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1.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938266

ABSTRACT

Obesity has emerged as one of the most critical public health problems and is considered a global epidemic. Herein we summarized the recent epidemiology of obesity in Korean adults based on nationwide data.Current Concepts: The prevalence of obesity among Korean adults has steadily increased over the past 10 to 20 years, more prominently in men. In general, the prevalence of obesity is higher among men than among women, and it is the highest among men in their 30s and 40s and older women. In particular, morbid obesity (class 2 or class 3) has increased rapidly, showing the steepest increase in men compared to women, and in young adults compared to other age groups. The prevalence of abdominal obesity has also risen. The prevalence of abdominal obesity is higher in older age individuals, but the prevalence of abdominal obesity among young adults has shown a sharp increase in recent years. Chronic diseases are prevalent in individuals with obesity or abdominal obesity, compared to those without, and particularly in young adults. The prevalence of obesity is higher in individuals with lower income levels. The awareness of obesity and attempts to lose weight are significantly low, and lifestyles related to obesity appear to be uncontrolled in individuals with obesity compared to those without obesity.Discussion and Conclusion: It is necessary to recognize the current status of obesity in Korean adults and to make more active and multifaceted efforts to overcome it.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924935

ABSTRACT

Background@#We investigated whether low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and isolated and non-isolated low HDL-C levels are associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality among Korean adults. @*Methods@#We included 8,665,841 individuals aged ≥20 years who had undergone a health examination provided by the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) in 2009 and were followed up until the end of 2018. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for study outcomes were calculated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. @*Results@#During the 8.2 years of mean follow-up, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and all-cause mortality occurred in 81,431, 110,996, and 244,309 individuals, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables (model 3), individuals with low HDL-C and lower HDL quartiles were associated with significantly increased risks of all three outcomes, compared to those with normal HDL-C and highest HDL-C quartile (all P<0.001), respectively. HRs for incident MI (1.28; 95% CI, 1.26 to 1.30), stroke (1.13; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.15), and all-cause mortality (1.07; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.08) increased in the non-isolated low HDL-C group compared to the normal HDL-C group. Isolated low HDL-C also showed an increase in the HRs of incident stroke (1.06; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.08) and all-cause mortality (1.30; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.32). @*Conclusion@#Low HDL-C and non-isolated low HDL-C were associated with increased risk of MI, stroke, and all-cause mortality, and isolated low HDL-C was associated with incident stroke and all-cause mortality risk.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924923

ABSTRACT

Carbohydrate-restricted diets and intermittent fasting (IF) have been rapidly gaining interest among the general population and patients with cardiometabolic disease, such as overweight or obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. However, there are limited expert recommendations for these dietary regimens. This study aimed to evaluate the level of scientific evidence on the benefits and harms of carbohydrate-restricted diets and IF to make responsible recommendations. A meta-analysis and systematic literature review of 66 articles on 50 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of carbohydrate-restricted diets and 10 articles on eight RCTs of IF was performed. Based on the analysis, the following recommendations are suggested. In adults with overweight or obesity, a moderately-low carbohydrate or low carbohydrate diet (mLCD) can be considered as a dietary regimen for weight reduction. In adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, mLCD can be considered as a dietary regimen for improving glycemic control and reducing body weight. In contrast, a very-low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) and IF are recommended against in patients with diabetes. Furthermore, no recommendations are suggested for VLCD and IF in adults with overweight or obesity, and carbohydrate-restricted diets and IF in patients with hypertension. Here, we describe the results of our analysis and the evidence for these recommendations.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903671

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Because weight control is important in treatment of type 2 diabetes, it is essential to understand the associations between weight change and the risk of microvascular complications among patients with type 2 diabetes. We examined whether weight changes early after new-onset diabetes have an impact on the clinical outcomes of diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy. @*Methods@#Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort database, 181,872 patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes who were free of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) during 2007 to 2012 were followed to the end of 2016. Weight change was defined as the difference in body weight from the time of diabetes diagnosis to 2 years later. @*Results@#We identified 180 cases of ESRD and 780 cases of PDR followed up for a median of 5.5 years from the index year at 2 years after diagnosis. Those with 5% to 10% weight gain showed a significantly higher hazard ratio (HR) for ESRD, compared with those with ≤ 5% weight change after adjusting for several confounding factors, including the baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (HR, 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 2.70). Those with ≥ 10% weight loss showed the lowest HR for PDR (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.83), whereas those with ≥ 10% weight gain showed the highest HR for PDR (HR, 3.20; 95% CI, 2.51 to 4.08). @*Conclusions@#Weight gain after new-onset diabetes was associated with increased risk of ESRD and PDR whereas weight loss with decreased risk of PDR, but not ESRD.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895967

