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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Both sexual and physical abuse history have been reported to be associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Western countries. The impact of abuse history in IBS patients in Asia remains unclear. We aim to determine the prevalence of abuse history, its associated psychological profiles, and sleep problems among IBS patients in Taiwan. METHODS: In total, 194 Rome III-defined IBS patients were invited to participate. Age- and sex-matched healthy carriers of chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C without chronic abdominal symptoms were identified as disease-controls. We administered a validated questionnaire to evaluate bowel symptoms, physical/sexual abuse history, anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), and sleep quality. RESULTS: IBS patients had a significantly higher prevalence of sexual abuse history than the disease-control group both before (16.5% vs 6.7%, P < 0.05) and after (16.0% vs 6.6%, P < 0.05) adolescence. These significant differences were mainly observed in women (13.4% vs 3.4%, P < 0.05). No difference was noted in history of physical abuse between the 2 groups. IBS patients with a history of sexual abuse had significantly higher HADS scores and higher frequencies of sleep difficulty than those without. CONCLUSIONS: In Taiwan, sexual abuse history was more prevalent in female IBS patients than controls. Sexual abuse history may contribute to higher anxiety/depression levels and sleep difficulties, which are commonly experienced in IBS patients. In Asia, abuse history should be obtained when approaching IBS patients to facilitate better management.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Anxiety , Asia , Depression , Female , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Physical Abuse , Prevalence , Sex Offenses , Taiwan
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23373

ABSTRACT

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and migraine are distinct clinical disorders. Apart from the characteristics of chronic and recurrent pain in nature, these pain-related disorders apparently share many similarities. For example, IBS is female predominant with community prevalence about 5-10%, whereas that of migraine is 1-3% also showing female predominance. They are often associated with many somatic and psychiatric comorbidities in terms of fibromyaglia, chronic fatigue syndrome, interstitial cystitis, insomnia and depression etc., even the IBS subjects may have coexisted migraine with an estimated odds ratio of 2.66. They similarly reduce the quality of life of victims leading to the social, medical and economic burdens. Their pathogeneses have been somewhat addressed in relation to biopsychosocial dysfunction, heredity, genetic polymorphism, central/visceral hypersensitivity, somatic/cutaneous allodynia, neurolimbic pain network, gonadal hormones and abuses etc. Both disorders are diagnosed according to the symptomatically based criteria. Multidisciplinary managements such as receptor target new drugs, melantonin, antispasmodics, and psychological drugs and measures, complementary and alternatives etc. are recommended to treat them although the used agents may not be necessarily the same. Finally, the prognosis of IBS is pretty good, whereas that of migraine is less fair since suicide attempt and stroke are at risk. In conclusion, both distinct chronic pain disorders to share many similarities among various aspects probably suggest that they may locate within the same spectrum of a pain-centered disorder such as central sensitization syndromes. The true pathogenesis to involve these disorders remains to be clarified in the future.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Sensitization , Chronic Pain , Comorbidity , Cystitis, Interstitial , Depression , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Female , Gonadal Hormones , Heredity , Humans , Hyperalgesia , Hypersensitivity , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Migraine Disorders , Odds Ratio , Parasympatholytics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Prevalence , Prognosis , Quality of Life , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Stroke , Suicide
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107627

ABSTRACT

Hiccup is the sudden onset of erratic diaphragmatic and intercostal muscle contraction and immediately followed by laryngeal closure. The abrupt air rush into lungs elicits a "hic" sound. Hiccup is usually a self-limited disorder; however, when it is prolonged beyond 48 hours, it is considered persistent whereas episodes longer than 2 months are called intractable. A reflex arc involving peripheral phrenic, vagal and sympathetic pathways and central midbrain modulation is likely responsible for hiccup. Accordingly, any irritant in terms of physical/chemical factors, inflammation, neoplasia invading the arc leads to hiccups. The central causes of hiccup include stroke, space occupying lesions and injury etc, whereas peripheral causes include lesions along the arc such as tumors, myocardial ischemia, herpes infection, gastroesophageal reflux disease and applied instrumentations on human body etc. Besides, various drugs (eg, anti-parkinsonism drugs, anesthetic agents, steroids and chemotherapies etc) are the possible etiology. An effective treatment of persistent hiccup may be established upon the correct diagnosis of lesion responsible for the serious event. The pharmacotherapy of hiccup includes chlorpromazine, gabapentin, baclofen, serotonergic agonists, prokinetics and lidocaine. Non-pharmacological approaches such as nerve blockade, pacing, acupuncture and measures to hold breathing are also successful. Finally, alternative medicines and remedies are convenient to treat hiccups with uncertain effect. In conclusions, hiccup is likely to result from lesions involving the hiccup reflex arc. The lesion may need to be localized correctly for ablative treatment in patients with intractable hiccup. Apart from lesion ablation, drugs acting on reflex arc may be effective, while some other conventional measures may also be tried.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Amines , Anesthetics , Baclofen , Chlorpromazine , Complementary Therapies , Contracts , Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acids , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Hiccup , Human Body , Humans , Inflammation , Intercostal Muscles , Lidocaine , Lung , Mesencephalon , Myocardial Ischemia , Myoclonus , Nerve Block , Reflex , Respiration , Serotonin Receptor Agonists , Steroids , Stroke
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Environmental factors such as food, lifestyle and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection are widely different in Asian countries compared to the West, and physiological functions and genetic factors of Asians may also be different from those of Westerners. Establishing an Asian consensus for functional dyspepsia is crucial in order to attract attention to such data from Asian countries, to articulate the experience and views of Asian experts, and to provide a relevant guide on management of functional dyspepsia for primary care physicians working in Asia. METHODS: Consensus team members were selected from Asian experts and consensus development was carried out using a modified Delphi method. Consensus teams collected published papers on functional dyspepsia especially from Asia and developed candidate consensus statements based on the generated clinical questions. At the first face-to-face meeting, each statement was reviewed and e-mail voting was done twice. At the second face-to-face meeting, final voting on each statement was done using keypad voting system. A grade of evidence and a strength of recommendation were applied to each statement according to the method of the GRADE Working Group. RESULTS: Twenty-nine consensus statements were finalized, including 7 for definition and diagnosis, 5 for epidemiology, 9 for pathophysiology and 8 for management. Algorithms for diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia were added. CONCLUSIONS: This consensus developed by Asian experts shows distinctive features of functional dyspepsia in Asia and will provide a guide to the diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia for Asian primary care physicians.


Subject(s)
Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Consensus , Dyspepsia , Electronic Mail , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Life Style , Physicians, Primary Care , Politics , Prevalence
8.
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Prolactin (PRL) is essential for the lactating mammals, while cholecystokinin (CCK) does inhibit gastric emptying (GE). Present study attempted to determine whether both peptides interacted on the male rat GE, particularly the role of putative CCK1 receptor. METHODS: Acute hyperprolactinemia of male rats was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of ovine PRL (oPRL) in several divided doses 15 minutes before motility study. Rat chronic hyperprolactinemia was induced by the graft of 2 pituitary glands into the capsule of left kidney, while control rats received cerebral cortex graft only. Motility study was conducted 6 weeks later after graft surgery. Fifteen minutes after the intragastric feeding of radiochromium, rat was sacrificed to measure GE via the distribution of radioactivities within stomach and intestine. Among the CCK1 receptor blocking study using lorglumide, rats were divided to receive the regimens in terms of oPRL-vehicle plus lorglumide-vehicle, oPRL plus lorglumide-vehicle, oPRL-vehicle plus lorglumide and oPRL plus lorglumide. Plasma CCK level was measured using a homemade radioimmunoassay kit. RESULTS: Compared to vehicle treatment, acute hyperprolactinemic rats under highest dose (2.0 mg/kg) of oPRL treatment showed delayed GE (70.6% +/- 3.0% vs 42.1% +/- 6.6%, P < 0.05). Chronic hyperprolactinemic rats under graft surgery also showed inhibited GE (70.5% +/- 1.7% vs 54.5% +/- 4.7%, P < 0.05). Both models finally obtained elevated plasma CCK levels (P < 0.05). Lorglumide itself did not influence GE, however, delayed GE under oPRL treatment was restored following the concomitant lorglumide treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that PRL may delay male rat GE via a mechanism of endogenous CCK activation involving the peripheral CCK1 receptor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cerebral Cortex , Cholecystokinin , Gastric Emptying , Humans , Hyperprolactinemia , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Intestines , Kidney , Male , Mammals , Peptides , Pituitary Gland , Plasma , Proglumide , Prolactin , Radioactivity , Radioimmunoassay , Rats , Stomach , Transplants
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91004

