The presence of resistance (tetL, tetM, tetS, ermB and msrC) and virulence (ace, esp, agg, cylA and gelE) genes were determined by PCR. A total of 79 enterococci were identified, and Entecococcus faecalis (44.3%) and E. casseliflavus (36.7%) were the most prevalent species isolated. Sixty-five strains (82.3%) were resistant to at least one of the antimicrobials tested, whereas 27 (34.2%) strains were multiresistant. The overall percentages of antimicrobial resistant isolates were: 58.2% to rifampicin, 40.5% to fluoroquinolones, 36.7% to erythromycin and 30.4% to tetracycline. The tetL and tetM genes were found in 57.7% of the tetracycline-resistant strains; and msrC in 31.01% of erythromycin-resistant strains. The most frequently detected virulence factors were ace and gelE genes. Although limited to a single farm, these data suggest that aquaculture may be a reservoir of resistant and virulent enterococci. This study is the first step towards enhancing our understandingof distribution, resistance and virulence profile in enterococci isolated from fish farming environments in the south Brazil.

Resumo O objetivo do estudo apresentado é caracterizar o perfil de resistência e virulência de enterococos isolados de viveiros escavados e tanques de alvenaria (6 amostras) de uma pisicultura no Sul do Brasil. As amostras foram cultivadas em meio seletivo, 10 colônias foram selecionadas aleatoriamente de cada amostra, que foram identificadas por MALDI-TOF e testadas contra 13 antimicrobianos. A presença de genes de resistência (tetL, tetM, tetS, ermB e msrC) e virulência (ace, esp, agg, cylA e gelE) foi determinada por PCR. Foram identificados 79 enterococos, sendo Entecococcus faecalis (44,3%) e E. casseliflavus (36,7%) as espécies mais frequentes isoladas. Sessenta e cinco cepas (82,3%) eram resistentes a pelo menos um dos antimicrobianos testados, enquanto 27 (34,2%) eram multirresistentes. As porcentagens gerais de isolados resistentes a antimicrobianos foram: 58,2% para rifampicina, 40,5% para fluoroquinolonas, 36,7% para eritromicina e 30,4% para tetraciclina. Os genes tetL e tetM foram encontrados em 57,7% das cepas resistentes à tetraciclina; e msrC em 31,01% das cepas resistentes à eritromicina. Os fatores de virulência mais comumente detectados foram ace e gelE. Embora limitados a uma única fazenda, esses dados indicam que a aquicultura pode ser uma fonte de enterococos resistentes e virulentos. Este estudo é o primeiro passo para melhorar nosso entendimento da distribuição, resistência e perfil de virulência em enterococos isolados de ambientes de piscicultura no sul do Brasil.

Animals , Enterococcus/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Agriculture
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 460-465, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001467


Abstract The fidelity of the genomes is defended by mechanism known as Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) systems. Three Type II CRISPR systems (CRISPR1- cas, CRISPR2 and CRISPR3-cas) have been identified in enterococci isolates from clinical and environmental samples. The aim of this study was to observe the distribution of CRISPR1-cas, CRISPR2 and CRISPR3-cas in non-clinical strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates from food and fecal samples, including wild marine animals. The presence of CRISPRs was evaluated by PCR in 120 enterococci strains, 67 E. faecalis and 53 E. faecium. It is the first report of the presence of the CRISPRs system in E. faecalis and E. faecium strains isolated from wild marine animal fecal samples. The results showed that in non-clinical strains, the CRISPRs were more frequently detected in E. faecalis than in E. faecium. And the frequencies of CRISPR1-cas and CRISPR2 were higher (60%) in E. faecalis strains isolated from animal feces, compared to food samples. Both strains showed low frequencies of CRISPR3-cas (8.95% and 1.88%). In conclusion, the differences in the habitats of enterococcal species may be related with the results observe in distribution of CRISPRs systems.