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Because weight control is important in treatment of type 2 diabetes, it is essential to understand the associations between weight change and the risk of microvascular complications among patients with type 2 diabetes. We examined whether weight changes early after new-onset diabetes have an impact on the clinical outcomes of diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy. @*Methods@#Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort database, 181,872 patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes who were free of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) during 2007 to 2012 were followed to the end of 2016. Weight change was defined as the difference in body weight from the time of diabetes diagnosis to 2 years later. @*Results@#We identified 180 cases of ESRD and 780 cases of PDR followed up for a median of 5.5 years from the index year at 2 years after diagnosis. Those with 5% to 10% weight gain showed a significantly higher hazard ratio (HR) for ESRD, compared with those with ≤ 5% weight change after adjusting for several confounding factors, including the baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (HR, 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 2.70). Those with ≥ 10% weight loss showed the lowest HR for PDR (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.83), whereas those with ≥ 10% weight gain showed the highest HR for PDR (HR, 3.20; 95% CI, 2.51 to 4.08). @*Conclusions@#Weight gain after new-onset diabetes was associated with increased risk of ESRD and PDR whereas weight loss with decreased risk of PDR, but not ESRD.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833954

ABSTRACT

Background@#Recently, single-person households have increased in Korea and this trend may have potential public health implications and affect various health behaviors. This study investigated the associations between living alone and health behaviors such as smoking and alcohol consumption among Korean adults. @*Methods@#We used data from the 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2013 and 2015 and a total of 17,088 adults were included. We performed a multivariable logistic regression analysis and calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). @*Results@#Single-person households accounted for about 10% of the total participants. The proportions of currently smoking and heavy alcohol consumption were higher among individuals living alone than those living together among younger women and middle-aged and elderly men and women. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, living alone was associated with increased odds of currently smoking compared to living together among middle-aged men and women (OR, 7.37; 95% CI, 2.33–23.32 in men and OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.04–5.36 in women) after adjusting for confounding variables. @*Conclusion@#From this nationwide, population-based study, we found that living alone is associated with increased odds of currently smoking, especially in middle-aged people. Public health concerns may be warranted for middle-aged single-person households to reduce health risks related to smoking.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830141

ABSTRACT

Background@#Recent studies have indicated that vitamin D deficiency is associated with diabetes and hypertension in adults. However, this association has not been sufficiently studied in cases of prediabetes and prehypertension. Thus, this study aimed to clarify the relationship between vitamin D levels and prediabetes and prehypertension in Korean adults. @*Methods@#Data from 1,808 adults aged ≥19 years who participated in the 2013–2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. The odds ratio of prediabetes and prehypertension according to the 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) status was calculated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#Mean serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly different among females with normal glucose levels, prediabetes, and diabetes mellitus. Further, the mean levels were not significantly different in both males and females of all ages with normal blood pressure, prehypertension, and hypertension. In addition, logistic regression analysis showed that serum 25(OH)D levels were not significantly associated with the odds ratio of prediabetes and prehypertension after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, calcium supplement intake, income, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and fasting glucose. @*Conclusion@#Serum vitamin D status was not independently associated with the risks of prediabetes and prehypertension in Korean adults.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830131

ABSTRACT

Background@#Recent evidence has reported the relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) insufficiency and chronic diseases. This study examined the association of physical activity and sitting time with vitamin D status. @*Methods@#This study analyzed the data of 1,598 adults aged ≥19 who participated in the 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as a serum 25(OH)D level of ≤20 ng/mL. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of vitamin D insufficiency according to physical activity and sitting time were calculated using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#The mean levels of serum 25(OH)D were 16.5 ng/mL in males and 15.2 ng/mL in females, respectively and was significantly higher in the participants with sitting times of <5 hours/day than those with sitting times of ≥5 hours/day. After adjusting for confounding variables, sitting time of <5 hours/day was associated with decreased odds of vitamin D insufficiency as compared with sitting time of ≥5 hours/day in the total participants and females. In addition, the odds ratio for vitamin D insufficiency was significantly lower in the group with sitting times of <5 hours/ day than in the group with sitting times of ≥5 hours/day even among people with low physical activity in the total participants and females. @*Conclusion@#Serum 25(OH)D level was insufficient in the Korean adults and shorter sitting time was related to lower odds ratio of vitamin D insufficiency. Our findings suggest that sitting time is an independent factor of serum vitamin D status.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898129

ABSTRACT

Background@#Evidence regarding the association between variabilities in obesity measures and health outcomes is limited. We aimed to examine the association between variabilities in obesity measures and cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality. @*Methods@#We identified 4,244,460 individuals who underwent health examination conducted by the Korean National Health Insurance Service during 2012, with ≥3 anthropometric measurements between 2009 and 2012. Variabilities in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) were assessed using four indices including variability independent of the mean (VIM). We performed multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. @*Results@#During follow-up of 4.4 years, 16,095, 18,957, and 30,200 cases of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and all-cause mortality were recorded. Compared to individuals with the lowest quartiles, incrementally higher risks of study outcomes and those of stroke and all-cause mortality were observed among individuals in higher quartiles of VIM for BW and VIM for WC, respectively. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals comparing the highest versus lowest quartile groups of VIM for BW were 1.17 (1.12 to 1.22) for MI, 1.20 (1.16 to 1.25) for stroke, and 1.66 (1.60 to 1.71) for all-cause mortality; 1.07 (1.03 to 1.12) for stroke and 1.29 (1.25 to 1.33) for all-cause mortality regarding VIM for WC. These associations were similar with respect to the other indices for variability. @*Conclusion@#This study revealed positive associations between variabilities in BW and WC and cardiovascular outcomes and allcause mortality. Our findings suggest that variabilities in obesity measures are associated with adverse health outcomes in the general population.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897832

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has the potential to develop into hepatic steatosis and progress to terminal liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This human clinical study was aimed to demonstrate that SPB-201 (powdered-water extract of Artemisia annua) can improve liver function in subjects with non-alcoholic liver dysfunction at mild to moderate levels. A decrease of 271% in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level and a significant decrease of 334% in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level was observed in the test group as compared to the control group at the 4 weeks follow-up. In addition, after 8 weeks, decreases of 199% in AST level and 216% in ALT level were reported in the test group as compared to the control group. These results confirmed that SPB-201 intake significantly enhanced liver function and health. Moreover, the Multidimensional Fatigue Scale score of the test group decreased but that of the control group increased, implicating that SPB-201 also eliminated overall fatigue. No significant adverse events were observed among all subjects during the study. Taken together, our clinical study confirmed the excellent efficacy and safety of SPB-201 in liver function improvement, showing the possibility of SPB-201 as a functional food to restore liver dysfunction and treat liver diseases.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890425

ABSTRACT

Background@#Evidence regarding the association between variabilities in obesity measures and health outcomes is limited. We aimed to examine the association between variabilities in obesity measures and cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality. @*Methods@#We identified 4,244,460 individuals who underwent health examination conducted by the Korean National Health Insurance Service during 2012, with ≥3 anthropometric measurements between 2009 and 2012. Variabilities in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) were assessed using four indices including variability independent of the mean (VIM). We performed multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. @*Results@#During follow-up of 4.4 years, 16,095, 18,957, and 30,200 cases of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and all-cause mortality were recorded. Compared to individuals with the lowest quartiles, incrementally higher risks of study outcomes and those of stroke and all-cause mortality were observed among individuals in higher quartiles of VIM for BW and VIM for WC, respectively. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals comparing the highest versus lowest quartile groups of VIM for BW were 1.17 (1.12 to 1.22) for MI, 1.20 (1.16 to 1.25) for stroke, and 1.66 (1.60 to 1.71) for all-cause mortality; 1.07 (1.03 to 1.12) for stroke and 1.29 (1.25 to 1.33) for all-cause mortality regarding VIM for WC. These associations were similar with respect to the other indices for variability. @*Conclusion@#This study revealed positive associations between variabilities in BW and WC and cardiovascular outcomes and allcause mortality. Our findings suggest that variabilities in obesity measures are associated with adverse health outcomes in the general population.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890128