ABSTRACT

Dyspepsia is a syndrome consisting of epigastric pain, burning, fullness, discomfort, early satiety, nausea, vomiting and belching. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is diagnosed if upper gastrointestinal endoscopy does not show structural abnormality explaining these symptoms. 8%-30% and 8%-23% of Asian people suffer from of uninvestigated dyspepsia and FD, respectively. Most patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia are found to have FD. Patients with FD are usually young and there is no predilection to any gender. Overlap of FD with other functional bowel diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome and gastroesophageal reflux disease is common in Asia. Cultural difference in reporting of symptoms of dyspepsia is well-known. Moreover, dietary factors, socio-cultural and psychological issues, gastrointestinal infection including that caused by Helicobacter pylori, frequency of organic diseases such as peptic ulcer and gastric cancer responsible for dyspeptic symptoms in the study population may also influence epidemiology of dyspepsia. There is considerable heterogeneity in the above issues among different Asian countries. More studies on epidemiology of FD are needed in Asia.


Subject(s)
Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Burns , Dyspepsia , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Eructation , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastroparesis , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Nausea , Peptic Ulcer , Population Characteristics , Quality of Life , Stomach Neoplasms , Vomiting
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76463

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Antispasmodics including otilonium bromide (OB) are recommended to treat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, reports about OB experience in Asia is sparse. The purpose of present study was to provide the efficacy of OB in treating Asian IBS patients. METHODS: Overall, 117 IBS patients meeting Rome II criteria were enrolled in an 8-week, double-blind, active-controlled and single center trial. Randomized participants received either OB 40 mg or mebeverine 100 mg 3 doses daily. The primary endpoints were to evaluate the net changes of abdominal pain/discomfort frequency score (APDFS) and safety profile, while the secondary endpoints were to assess the changes in abdominal pain/discomfort intensity, flatulence, abdominal bloating, satisfied stool frequency etc. RESULTS: Finally, 49 OB and 52 mebeverine subjects were eligible for efficacy analysis. Compared to baselines in per protocol populations, the reduced APDFSs in OB and mebeverine were 0.55 +/- 1.20 (P = 0.011) and 0.37 +/- 1.11 (P = 0.042), respectively, to show similarly reduced scores. The most reported side effects included dry mouth, nausea and dizziness. Besides, the improved APDFSs at 4th week visit, final alleviations in abdominal pain intensity, flatulence, abdominal bloating and satisfied stool frequency with global assessments filled by both patients and investigators were significantly achieved by both treatments, and OB was not inferior to mebeverine in treating these parameters. CONCLUSIONS: In Orientals, OB is as effective as mebeverine for alleviating IBS symptoms in terms of abdominal pain, flatulence, abdominal bloating etc. However, obvious side effects are also observed. A large-scaled trial and post-marketing surveillance are recommended to confirm its efficacy and safety.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Dizziness , Flatulence , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Mouth , Nausea , Parasympatholytics , Phenethylamines , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Research Personnel , Rome
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98062

ABSTRACT

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been one of the commonly presented gastrointestinal disorders. It is of interest how commonly it presents in the society. Western studies indicated that most population-based IBS prevalences range 10%-15%. It is believed that IBS is prevalent in both East and West countries without a significant prevalence difference. Most recently, the Asia IBS prevalence has a higher trend in the affluent cities compared to South Asia. Since many Asia IBS prevalence studies have been published in the recent decade, we could compare the IBS prevalence data divided by various criteria in looking whether they were also comparable to this of West community. Summarized together, most Asia community IBS prevalences based on various criteria are usually within the range 1%-10% and are apparently lower than these of selected populations. Within the same population, the prevalence orders are first higher based on Manning criteria, then followed by Rome I criteria and finally reported in Rome II criteria. Overall, the median value of Asia IBS prevalences defined by various criteria ranges 6.5%-10.1%. With regard to gender difference, female predominance is usually found but not uniquely existed. For the IBS subtypes, the proportions of diarrhea predominant-IBS distribute widely from 0.8% to 74.0%, while constipation predominant-IBS proportion ranges 12%-77%. In conclusions, current Asia IBS prevalence is at least equal to the Western countries. Female predominant prevalence in Asia is common but not uniquely existed, while the proportions of IBS subtypes are too variable to find a rule.


Subject(s)
Asia , Constipation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea , Female , Gastrointestinal Motility , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Prevalence , Rome
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