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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878878

ABSTRACT

Polysaccharides are macromolecular compounds formed by more than 10 monosaccharide molecules linked by glycosidic bonds. Polysaccharides have a wide range of sources, high safety and low toxicity, with a variety of biological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-virus, immune regulation, lowering blood glucose, and lowering blood lipids. Type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2 DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and low inflammation. In recent years, the treatment of T2 DM with polysaccharide has become a research hotspot. Polysaccharides can not only make up for the side effects such as hypoglycemia, weight gain, gastrointestinal injury caused by long-term treatment of acarbose, biguanidine and sulfonylurea, but also play an effective role in reducing glucose by regulating glucose metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, intestinal flora, etc. In this paper, the research progress of polysaccharides in the treatment of T2 DM was reviewed. In addition, the hot spots such as the hypoglycemic activity of polysaccharides with structural modifications were summarized, providing theoretical guidance for the development of active polysaccharide hypoglycemic medicines and the further study of action mechanism.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Insulin Resistance , Polysaccharides
2.
Tianjin Medical Journal ; (12): 648-651, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-698085

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the cytokine levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in children with mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP). Methods Clinical data of 90 patients with MPP (MPP group), who were admitted to Tianjin Children's Hospital from January to December 2017, were collected in this study. The 90 cases were divided into group A1 (<7 days), group A2 (7-14 d) and group A3 (15-30 d) according to the course of disease on admission, with 30 cases in each group. Children who were without MPP and needed bronchoscopy examination or treatment at the same time were used as the control group (B group). The expression levels of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) were detected by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Results The serum and BALF levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 increased significantly in A group compared with those in B group (P<0.05). The highest levels of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-2) were found in Group A1. The highest levels of cytokines (IL-4 and IL-6) were found in Group A2. Conclusion The levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-2 are increased significantly in the disease course of < 7 days. In the disease course of 7 to 14 days, the IL-4 and IL-6 are elevated significantly. Our data suggest that these cytokines may be involved in the pathogenesis of MPP.

3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1894-1901, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-338832

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>The emergency department (ED) has a pivotal influence on the management of acute heart failure (AHF), but data concerning current ED management are scarce. This Beijing AHF Registry Study investigated the characteristics, ED management, and short- and long-term clinical outcomes of AHF.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>This prospective, multicenter, observational study consecutively enrolled 3335 AHF patients who visited 14 EDs in Beijing from January 1, 2011, to September 23, 2012. Baseline data on characteristics and management were collected in the EDs. Follow-up data on death and readmissions were collected until November 31, 2013, with a response rate of 92.80%. The data were reported as median (interquartile range) for the continuous variables, or as number (percentage) for the categorical variables.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The median age of the enrolled patients was 71 (58-79) years, and 46.84% were women. In patients with AHF, coronary heart disease (43.27%) was the most common etiology, and myocardium ischemia (30.22%) was the main precipitant. Most of the patients in the ED received intravenous treatments, including diuretics (79.28%) and vasodilators (74.90%). Fewer patients in the ED received neurohormonal antagonists, and 25.94%, 31.12%, and 33.73% of patients received angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, and spironolactone, respectively. The proportions of patients who were admitted, discharged, left against medical advice, and died were 55.53%, 33.58%, 7.08%, and 3.81%, respectively. All-cause mortalities at 30 days and 1 year were 15.30% and 32.27%, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Substantial details on characteristics and ED management of AHF were investigated. The clinical outcomes of AHF patients were dismal. Thus, further investigations of ED-based therapeutic approaches for AHF are needed.</p>

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