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has the potential to develop into hepatic steatosis and progress to terminal liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This human clinical study was aimed to demonstrate that SPB-201 (powdered-water extract of Artemisia annua) can improve liver function in subjects with non-alcoholic liver dysfunction at mild to moderate levels. A decrease of 271% in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level and a significant decrease of 334% in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level was observed in the test group as compared to the control group at the 4 weeks follow-up. In addition, after 8 weeks, decreases of 199% in AST level and 216% in ALT level were reported in the test group as compared to the control group. These results confirmed that SPB-201 intake significantly enhanced liver function and health. Moreover, the Multidimensional Fatigue Scale score of the test group decreased but that of the control group increased, implicating that SPB-201 also eliminated overall fatigue. No significant adverse events were observed among all subjects during the study. Taken together, our clinical study confirmed the excellent efficacy and safety of SPB-201 in liver function improvement, showing the possibility of SPB-201 as a functional food to restore liver dysfunction and treat liver diseases.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739799

ABSTRACT

We investigated associations between breastfeeding duration and number of children breastfed and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and glycemic control among parous women. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data for 9,960 parous women from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010 to 2013). Having ever breastfed was inversely associated with prevalent T2DM (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.87). All ranges of total and average breastfeeding duration showed inverse associations with T2DM. Even short periods of breastfeeding were inversely associated with T2DM (adjusted OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.99 for a total breastfeeding duration ≤12 months; adjusted OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.99 for an average breastfeeding duration per child ≤6 months). A longer duration of breastfeeding was associated with better glycemic control in parous women with T2DM (P trend=0.004 for total breastfeeding duration; P trend <0.001 for average breastfeeding duration per child). Breastfeeding may be associated with a lower risk of T2DM and good glycemic control in parous women with T2DM. Breastfeeding may be a feasible method to prevent T2DM and improve glycemic control.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Breast Feeding , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Female , Humans , Korea , Lactation , Methods , Odds Ratio
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787460

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.

15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787442

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the association between nicotine dependence and depressive mood in patients who visited a secondary hospital for smoking cessation treatment.METHODS: From March 2016 to February 2017, a total of 48 patients who visited the smoking cessation clinic of a secondary hospital in Seoul were surveyed through questionnaires. Nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depressive mood.RESULTS: The mean BDI score was positively associated with nicotine dependence (P=0.01). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, increasing BDI was associated with higher odds (1.21, 95% confidence interval; 1.02–1.44) of high nicotine dependence after adjusting for all confounding variables.CONCLUSION: Depressive mood was positively associated with nicotine dependence among patients who visited a smoking cessation clinic. Consideration of depressive mood in smoking cessation treatment may be helpful for smoking cessation among patients with a willingness to quit smoking.


Subject(s)
Depression , Humans , Logistic Models , Nicotine , Seoul , Smoke , Smoking Cessation , Smoking , Tobacco Use Disorder
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787429

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Eating breakfast is important for optimal growth and development in adolescence, and is associated with academic achievement as well as nutrition and health status. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between breakfast consumption frequency and high school students' academic achievement.METHODS: We used data from the 2017 Korea Youth's Risk Behavior Web-Based Study, conducted by the Korean Center for Disease Control (64,991 students). The relationship between academic achievement and breakfast consumption frequency was examined using logistic regression.RESULTS: Students who consumed breakfast frequently exhibited higher academic achievement as compared to their counterparts. There was a significant correlation between awareness of appropriate eating habits and breakfast consumption frequency. Further, students who had not received any education about eating habits exhibited low academic achievement.CONCLUSION: To improve the academic achievement of students, they should be motivated to eat breakfast every day. Additionally, appropriate education about eating habits need to be implemented at schools and at home to increase students' breakfast consumption frequency.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Breakfast , Eating , Education , Feeding Behavior , Growth and Development , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Risk-Taking
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Menstrual irregularity is a common major complaint in women of reproductive age. It is also a known marker for underlying insulin resistance. We investigated the association between menstrual irregularity and metabolic syndrome in the general population of middle-aged women in Korea. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012. A total of 2,742 subjects were included in the analysis. Participants were divided into two categories based on their menstrual cycle regularity and the relationship between metabolic syndrome and its variables was investigated by multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Adjusted analyses revealed significantly higher odds ratios for metabolic syndrome, high waist circumference, high triglyceride levels, and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with the presence of menstrual irregularity. CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome and its components (high waist circumference, high triglyceride levels, and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels) were significantly associated with menstrual irregularity in women of reproductive age.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol, HDL , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Korea , Logistic Models , Menstrual Cycle , Nutrition Surveys , Obesity , Odds Ratio , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Triglycerides , Waist Circumference
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