Resumo A fidelidade dos genomas ​​é defendida por mecanismos conhecidos como sistemas de repetições palindrômicas curtas agrupadas e regularmente interespaçadas (CRISPRs). Três tipos de sistemas CRISPR II (CRISPR1-cas, CRISPR2 e CRISPR3-cas) têm sido identificados em cepas de enterococos isolados de amostras clínicas e ambientais. O objetivo deste estudo foi observar a distribuição dos CRISPR1-cas, CRISPR2 e CRISPR3-cas em cepas não-clínicas de Enterococcus faecalis e Enterococcus faecium isoladas de amostras alimentícias e fecais, incluindo animais marinhos selvagens. A presenca dos CRISPRs foi determinada por PCR em 120 cepas de enterococos, sendo 67 E. faecalis e 53 E. faecium. É o primeiro relato da presença do sistema CRISPRs nas estirpes E. faecalis e E. faecium isoladas de amostras fecais de animais marinhos selvagens. Os resultados mostraram que em cepas não-clínicas, os CRISPRs foram mais frequentemente detectados em E. faecalis do que em E. faecium. E as frequências de CRISPR1-cas e CRISPR2 foram maiores (60%) em cepas de E. faecalis isoladas de fezes de animais, quando comparadas à amostras de alimentos. Ambas as cepas apresentaram baixas freqüências de CRISPR3-cas (8,95% e 1,88%). Em conclusão, as diferenças nos habitats das espécies de enterococos podem estar relacionadas com os resultados observados na distribuição dos sistemas CRISPRs.

Animals , Enterococcus faecium/genetics , Enterococcus faecalis/genetics , Feces/microbiology , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Food Microbiology , Turtles/microbiology , Vegetables/microbiology , Chickens/microbiology , Dairy Products/microbiology , Milk/microbiology , Spheniscidae/microbiology , Fur Seals/microbiology , Meat/microbiology
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(1): 327-332, 2014.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709469


The present report aimed to perform a molecular epidemiological survey by investigating the presence of virulence factors in E. faecalis isolated from different human clinical (n = 57) and food samples (n = 55) in Porto Alegre, Brazil, collected from 2006 to 2009. In addition, the ability to form biofilm in vitro on polystyrene and the β-haemolytic and gelatinase activities were determined. Clinical strains presented a higher prevalence of aggregation substance (agg), enterococcal surface protein (esp) and cytolysin (cylA) genes when compared with food isolates. The esp gene was found only in clinical strains. On the other hand, the gelatinase (gelE) and adherence factor (ace) genes had similar prevalence among the strains, showing the widespread occurrence of these virulence factors among food and clinical E. faecalis strains in South Brazil. More than three virulence factor genes were detected in 77.2% and 18.2% of clinical and food strains, respectively. Gelatinase and β-haemolysin activities were not associated with the presence of gelE and cylA genes. The ability to produce biofilm was detected in 100% of clinical and 94.6% of food isolates, and clinical strains were more able to form biofilm than the food isolates (Student's t-test, p < 0.01). Results from the statistical analysis showed significant associations between strong biofilm formation and ace (p = 0.015) and gelE (p = 0.007) genes in clinical strains. In conclusion, our data indicate that E. faecalis strains isolated from clinical and food samples possess distinctive patterns of virulence factors, with a larger number of genes that encode virulence factors detected in clinical strains.

Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Enterococcus faecalis/genetics , Food Microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Virulence Factors/genetics , Brazil , Biofilms/growth & development , Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification , Enterococcus faecalis/physiology , Gelatinases/analysis , Hemolysis
Braz. j. microbiol ; 42(2): 480-488, Apr.-June 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-589994


Resistant bacteria in animal can be spread to environment and to humans. Poultry feed and infections caused by Eimeria spp. are important factors in determining the intestinal microbial communities. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of species and antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus isolated from broilers fed with different supplements and infected experimentally with Eimeria spp. Broilers were divided in eight groups, fed with diets supplemented with a combination of antimicrobial, ionophore-coccidiostatics, probiotic, essential oil. At 14 days old all birds, except the control, received a solution containing oocysts of Eimeria spp. Samples of cloacal swabs from broilers were collected. A total of 240 Enterococcus sp. strains were isolated, confirmed genus by PCR, classified as species, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and screened by PCR for the presence of tet(L), tet(M) and erm(B) genes. The overall distribution of species isolated from fecal samples was E. faecalis (40 percent), followed by E. casseliflavus/E. gallinarum (10.8 percent), E. mundtii (10.8 percent), E. faecium (10.8 percent), E. columbae (5.8 percent) and E. gallinarum (4.2 percent). Changes in the composition or frequency of Enterococcus species were observed in all dietary supplementation. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes a range of antibiotics, especially used in humans such as, streptomycin, penicillin, rifampicin and vancomycin. There was no correlation between different supplementation for broilers and antimicrobial resistance and the presence of tet(M), tet(L) and erm(B) genes. Dietary supplementation had effect on the Enterococcus sp. colonization, but did not have significant effect on the phenotype and genotype of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci.

Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(11): 1068-1075, Nov. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-529099


Female rats are intensely affected by cocaine, with estrogen probably playing an important role in this effect. Progesterone modulates the GABA system and attenuates the effects of cocaine; however, there is no information about its relevance in changing GABA synthesis pathways after cocaine administration to female rats. Our objective was to investigate the influence of progesterone on the effects of repeated cocaine administration on the isoenzymes of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 and GAD67) mRNA in brain areas involved in the addiction circuitry. Ovariectomized, intact and progesterone replacement-treated female rats received saline or cocaine (30 mg/kg, ip) acutely or repeatedly. GAD isoenzyme mRNA levels were determined in the dorsolateral striatum (dSTR) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) by RT-PCR, showing that repeated, but not acute, cocaine decreased GADs/β-actin mRNA ratio in the dSTR irrespective of the hormonal condition (GAD65: P < 0.001; and GAD67: P = 0.004). In the PFC, repeated cocaine decreased GAD65 and increased GAD67 mRNA ratio (P < 0.05). Progesterone replacement decreased both GAD isoenzymes mRNA ratio after acute cocaine in the PFC (P < 0.001) and repeated cocaine treatment reversed this decrease (P < 0.001). These results suggest that cocaine does not immediately affect GAD mRNA expression, while repeated cocaine decreases both GAD65 and GAD67 mRNA in the dSTR of female rats, independently of their hormonal conditions. In the PFC, repeated cocaine increases the expression of GAD isoenzymes, which were decreased due to progesterone replacement.

Animals , Female , Rats , Cocaine/pharmacology , Corpus Striatum/enzymology , Glutamate Decarboxylase/drug effects , Prefrontal Cortex/enzymology , Progesterone/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation , Glutamate Decarboxylase/genetics , Rats, Wistar , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
Genet. mol. biol ; 25(2): 235-241, Jun. 2002. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-335795


Net blotch, caused by the phytopathogen Drechslera teres, is a common disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) and is responsible for large economic losses in some barley growing areas. In this study the morphology and genetic variability of eight D. teres isolates from different regions of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul were investigated. Colony morphology was studied on potato-dextrose-agar (PDA) and genetic variability investigated using the random amplified polymorphic-DNA (RAPD) technique. 27 commercially available primers were tested of which 16 were selected for use in polymorphic analysis due to their good resolution and reproducibility. Similarity coefficients were used to construct dendrograms based on colony morphology and RAPD data showing the relationship between the eight isolates studied. Colony morphology showed variability between the isolates while RAPD assays showed high similarity coefficients, but grouping of the isolates according to the geographic origins of the seeds from which they were isolated was not possible

Agricultural Cultivation , Edible Grain , Fungi , Polymorphism, Genetic , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique