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Protein & Cell ; (12): 203-219, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929177


Many people affected by fragile X syndrome (FXS) and autism spectrum disorders have sensory processing deficits, such as hypersensitivity to auditory, tactile, and visual stimuli. Like FXS in humans, loss of Fmr1 in rodents also cause sensory, behavioral, and cognitive deficits. However, the neural mechanisms underlying sensory impairment, especially vision impairment, remain unclear. It remains elusive whether the visual processing deficits originate from corrupted inputs, impaired perception in the primary sensory cortex, or altered integration in the higher cortex, and there is no effective treatment. In this study, we used a genetic knockout mouse model (Fmr1KO), in vivo imaging, and behavioral measurements to show that the loss of Fmr1 impaired signal processing in the primary visual cortex (V1). Specifically, Fmr1KO mice showed enhanced responses to low-intensity stimuli but normal responses to high-intensity stimuli. This abnormality was accompanied by enhancements in local network connectivity in V1 microcircuits and increased dendritic complexity of V1 neurons. These effects were ameliorated by the acute application of GABAA receptor activators, which enhanced the activity of inhibitory neurons, or by reintroducing Fmr1 gene expression in knockout V1 neurons in both juvenile and young-adult mice. Overall, V1 plays an important role in the visual abnormalities of Fmr1KO mice and it could be possible to rescue the sensory disturbances in developed FXS and autism patients.

Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/metabolism , Fragile X Syndrome/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Neurons/metabolism
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 378-388, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776479


Sparse labeling of neurons contributes to uncovering their morphology, and rapid expression of a fluorescent protein reduces the experiment range. To achieve the goal of rapid and sparse labeling of neurons in vivo, we established a rapid method for depicting the fine structure of neurons at 24 h post-infection based on a mutant virus-like particle of Semliki Forest virus. Approximately 0.014 fluorescent focus-forming units of the mutant virus-like particle transferred enhanced green fluorescent protein into neurons in vivo, and its affinity for neurons in vivo was stronger than for neurons in vitro and BHK21 (baby hamster kidney) cells. Collectively, the mutant virus-like particle provides a robust and convenient way to reveal the fine structure of neurons and is expected to be a helper virus for combining with other tools to determine their connectivity. Our work adds a new tool to the approaches for rapid and sparse labeling of neurons in vivo.

Animals , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression , Genetic Vectors , Genetics , Metabolism , Green Fluorescent Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Methods , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Methods , Neurons , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Purkinje Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Semliki forest virus , Genetics
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 709-723, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776458


Sensory processing is strongly modulated by different brain and behavioral states, and this is based on the top-down modulation. In the olfactory system, local neural circuits in the olfactory bulb (OB) are innervated by centrifugal afferents in order to regulate the processing of olfactory information in the OB under different behavioral states. The purpose of the present study was to explore the organization of neural networks in olfactory-related cortices and modulatory nuclei that give rise to direct and indirect innervations to the glomerular layer (GL) of the OB at the whole-brain scale. Injection of different recombinant attenuated neurotropic viruses into the GL showed that it received direct inputs from each layer in the OB, centrifugal inputs from the ipsilateralanterior olfactory nucleus (AON), anterior piriform cortex (Pir), and horizontal limb of diagonal band of Broca (HDB), and various indirect inputs from bilateral cortical neurons in the AON, Pir, amygdala, entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, HDB, dorsal raphe, median raphe and locus coeruleus. These results provide a circuitry basis that will help further understand the mechanism by which olfactory information-processing in the OB is regulated.

Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1126-1137, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776450


Amyloid deposits are one of the hallmark pathological lesions of Alzheimer's disease (AD). They can be visualized by thioflavin-S, silver impregnation, Congo red staining, and immunohistochemical reactions. However, that amyloid deposits generate blue autofluorescence (auto-F) has been ignored. Here, we report that visible light-induced auto-F of senile plaques (SPs) was detected and validated with conventional methods. Brain slices from APP/PS1 (amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1) transgenic mice were mounted on slides, rinsed, coverslipped and observed for details of the imaging and spectral characteristics of the auto-F of SPs. Then the slices were treated with the above classic methods for comparative validation. We found that the SP auto-F was greatest under blue-violet excitation with a specific emission spectrum, and was much easier, more sensitive, and reliable than the classic methods. Because it does not damage slices, observation of auto-F can be combined with all post-staining techniques in slices and for brain-wide imaging in AD.

Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 1043-1046, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-385602


Objective To establish a new canine model of ureter trauma to observe the protective effect of biodegradable ureteral stent on renal function following traumatic ureter injury. Methods A self-made device was used to make firearm fragment wounds unilaterally on the ureters in nine Beagle dogs (model group). The wounds were debrided and sutured and the results were evaluated by using intravenous pyelography (IVP) and radioactive renography at 40, 80 and 120 days postoperatively. Firearm fragment wounds were made to the bilateral ureters of nine Beagle dogs in the positive control group, in which a biodegradable stent was placed in one side and a double-J stent placed in the other side. Results In model group, hydronephrosis and hydroureter occurred and got worse postoperatively on the wounded side in all nine Beagle dogs, while none of these symptoms were found in any animals in the control group. The ratios of biodegradable stent side to double-J stent side were increased in renal patial concertration index and half time of kidney washout, but neither showed significant differences. However,vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was not found in the biodegradable stent side, but in the double -J stent side. Conclusions A new canine model of firearm fragment wounds is successfully developed. Both the biodegradable and double-J stent play important roles in support and drainage and show no significant difference in aspects of renal uptake and half time of kidney washout. The biodegradable stent can effectively prevent VUR.