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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922721

ABSTRACT

The Delta variant of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a new global wave of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 vaccines currently available in China show high effectiveness against severe illness and death. However, transmission of the virus is not fully stopped by vaccination alone, therefore, integrated vaccination and non-pharmacological interventions is necessary to prevent and control the epidemic in the near future. Further expanded vaccine coverage of primary doses as well as booster shots in China's domestic population are needed to reduce severe illness and death. In order to provide evidence necessary for adjusting and optimizing immunization strategies and pandemic control measures, it is essential to conduct research on vaccine effectiveness against emerging variants, persistence of vaccine-induced protection, surveillance of adverse event following immunization with large-scale vaccine use, and modelling studies on strategic combinations of vaccination and non-pharmacological interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805087

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the changing epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis E cases in China, in order to promote in preventing and controlling hepatitis E.@*Methods@#Data of hepatitis E and outbreaks reported through national notifiable diseases reporting system were analyzed from 2004 to 2017, but data of Hongkong, Macau and Taiwan were not included. Data of hepatitis E were divided into three phases as 2004-2007, 2008-2011 and 2012-2017, representing eight years before, four years before and years after the postmarketing of hepatitis E vaccine. Linear regression was used for analyzing the trend of hepatitis E, improved muster method was used for analyzing the seasonal intensity.@*Results@#From 2004 to 2017, 329 519 hepatitis E cases were reported and the annual incidence were increasing from 1.27/100 000 to 2.10/100 000 (t=6.87, P<0.001). The concentrations of hepatitis E during 2004-2007, 2008-2011 and 2012-2017 were 17.43, 16.06, 11.17, respectively, with low seasonal intensity. Number of cases reported by Jiangsu, Guangdong and Zhejiang accounted for 31.54% of national cases. The incidence were lower in central (1.45/100 000) and western (1.11/100 000) region than that in eastern region (2.67/100 000), but were increasing continuously. There was an increasing trend of incidence with growing ages (t=7.85, P<0.001). The incidence was higher than 2/100 000 among cases aged ≥40, and was the highest (5.22/100 000) in the age group of 65-69 years old. Farmers, retired persons, houseworkers and unemployees accounted for 67.46% of total cases. A total of 7 outbreaks were reported, among which 3 were in nursing homes.@*Conclusion@#The incidence of hepatitis E in central and western regions were increasing continuously and the surveillance should be strengthened. There was higher risk among middle-aged population, farmers and nursing homes, so strategy for immunization among those population was in great need.

3.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1426-1431, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801160

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis E Virus antibody (anti-HEV) in people aged 1-29 years in China in 2014.@*Methods@#Based on database of the national serologic survey of hepatitis B in people aged 1-29 years in China, in 2014, the sample size was estimated. The serum samples of the people surveyed were randomly selected to detect anti-HEV IgG by using enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical software SAS 9.1.3 was used to calculate the positive rate of anti-HEV and 95% confidence interval (CI) in different age, gender groups, urban and rural areas and geographic areas by using the Taylor series linear method with sampling weight. The difference was determined by comparing 95%CI.@*Results@#A total of 14 106 serum samples were detected from people aged 1-29 years, including 6 996 males (49.60%), 7 013 urban residents (49.72%). The positive rate of anti-HEV was 8.12%(95%CI: 7.19-9.15) in people aged 1-29 years. There was no statistical difference between the men and women, between urban area and rural area. The positive rates of anti-HEV in western area(11.36%, 95%CI: 9.45-13.62) was higher than those in eastern and central areas. The positive rates of anti-HEV were 2.46%, 2.24%, 4.50%, 7.58%, 11.89% and 17.27% in people aged 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 20- and 25-29 years, respectively. As the age increased, the positive rate of anti-HEV gradually increased. In different ethnic groups, the positive rate of anti-HEV was higher in Tibetan (18.32%, 95%CI: 12.02-26.90), Zhuang (9.54%, 95%CI: 4.33-19.73) ethnic groups.@*Conclusion@#The positive rate of anti-HEV declined slightly in China in 2014. It is still necessary to pay close attention to the HEV infection, morbidity of hepatitis E and risk factors in people aged 1-29 years.

4.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1351-1355, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736683

