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Chinese Circulation Journal ; (12): 1006-1010, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-703918


Objectives: To compare the clinical features and long-term outcomes of patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (ApHCM) and patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (ASHCM). Methods: Data from 600 patients (300 with ApHCM and 300 with ASHCM) identified in a consecutive single-center cohort between 1996 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The two groups were 1:1 matched by age of diagnosis, gender and the presence of outflow tract obstruction. Clinical features, cardiovascular mortalities, incidence of sudden cardiac death and cardiovascular morbidity (including unexplained syncope, atrial fibrillation, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, progressive heart failure, embolic stroke or transient ischemic attack and myocardial infarction) were compared between the two groups. Results: Forty-two patients (14.0%) had a maximum LV wall thickness of ≥30 mm in the ASHCM group compared to only 11 patients (3.7%) in the ApHCM group (P<0.01). 156 patients in ApHCM group (52.0%)and 168 patients in ASHCM group(56.0%)underwent cardiovascular NMR examination, the incidence of late gadolinium enhancement was significantly lower in ApHCM group than in ASHCM group(26.9% vs 76.2%,P<0.01). The mean follow-up durations for ApHCM and ASHCM were (7.5 ± 4.0) years and (6.6 ± 5.4) years, respectively. The incidence of cardiovascular death (1.0% vs 5.7%), sudden cardiac death (0.33% vs 3.3%) and major adverse cardiovascular event (18.3% vs 40.3%) were significantly lower in the ApHCM group than in the ASHCM group (all P<0.01). Unexplained syncope, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, and progressive heart failure were less common in ApHCM group than in ASHCM group (all P<0.05). Multivariate COX regression analysis showed that late gadolinium enhancement positivity (HR=4.62, 95% CI: 2.28- 68.0, P=0.02) and unexplained syncope (HR=8.56, 95% CI: 2.1-16.6, P<0.01) were independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Unexplained syncope was independent predictor for sudden cardiac death (HR=4.40, 95% CI: 1.5-15.2, P=0.02). Conclusions: After eliminating the interference of age at diagnosis, gender and outflow tract obstruction, patients with ApHCM represent a more benign prognosis with a lower incidence of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity than patients with ASHCM.

Chinese Circulation Journal ; (12): 585-590, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-703901


Objectives:To analyze the impact of extended myectomy on reducing mitral regurgitation in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). Methods:We retrospectively analyzed 480 consecutive HOCM patients who underwent surgical treatment by the same surgeon in our institution from October 2002 to July 2017. The efficacy of extended myectomy for reducing mitral regurgitation and left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction were evaluated by echocardiography after surgery. Results:Among the 480 patients, 22 (4.6%) received concomitant mitral repair or replacement because of their intrinsic mitral diseases. In the remaining 458 (95.4%) patients without concomitant mitral valve surgery, 1 (0.2%) died at the 5th day after surgery because of infective shock, and another 4 (0.9%) lost to follow-up, a total of 453 (98.9%) patients underwent echocardiographic follow-up (median follow-up time:6 months [3, 12]). During follow-up, left ventricular out flow tract gradient was significantly decreased from (89.1±30.6) to (12.8±11.6) mmHg (P<0.001); the number of patients with systolic anterior motion (SAM) of mitral leaflets decreased from 451(98.5%) to 42 (9.3%) (P<0.001); 297 (64.8%) patients presented with moderate or severe mitral regurgitation before surgery, which decreased to 14 (3.1%) at follow-up (P<0.001); the multivariate regression analysis showed that patients with residual SAM were significantly associated with a higher incidence of moderate to severe mitral regurgitation during follow-up (odds ratio 30.334, 95% confidence interval:5.619-163.739, P<0.001). Conclusions:Extended myectomy, combined with dividing the anomalous links between mitral apparatus and septum, and trimming papillary muscles, yields satisfactory outcomes of relieving LVOT obstruction and reducing mitral regurgitation in most of patients with HOCM. Concomitant mitral valve surgery is rarely required unless the patient have intrinsic mitral valve disease.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-636058


Objective To evaluate the left atrial function and to explore its determinants in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE).Methods 46 patients with HCM (obstructive HCM:25 cases,nonobstructive HCM:21 cases) and 46 healthy cases (controls) were enrolled in this study.Time-volume curve of left atrium was acquired by 3DE in all subjects.Left atrial maximal volume (LAVmax),left atrial minimal volume (LAVmin) and left atrial presystolic volume (LAVp) were acquaired.Left atrial volume index (LAVI),left atrial expansion index (LAEI),left atrium emptying fraction (LAEF),left atrium passive emptying fraction (LAPEF) and 1eft atrium active emptying fraction (LAAEF) were calculated.Comparative analysis between two groups was taken .The Spearman correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis between left atrial volume index (LAVI) with interventricular septal thickness (IVSd),left ventricular outflow tract peak gradient (LVOT-PG),mitral regurgitation (MI), left ventricular diastolic function (LVDF) were analyzed respectively .Results Compared to the controls LAVmax (45.67 ±11.96)ml,LAVmin (20.48 ±6.80)ml,LAVp (24.48 ±9.31)ml,LAVI 25.63 ±6.52, LAEI (1.32 ±0.49)%,LAEF (55.25 ±8.06)%,LAPEF (35.90 ±7.00)%and LAAEF (30.20 ±10.13)%, the patient with HCM had a significantly larger LAVmax (81.45 ±24.24)ml,LAVmin (44.60 ±18.96)ml, LAVp (61.00 ±21.64) ml and LAVI 45.39 ±14.17,there were significant differences among the groups (t=8.978,8.123,9.227,8.436,all P0.01).There were significant positive correlation between LAVI and IVSd,LVOT-PG,MI,LVDF respectively (r=0.704,0.517,0.640,0.701,all P<0.01).Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that IVSd , LVOT-PG, MI and LVDF were correlated factors of LAVI (absolute standardized coeffients =0.264,0.515,0.614,0.341,all P<0.05).Conclusions 3DE could evaluate the left atrial volume and function in patients with HCM , with increased left atrial volume and decreased reservioer,conduit and booster pump function .Mitral regurgitation,obstruction of left ventricular outflow tract,left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and the thickness of left ventricular wall contributed to left atrial dysfunction at different levels ,among which mitrial regurgitation contributed the most .

Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 214-218, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275073


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient induced by dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) and exercise echocardiography (EE) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>DSE and EE were performed in 40 consecutive patients with HCM and LVOT gradient < 50 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) at rest. Dobutamine was administered intravenously at incremental doses of 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1200 µg/min at 5 min intervals. LVOT gradients were measured at rest, at peak exercise and during each dose of DSE.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>LVOT gradient at rest was lower than 30 mm Hg in 36 patients and between 30 and 49 mm Hg in 4 patients. Of the 36 patients with LVOT gradient < 30 mm Hg at rest, mechanical LVOT obstruction (latent LVOTO) was evidenced in 17 patients during EE and in 18 patients during DSE and good consistency (91.7%, kappa value 0.833) was found between the two maneuvers. The provoked gradient was similar between DSE at 800 µg/min and EE at peak exercise (P = 0.181). In the 4 patients with LVOT gradient between 30 and 49 mm Hg [(38.8 ± 2.6) mm Hg], LVOT gradient increased to (85.3 ± 26.4) mm Hg during EE and (105.0 ± 28.0) mm Hg during DES.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>DES and EE are comparable and suitable provoke methods for identifying LVOT obstruction in patients with HCM.</p>

Adult , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic , Diagnostic Imaging , Echocardiography, Stress , Methods , Exercise Test , Methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ventricular Outflow Obstruction , Diagnostic Imaging
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 497-502, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272212


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the myocardial perfusion and function in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) before and after percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixty-eight patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy were included and (99)Tc(m)-MIBI SPECT MPI was applied before and at 1 week after PTSMA, six-month follow-up was finished in 11 patients. Semi quantity and QGS quantity perfusion and function assessment was performed in 17 LV segments.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Myocardial perfusion post-PTSMA was significantly reduced in 98% patients, especially in basal anterosepta, basal interseptal, mid-anteroseptal, mid-interseptal and apical septal segments compared with pre-PTSMA (all P < 0.05). Perfusion was significantly increased at 6 months follow-up than at 1 week post-PTSMA but still lower than pre-PTSMA (all P < 0.05). LVEF (evaluated by gated SPECT) was similar before and after the procedure (P > 0.05). Regional wall motion after PTSMA was lower than pre-PTSMA in basal anterior, basal anteroseptal, basal interseptal and basal inferior (P < 0.05). Regional wall thinkening was lower than pre-PTSMA in basal interseptal, mid-anteroseptal, mid-interseptal (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>(99)Tc(m) MIBI SPECT can be used to monitor myocardial perfusion post PTSMA in patients with HOCM.</p>

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Angioplasty, Balloon , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic , Diagnostic Imaging , General Surgery , Catheter Ablation , Methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon , Young Adult
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-253989


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the clinical application of pulsed Doppler tissue imaging in assessing the left ventricular diastolic function and in discriminating between normal subjects and patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with various stages of diastolic dysfunction.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We measured the peak diastolic velocities of mitral annulus in 81 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with various stages of diastolic dysfunction and 50 normal volunteers by Doppler tissue imaging using the apical window at 2-chamber and long apical views, respectively. The myocardial velocities were determined with use of variance F statistical analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Early diastolic myocardial velocities of mitral annulus were higher in normal subjects than in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with either delayed relaxation, pseudonormal filling, or restrictive filling. However, peak myocardial velocities of mitral annulus during atrial contraction were similar in normal subjects and patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Doppler tissue imaging can directly reflect upon left diastolic ventricular function. Early phase of diastole was the best discriminator between control subjects and patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.</p>

Adult , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic , Diagnostic Imaging , Diastole , Physiology , Echocardiography, Doppler , Methods , Humans , Middle Aged , Ventricular Function, Left