ABSTRACT

Objective Through analyzing the epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis A and E and the situation of vaccination,to promote the recommendation profile on Hepatitis E vaccination program,in China.Methods Three phases of time span were divided as 2004-2007,2008-2011 and 2012-2015,with age groups divided as <20,20-29,30-39 and ≥40.Incidence rates in both different phases and age groups were compared.Numbers of Hepatitis A and E vaccines released and used,were described.Results Between 2004 and 2015,a declining trend in the reported incidence of hepatitis A (t=-12.15,P<0.001),but an increasing trend in hepatitis E (t=6.63,P<0.00l) were noticed.The mean number of hepatitis A cases declined from 6 515 to 1 986 between 2004 and 2007 while the number of hepatitis E cases increased from 1 491 to 2 277 between 2012 and 2015.The peaks of hepatitis E appeared persistent annually,in March.The incidence of hepatitis A declined in three regions,with the western region (3.46/100 000) much higher than the eastern (1.13/100 000) or central regions (1.14/100 000) (x2=32 630,P<0.01).The incidence of hepatitis E increased both in the central (1.74/100 000) and western regions (1.58/100 000),but more in the eastern region (2.66/100 000) (x2=6 009,P < 0.01).Incidence of hepatitis A declined in all age groups and declined by 84.36% among the 0-19 group.However,the incidence of hepatitis E showed an increasing trend among the ≥20 group.Incidence rates appeared higher in the older age groups.The coverage of hepatitis A vaccine increased from 62.05% to 93.54%,but with a negative association seen between the coverage of Hepatitis A vaccine and the incidence (F=10.69,x2<0.05).Conclusion The incidence of Hepatitis A declined sharply in China while hepatitis E was still increasing from 2004to 2015,calling for the expansion on the coverage of Hepatitis E vaccine in the whole population.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-807568

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To review the consistency of diagnosis and reporting of hepatitis B (HB) patient in non-surveillance hospitals in three provinces and analyze the influencing factors.@*Methods@#In 2016, using typical survey methods, we carried out a hospital-based pilot study in three provinces: Fujian, Hainan and Gansu. In each province, we chose two hospitals with grade 3 and grade 2 respectively in each province, using the following criteria: (1) in 2015, the hospital reported a greater number of hepatitis B cases compared the hospital-based provincial mean; (2) the hospital had an advanced laboratory information system (LIS) with access to HBsAg test results; (3) the hospital had an electronic hospital information system (HIS) which linked to the LIS via the inpatient medical record number; (4) general hospital; (5) non-surveillance hospitals for hepatitis B. Using national notifiable infectious disease reporting system (NNDRS), we chose all HB patients who were reported by the investigated hospitals in 2015, and we linked NNDRS HBV case-reports with patient-data from hospital information systems (HIS) to review the diagnosis, and then to compare the consistency of reviewed diagnosis and NNDRS report diagnosis, which we made a descriptive analysis. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine factors associated with misclassification of case-reports to NNDRS.@*Results@#We found the NNDRS report accuracy was 47.11% (669) among 1 420 eligible inpatient hepatitis B inpatients. Of the 352 reported acute HBV cases, 6.53% (23) were consistent with our medical record review, the accuracy rate for level 2 hospitals and level 3 hospitals was 9.42% (21) and 1.55% (2), respectively. Of the1 068 reported chronic HBV cases, 60.49% (646) were consistent with our medical record review, the accuracy rate for level 2 hospitals and level 3 hospitals was 57.92% (106) and 60.02% (540), respectively. Compared to primary diagnosis of HB patients, the OR(95%CI) for mis-report was 29.36 (19.21-44.76) in non-primary diagnosis of HB patients. Compared to Fujian Province, the mis-report risk was higher in Hainan province and Gansu Province, with the values of OR (95%CI) being 2.33 (1.58-3.44) and 20.38 (11.29-36.78), respectively; compared to level 3 hospitals, the OR (95%CI) for mis-report was 2.38 (1.66-3.42) for level 2 hospitals; compared to HB related wards, the OR (95%CI) for mis-report was 1.45 (1.04-2.01) in non-HB-related wards.@*Conclusion@#In some non-surveillance areas of China, the consistency between hepatitis B diagnosed in hospital and reported in NNDRS was low. Factors affecting the accuracy of HB surveillance data in NNDRS were level 2 hospitals, non-liver disease departments and nonprimary diagnosis of HB.

6.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1351-1355, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738151

ABSTRACT

Objective Through analyzing the epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis A and E and the situation of vaccination,to promote the recommendation profile on Hepatitis E vaccination program,in China.Methods Three phases of time span were divided as 2004-2007,2008-2011 and 2012-2015,with age groups divided as <20,20-29,30-39 and ≥40.Incidence rates in both different phases and age groups were compared.Numbers of Hepatitis A and E vaccines released and used,were described.Results Between 2004 and 2015,a declining trend in the reported incidence of hepatitis A (t=-12.15,P<0.001),but an increasing trend in hepatitis E (t=6.63,P<0.00l) were noticed.The mean number of hepatitis A cases declined from 6 515 to 1 986 between 2004 and 2007 while the number of hepatitis E cases increased from 1 491 to 2 277 between 2012 and 2015.The peaks of hepatitis E appeared persistent annually,in March.The incidence of hepatitis A declined in three regions,with the western region (3.46/100 000) much higher than the eastern (1.13/100 000) or central regions (1.14/100 000) (x2=32 630,P<0.01).The incidence of hepatitis E increased both in the central (1.74/100 000) and western regions (1.58/100 000),but more in the eastern region (2.66/100 000) (x2=6 009,P < 0.01).Incidence of hepatitis A declined in all age groups and declined by 84.36% among the 0-19 group.However,the incidence of hepatitis E showed an increasing trend among the ≥20 group.Incidence rates appeared higher in the older age groups.The coverage of hepatitis A vaccine increased from 62.05% to 93.54%,but with a negative association seen between the coverage of Hepatitis A vaccine and the incidence (F=10.69,x2<0.05).Conclusion The incidence of Hepatitis A declined sharply in China while hepatitis E was still increasing from 2004to 2015,calling for the expansion on the coverage of Hepatitis E vaccine in the whole population.

7.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1645-1648, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737891

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effects on Hepatitis B surveillance models at the surveillance pilot points in China.Methods Hepatitis B related records kept at the surveillance pilot points were downloaded from NNDRS.Data concerning proportion of unclassified Hepatitis B cases,consistency of additional records and the accuracy of reported acute Hepatitis B cases were evaluated.Results The proportion of unclassified Hepatitis B cases was decreasing year by year (P<0.05),from 32.07% in 2012 to 4.26% in 2015,with Kappa as 0.768,0.821 and 0.836 respectively in 2013-2015.The accuracy of reported acute Hepatitis B was improving (P<0.05),from 55.77% in 2013 to 74.49% in 2015.Conclusions Additional records and blood testings on acute Hepatitis B cases seemed to be effective in improving the accuracy of Hepatitis B reporting system and decreasing the proportion of unclassified Hepatitis B cases.We suggested that this model of surveillance could be applied elsewhere in the nation to improve the quality of report system on Hepatitis B.

8.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1156-1160, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737794

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the antibody persistence 5 years after primary immunization with 5 μg and 10 μg recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) among newborns with normal and high response.Methods Newborns who completed three doses of 5 μ g HepB made by recombinant dexyribonucleic acid technique in Saccharomyces (HepB-SC) or 10 μg HepB made by recombinant dexyribonucleic acid technique in Hansenula polymorpha (HepB-HP) were recruited.Standardized questionnaire was used and blood samples were collected 1-6 months (T0) and five years (T1) after the third dose respectively.The titer of anti-HBs was detected by chemiluminescence microparticle imunoassay (CMIA).Those who achieved normal or high antibody response (anti-HBs titer ≥100 mIU/ml) were included in the study and the positive rate (≥ 10 mIU/ml) and titer of anti-HBs at T1 were compared between 5 μg HepB group and 10 μg HepB group.Multivariable analysis was conducted to identify the independent factors associated with the antibody persistence.Results The positive rate of anti-HBs at T1 was 49.92% (943/1 883) and 75.92% (1 135/1 495) respectively in 5 μg HepB group and 10 μg HepB group,the difference was significant (x2=237.75,P<0.001).The anti-IBs geometric mean concentrations at T1 were 10.23 mIU/ml (95%CI:9.38-11.16) and 28.91 mIU/ml (95%CI:26.65-31.35) in the two groups respectively,the difference was also significant (F=280.36,P<0.001).Among those whose anti-HBs titer was < 10 mIU/ml at T1,the distributions of anti-HBs titer were significantly different between 5 μg HepB group and 10 μg HepB group (x2=39.75,P< 0.001).The multivariable analysis showed that dosage of HepB was independently associated with both positive rate and titer of anti-HBs at T1 after excluding the other factors [P<0.001,OR=1.44(95% CI:1.20-1.73);P<0.001,β =0.27 (95% CI:0.14-0.40)].Conclusion Five year anti-HBs persistence after primary immunization with 10 μg HepB might be better than that after primary immunization with 5 μg HepB among infants who achieved normal or high anti-HBs response after primary HepB immunization.

9.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 868-876, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737738

ABSTRACT

Objective Less surveys on the economic burden of hepatitis B (HB)-related diseases have been conducted in China,so the socioeconomic harm caused by the diseases is not clear and the key parameters for economic evaluation of hepatitis B prevention and treatment are lacking.This study aimed to analyze the direct,indirect and intangible expenditures of hospitalized patients with HB-related diseases during hospitalization and during a year in different areas of China.Methods The hospitals for infectious diseases and the large general hospitals in 12 areas in China were selected in the study.All the inpatients with HB-related diseases were surveyed by cluster sampling of consecutive cases.The direct expenditure included direct medical cost and direct non-medical cost.The indirect expenditure,including work loss of patients and caregivers,were calculated by using human capital method for urban and rural populations in 12 areas.The intangible expenditure were reflected by willing to pay and stochastic tournament.The influencing factors of direct and indirect costs were identified by stepwise linear multi-variation regression analysis.Results A total of 27 hospitals in 12 areas were included in the survey.A total of 4 718 cases were surveyed,the overall response rate was 77.7%.The average hospital stay was 29.2 days (27-34) and the hospitalization expenditure was averagely 16 832.80 yuan (RMB) per case,in which the highest proportion (61.2%)was medicine fees [10 365.10 yuan (RMB)].The average direct expenditure and indirect expenditure were consistent with the severity of illness,which were 18 336.10 yuan (RMB) and 4 759.60 yuan (RMB) respectively,with the ratio of 3.85:1.The direct medical expenditure [17 434.70 yuan (RMB)] were substantially higher than the direct non-medical expenditure [901.40 yuan (RMB)].It was found that the hospitalization expenses was highest in direct medical expenditure and the transportation expenses was highest in direct non-medical expenditures.Among the average indirect expenditure,the loss of income for the patients [3 832.50 yuan (RMB)] was higher than that for the caregivers [927.20 yuan (RMB)],The total direct and indirect expenditure was highest for liver transplantation,followed by severe hepatitis,hepatocellular carcinoma and decompensated cirrhosis,acute hepatitis B,compensated cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis B.The influencing factors for both direct and indirect expenditure were high hospital level,severity of hepatitis B,living in urban area,antiviral therapy,long hospitalization and monthly income of family.For average 3.74 outpatient visits and 1.51 hospitalization,the average annual direct,indirect and intangible expenditure for HB-related diseases were 30 135.30,6 253.80 and 44 729.90 yuan (RMB) [totally 81 119.00 yuan (RMB)],accounting for 37.3%,7.7% and 55.0%,respectively.Of the annual direct medical expenditure [28 402.80 yuan (RMB)],which were much higher than non-medical expenditure [1 732.50 yuan (RMB)],hospitalization expenditure [26 074.20 yuan (RMB)] was higher than outpatient visit expenditure [4 061.10 yuan (RMB)].The annual indirect expenditures for outpatient visit and hospitalization were 763.60 and 5 490.10 yuan (RMB),respectively.Of the annual intangible expenditure,the highest was that for/primary hepatocellular carcinoma,followed by cirrhosis,chronic hepatitis B,severe hepatitis B,liver transplantation and acute hepatitis B.Conclusions A heavy economic burden has been caused by HB-related diseases in China,and patients are more likely to rely on medical service rather than non-medical service.It is necessary to take effective treatment measures to prevent the adverse outcome of HB related diseases and achieve significant economic benefits.The influence of HB related diseases on mental health of the people can be reflected by an economics term,intangible expenditure.

10.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 457-461, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737663

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the sero-epidemiological features of hepatitis B among children aged 1-14 years old who were born to HBsAg positive mothers.Methods Based on the results from the hepatitis B national sero-survey in 2014,children aged 1-14 years old born to HBsAg positive mother were involved in this study.Positive rates on HBsAg,anti-HBs,anti-HBc by gender,age,nationality,birth place,residency (urban/rural),region (eastern/central/western) and related factors of HBsAg and anti-HBs for children under research,were analyzed by SPSS 18.0 statistical software.Results A total of 645 children aged 1-14 years old that born to HBsAg positive mothers were analyzed in the study.Positive rates on HBsAg,anti-HBs,anti-HBc among these children were 3.41% (22/645),71.94% (464/645) and 7.60% (49/645),respectively.HBsAg positive rates for children aged 1-2 years,3-4 years,5-9 years,10-14 years appeared 1.27% (3/236),3.23% (6/186),5.71% (8/140) and 6.02% (5/83),respectively.The anti-HBs positive rates were 85.17% (201/236),69.35% (129/186),56.43% (79/140),66.27% (55/83) while the anti-HBc positive rates were 4.66% (11/236),5.38% (10/186),11.43% (16/140) and 14.46% (12/83),respectively.Results from the multifactor logistic analysis showed that birth place,time of the first dose of HepB inoculation were major influencing factors on the positive rates among children with HBsAg.HBsAg positive rate for the children born outside the hospital was higher than those born in the hospital (OR=7.47,95% CI:1.50-37.25).HBsAg positive rate for children with the first dose of HepB inoculation>24 h after birth,was higher than that inoculation within 24 h after birth (OR=6.21,95% CI:2.15-17.99).Conclusions Some achievements in preventing mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B had been seen in China.Hospital delivery for pregnant women and timely HepB vaccination with birth-dose for the neonates,remained the key strategy on prevention of HBV vertical transmission.

11.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 216-220, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737623

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the characteristics of acute hepatitis B inpatients reported by the hepatitis B surveillance pilot points and to estimate the consistency between the diagnosed and reported types of hepatitis B by the clinicians involved.Methods Data related to acute hepatitis B was from the NNDRS and the characteristics of acute hepatitis B were classified by querying Hospital Information System.We recorded the results based on clinical diagnosis and analyzed the consistency between the reported and diagnosed types that the clinicians made,on hepatitis B.Resulis A total of 179 patients were included in this study with all of them as acute hepatitis B reported through NNDRS in 2015-2016.In terms of the durations of disease,among the 179 cases who were HBsAg positive,32.40% (58/179) of them exceeding 6 months,2.79% (5/179) within 6 months and 64.80% (116/179) tested the first time or never.Among the 179 cases who claimed having the history of hepatitis,33.52% (60/179) of them identified as having hepatitis B,1.12% (2/179) were hepatitis A,C or E,41.34% (74/179) did not have the signs on hepatitis,while the rest 24.02% (43/179) did not know the situation.Only 79.89%(143/179) of the patients showed the symptoms or signs of hepatitis,but the rest 20.11%(36/179) did not.Among the 179 reported acute hepatitis patients,67 of them were diagnosed as acute hepatitis B while 112 cases were as non-acute hepatitis B.The consistent rate of acute hepatitis B was 37.43% (67/179).Among the 112 cases that were diagnosed as non-acute hepatitis B,proportions of chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis were 49.11%(55/112) and 16.07%(18/112) respectively.Conclusion Consistency between the reported type of acute hepatitis B inpatients and the types diagnosed by clinicians was poor.Our results suggested that clinicians should make the accurate diagnosis at first place and then report to the Network in accordance with the clinical diagnosis classification criterfia,set by the government.

12.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1645-1648, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736423

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effects on Hepatitis B surveillance models at the surveillance pilot points in China.Methods Hepatitis B related records kept at the surveillance pilot points were downloaded from NNDRS.Data concerning proportion of unclassified Hepatitis B cases,consistency of additional records and the accuracy of reported acute Hepatitis B cases were evaluated.Results The proportion of unclassified Hepatitis B cases was decreasing year by year (P<0.05),from 32.07% in 2012 to 4.26% in 2015,with Kappa as 0.768,0.821 and 0.836 respectively in 2013-2015.The accuracy of reported acute Hepatitis B was improving (P<0.05),from 55.77% in 2013 to 74.49% in 2015.Conclusions Additional records and blood testings on acute Hepatitis B cases seemed to be effective in improving the accuracy of Hepatitis B reporting system and decreasing the proportion of unclassified Hepatitis B cases.We suggested that this model of surveillance could be applied elsewhere in the nation to improve the quality of report system on Hepatitis B.

13.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1156-1160, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736326

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the antibody persistence 5 years after primary immunization with 5 μg and 10 μg recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) among newborns with normal and high response.Methods Newborns who completed three doses of 5 μ g HepB made by recombinant dexyribonucleic acid technique in Saccharomyces (HepB-SC) or 10 μg HepB made by recombinant dexyribonucleic acid technique in Hansenula polymorpha (HepB-HP) were recruited.Standardized questionnaire was used and blood samples were collected 1-6 months (T0) and five years (T1) after the third dose respectively.The titer of anti-HBs was detected by chemiluminescence microparticle imunoassay (CMIA).Those who achieved normal or high antibody response (anti-HBs titer ≥100 mIU/ml) were included in the study and the positive rate (≥ 10 mIU/ml) and titer of anti-HBs at T1 were compared between 5 μg HepB group and 10 μg HepB group.Multivariable analysis was conducted to identify the independent factors associated with the antibody persistence.Results The positive rate of anti-HBs at T1 was 49.92% (943/1 883) and 75.92% (1 135/1 495) respectively in 5 μg HepB group and 10 μg HepB group,the difference was significant (x2=237.75,P<0.001).The anti-IBs geometric mean concentrations at T1 were 10.23 mIU/ml (95%CI:9.38-11.16) and 28.91 mIU/ml (95%CI:26.65-31.35) in the two groups respectively,the difference was also significant (F=280.36,P<0.001).Among those whose anti-HBs titer was < 10 mIU/ml at T1,the distributions of anti-HBs titer were significantly different between 5 μg HepB group and 10 μg HepB group (x2=39.75,P< 0.001).The multivariable analysis showed that dosage of HepB was independently associated with both positive rate and titer of anti-HBs at T1 after excluding the other factors [P<0.001,OR=1.44(95% CI:1.20-1.73);P<0.001,β =0.27 (95% CI:0.14-0.40)].Conclusion Five year anti-HBs persistence after primary immunization with 10 μg HepB might be better than that after primary immunization with 5 μg HepB among infants who achieved normal or high anti-HBs response after primary HepB immunization.

14.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 868-876, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736270

ABSTRACT

Objective Less surveys on the economic burden of hepatitis B (HB)-related diseases have been conducted in China,so the socioeconomic harm caused by the diseases is not clear and the key parameters for economic evaluation of hepatitis B prevention and treatment are lacking.This study aimed to analyze the direct,indirect and intangible expenditures of hospitalized patients with HB-related diseases during hospitalization and during a year in different areas of China.Methods The hospitals for infectious diseases and the large general hospitals in 12 areas in China were selected in the study.All the inpatients with HB-related diseases were surveyed by cluster sampling of consecutive cases.The direct expenditure included direct medical cost and direct non-medical cost.The indirect expenditure,including work loss of patients and caregivers,were calculated by using human capital method for urban and rural populations in 12 areas.The intangible expenditure were reflected by willing to pay and stochastic tournament.The influencing factors of direct and indirect costs were identified by stepwise linear multi-variation regression analysis.Results A total of 27 hospitals in 12 areas were included in the survey.A total of 4 718 cases were surveyed,the overall response rate was 77.7%.The average hospital stay was 29.2 days (27-34) and the hospitalization expenditure was averagely 16 832.80 yuan (RMB) per case,in which the highest proportion (61.2%)was medicine fees [10 365.10 yuan (RMB)].The average direct expenditure and indirect expenditure were consistent with the severity of illness,which were 18 336.10 yuan (RMB) and 4 759.60 yuan (RMB) respectively,with the ratio of 3.85:1.The direct medical expenditure [17 434.70 yuan (RMB)] were substantially higher than the direct non-medical expenditure [901.40 yuan (RMB)].It was found that the hospitalization expenses was highest in direct medical expenditure and the transportation expenses was highest in direct non-medical expenditures.Among the average indirect expenditure,the loss of income for the patients [3 832.50 yuan (RMB)] was higher than that for the caregivers [927.20 yuan (RMB)],The total direct and indirect expenditure was highest for liver transplantation,followed by severe hepatitis,hepatocellular carcinoma and decompensated cirrhosis,acute hepatitis B,compensated cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis B.The influencing factors for both direct and indirect expenditure were high hospital level,severity of hepatitis B,living in urban area,antiviral therapy,long hospitalization and monthly income of family.For average 3.74 outpatient visits and 1.51 hospitalization,the average annual direct,indirect and intangible expenditure for HB-related diseases were 30 135.30,6 253.80 and 44 729.90 yuan (RMB) [totally 81 119.00 yuan (RMB)],accounting for 37.3%,7.7% and 55.0%,respectively.Of the annual direct medical expenditure [28 402.80 yuan (RMB)],which were much higher than non-medical expenditure [1 732.50 yuan (RMB)],hospitalization expenditure [26 074.20 yuan (RMB)] was higher than outpatient visit expenditure [4 061.10 yuan (RMB)].The annual indirect expenditures for outpatient visit and hospitalization were 763.60 and 5 490.10 yuan (RMB),respectively.Of the annual intangible expenditure,the highest was that for/primary hepatocellular carcinoma,followed by cirrhosis,chronic hepatitis B,severe hepatitis B,liver transplantation and acute hepatitis B.Conclusions A heavy economic burden has been caused by HB-related diseases in China,and patients are more likely to rely on medical service rather than non-medical service.It is necessary to take effective treatment measures to prevent the adverse outcome of HB related diseases and achieve significant economic benefits.The influence of HB related diseases on mental health of the people can be reflected by an economics term,intangible expenditure.

15.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 457-461, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736195

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the sero-epidemiological features of hepatitis B among children aged 1-14 years old who were born to HBsAg positive mothers.Methods Based on the results from the hepatitis B national sero-survey in 2014,children aged 1-14 years old born to HBsAg positive mother were involved in this study.Positive rates on HBsAg,anti-HBs,anti-HBc by gender,age,nationality,birth place,residency (urban/rural),region (eastern/central/western) and related factors of HBsAg and anti-HBs for children under research,were analyzed by SPSS 18.0 statistical software.Results A total of 645 children aged 1-14 years old that born to HBsAg positive mothers were analyzed in the study.Positive rates on HBsAg,anti-HBs,anti-HBc among these children were 3.41% (22/645),71.94% (464/645) and 7.60% (49/645),respectively.HBsAg positive rates for children aged 1-2 years,3-4 years,5-9 years,10-14 years appeared 1.27% (3/236),3.23% (6/186),5.71% (8/140) and 6.02% (5/83),respectively.The anti-HBs positive rates were 85.17% (201/236),69.35% (129/186),56.43% (79/140),66.27% (55/83) while the anti-HBc positive rates were 4.66% (11/236),5.38% (10/186),11.43% (16/140) and 14.46% (12/83),respectively.Results from the multifactor logistic analysis showed that birth place,time of the first dose of HepB inoculation were major influencing factors on the positive rates among children with HBsAg.HBsAg positive rate for the children born outside the hospital was higher than those born in the hospital (OR=7.47,95% CI:1.50-37.25).HBsAg positive rate for children with the first dose of HepB inoculation>24 h after birth,was higher than that inoculation within 24 h after birth (OR=6.21,95% CI:2.15-17.99).Conclusions Some achievements in preventing mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B had been seen in China.Hospital delivery for pregnant women and timely HepB vaccination with birth-dose for the neonates,remained the key strategy on prevention of HBV vertical transmission.

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Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 216-220, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736155

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Objective To understand the characteristics of acute hepatitis B inpatients reported by the hepatitis B surveillance pilot points and to estimate the consistency between the diagnosed and reported types of hepatitis B by the clinicians involved.Methods Data related to acute hepatitis B was from the NNDRS and the characteristics of acute hepatitis B were classified by querying Hospital Information System.We recorded the results based on clinical diagnosis and analyzed the consistency between the reported and diagnosed types that the clinicians made,on hepatitis B.Resulis A total of 179 patients were included in this study with all of them as acute hepatitis B reported through NNDRS in 2015-2016.In terms of the durations of disease,among the 179 cases who were HBsAg positive,32.40% (58/179) of them exceeding 6 months,2.79% (5/179) within 6 months and 64.80% (116/179) tested the first time or never.Among the 179 cases who claimed having the history of hepatitis,33.52% (60/179) of them identified as having hepatitis B,1.12% (2/179) were hepatitis A,C or E,41.34% (74/179) did not have the signs on hepatitis,while the rest 24.02% (43/179) did not know the situation.Only 79.89%(143/179) of the patients showed the symptoms or signs of hepatitis,but the rest 20.11%(36/179) did not.Among the 179 reported acute hepatitis patients,67 of them were diagnosed as acute hepatitis B while 112 cases were as non-acute hepatitis B.The consistent rate of acute hepatitis B was 37.43% (67/179).Among the 112 cases that were diagnosed as non-acute hepatitis B,proportions of chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis were 49.11%(55/112) and 16.07%(18/112) respectively.Conclusion Consistency between the reported type of acute hepatitis B inpatients and the types diagnosed by clinicians was poor.Our results suggested that clinicians should make the accurate diagnosis at first place and then report to the Network in accordance with the clinical diagnosis classification criterfia,set by the government.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-809723

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Objective@#To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis A cases in China from 2004 to 2015.@*Methods@#Data of hepatitis A were reported through national notifiable disease information reporting system, which covered the 31 provinces (Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan excluded). The inclusion criteria was: date of illness onset was between January 1st 2004 and December 31st 2015, the status of reported card was confirmed, the case was classified as laboratory confirmed or clinical diagnosed, the disease was Hepatitis A. The information such as sex, date of birth, date of illness onset, place of residence was collected. The data was divided into three phases, 2004-2007, 2008-2011, 2012-2015, which represented the phase before expanded program on immunization (EPI), first 4 years after EPI, second 4 years after EPI.@*Results@#From 2004 to 2015, there were totally 574 697 hepatitis A cases in China, the mean annual incidence was 3.62/100 000. The risk ratio of hepatitis A in 2015 was 0.23 when compared with 2004. Sichuan, Xinjiang and Yunnan contributed to 27.27% of the total cases in China. In 2012-2015, the incidence of western (3.46/100 000) region was significantly higher than that in central (1.21/100 000) and eastern (1.08/100 000) regions. From 2004-2015, number of cases in each age group declined greatly, with number of cases declining from 43 711 to 5 938 in the age group of 5-9 years, from 29 722 to 3 438 in 10-14, from 23 212 to 3 646 in 15-19. The number of cases declined from 24 079 to 10 304 in the age group of 0-4 (declined by 57.21%), but in 2012-2015, the incidence of 0-4 age group was still the highest, with 77.72% cases in Xinjiang and Sichuan. Famers, students and scattered children accounted for 69.95% of total cases, with student cases declined from 24.08% (2004-2007) to 8.67% (2012-2015).@*Conclusion@#The incidence of hepatitis A in China is decreasing year by year, the risk has been decreasing to a relatively low level. However, in western regions and children under age five, the risk is still high. Precision intervention is needed for further prevention and control of hepatitis A.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-809056

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Objective@#To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of HBV susceptible people in 1-29 years old people in 2006 and 2014 in China.@*Method@#Data is from the 2006 and 2014 national sero-survey, and both of them were conducted in 160 disease surveillance points of 31 provinces (excluding Hong Kong, Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan province) in China. We used the centralized face-to face investigation method to collect basic information including birth date, gender, ethnicity, resident place, hepatitis B vaccination (HepB) history and so on, and 5 ml venous blood was collected for all subjects to test the sero-markers of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc. We definite the HBV susceptible people as the HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc all negative together. And we use chi-square to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of HBV susceptibility in 1-29 years old young people in 2006 and 2014, and use multiple factors logistic regression to analyze the affect factors on HBV susceptible appearing in people with HepB vaccination.@*Result@#In 2006 and 2014 sero-surveys, the investigated 1-29 year-old people were 49 849 and 31 713, respectively. And compared with 2006, the proportion of HBV susceptible people with HepB among 1-29 in 2014 increased from 20.87% (10 401) to 28.55% (9 055) (χ2=630.69, P<0.001); and the proportion of susceptible people without HepB decreasing from 15.02% (7 485) to 7.66% (2 460) (χ2=953.73, P<0.001). Compared with Han nationality, the high risk of susceptible appearing in minority people after HepB vaccination (OR=1.38). And compared with less than 3 doses HepB vaccination, the more than 3 doses vaccination could reduce the anti-HBs disappearing rate (OR=0.68); Compared with one year after last dose vaccination, the 2-4 years interval (OR=3.33) and more than 5 years interval (OR=6.53) would have high risk for anti-HBs disappearing. All above were P<0.001. In western area, the proportion of susceptible people without HepB (9.58%, 1 047/2 460) was higher than the proportion in eastern (6.30%, 657/2 460) and middle area (7.30%, 756/2 460) (P<0.001).@*Conclusion@#The HepB coverage maintained in high level in 1-4 years old children. The HBV susceptible proportion mainly concentrated in 15-29 years old people, and the immunization gap was in western, rural areas and minority peoples.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-808927

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Objective@#Assess the 4-year antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) persistence after revaccination with 3-dose of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) among low-responder infants following primary vaccination.@*Methods@#According to stratified cluster sampling, a total of 4 147 infants were enrolled and primarily vaccinated with 5 μg HepB derived in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae (HepB-SC) at 0-1-6 months schedule from 75 towns of Jinan, Weifang, Yantai, Weihai prefectures, Shandong Province, China in Aug and Sep 2009. Blood samples were collected one to six months after the third dose of primary immunization and tested for anti-HBs using chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). 717 infants who appeared low response (10 mU/ml ≤ anti-HBs<100 mU/ml) were revaccinated with 3-dose of HepB. Blood samples were collected from a total of 315 infants one month (T0), four years (T1) after revaccination and anti-HBs, antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were detected by CMIA. Information about their birth, primary vaccination were collected. The risk factors associated with positive rate of anti-HBs and GMC of anti-HBs were identified by multiple non-conditional logistic regression analysis and multifactor linear regression model analysis, respectively.@*Results@#Among 315 children, 165 (52.38%) were male and 150 (47.62%) were female. The positive rate was 83.81% (264/315) at T0 and it decreased to 16.51% (149/529) at T1. The corresponding GMC decreased from 473.15 mU/ml to 17.37 mU/ml. The average annual decreasing rate of positive rate and GMC was 33.38% and 56.23% from T0 to T1. Multivariable analysis showed the positive rate and GMC among those whose anti-HBs titer higher at T0 were significantly higher at T1. The positive rate at T1 among those whose anti-HBs titer 400-<600, 600-<800, 800-<1 000, ≥1 000 mU/ml at T0 were significantly higher than those whose anti-HBs titer less than 200 mU/ml. The OR (95%CI) of the positive rate was 4.29 (1.03-17.84), 4.53 (1.25-16.47), 4.19 (1.10-15.97) and 9.13 (2.91-28.63), respectively. The GMC at T1 among those whose anti-HBs titer 400-<600, 600-<800, 800-<1 000 mU/ml and those whose anti-HBs titer ≥1 000 mU/ml at T0 were higher than those whose anti-HBs titer<200 mU/ml. The b value (95% CI) of GMC was 0.84 (0.06-1.62), 1.13 (0.46-1.79), 1.33 (0.65-2.01) and 1.88 (1.33-2.44), respectively. GMC among full-term infants were significantly higher than premature infants at T1. The b value (95% CI) of GMC was 0.86 (0.04-1.68).@*Conclusion@#Anti-HBs GMC decreased rapidly 4 years after revaccination among low-responder infants, but still kept good protection. The anti-HBs persistence after revaccination was associated with anti-HBs level of titer one month after revaccination.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-808923

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Objective@#To analyze the sero-epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis B virus among people born during 1994-2001, conducted by the national hepatitis B sero-epidemiological surveys in 2006 and 2014.@*Methods@#Based on the data of the two national hepatitis B sero-epidemiological surveys in 2006 and 2014, people born during 1994-2001 were included into our analysis as this study subjects. The two surveys were conducted in 160 disease surveillance points of 31 provinces (not including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) in China. Face-to-face interviews with the subject by door to door or on the investigation site were conducted by trained staff using standard questionnaires to obtain basic information including birth date, sex, ethnicity, resident place and so on. And then 5 ml venous blood was collected. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reagents were used for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc measurements and Abbott micro-particle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) reagents was used to confirm test. We analyzed HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc positive rate by gender, ethnicity, urban/rural, eastern/central/western region, birth years and compared the distribution of serum epidemiological characteristics in 2006 and 2014.@*Results@#19 821 and 4 712 people born during 1994-2001 were involved in 2006 and 2014 national serosurveys of China, respectively. For the people born during 1994-2001, HBsAg positive rate were 2.02% (95% CI: 1.82%-2.21%) in 2014 and 1.95% (95% CI: 1.56%-2.35%) in 2006. Anti-HBc positive rate were 7.94% (95%CI: 7.17%-8.71%) in 2014 and higher than that in 2006 (6.49%, 95%CI: 6.15%-6.83%), especially for the female (8.31%, 95% CI: 7.20%-9.43%), urban (7.45%, 95% CI: 6.38%-8.52%), western region (11.25%, 95%CI: 9.79%-12.71%), minority people (16.02%, 95%CI: 13.47%-18.57%) in 2014 were higher than that of the female (6.29%, 95% CI: 5.81%-6.78%), urban (4.82%, 95% CI: 4.40%-5.24%), western region (7.97%, 95% CI: 7.31%-8.63%), minority people (11.88%, 95% CI: 10.66%-13.00%) in 2006 respectively. Anti-HBs positive rate were 57.80% (95%CI: 57.11%-58.48%) in 2014 and 59.13% (95%CI: 57.72%-60.53%) in 2006. Anti-HBs positive rate of rural (58.80%, 95% CI: 56.83%-60.78%),western region (58.50%, 95% CI: 56.23%-60.78%), minority people (57.20%, 95% CI: 53.76%-60.63%) in 2014 was higher than of rural (52.62%, 95% CI: 51.64%-53.61%),western region (51.73%, 95% CI: 50.54%-52.96%),minority people (41.14%, 95%CI: 39.28%-43.00%) in 2006.@*Conclusion@#Anti-HBc positive rate among people born during 1994-2001 in 2014 survey showed a rising tendency than in 2006. The risk of HBV infection was existed. Hepatitis B vaccine catch-up in childhood was necessary.

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