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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e23-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967457

ABSTRACT

Background@#A proper depth of percutaneous central venous catheter (PCVC) is very important to reduce procedural time and prevent various complications in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants who require minimal handling or have a sensitive skin. The objective of this study was to suggest a formula for faster and proper insertion of PCVC in VLBWIs to prevent unintended consequences of patients’ conditions. @*Methods@#Prospective data of VLBW infants admitted from June 2015 to January 2018 who had PCVC inserted via the great saphenous vein within seven days after birth were analyzed.Correlations of length of inserted PCVC with body weight, body length, and postmenstrual age at the date of PCVC insertion were determined with a linear regression analysis. Using results of this analysis, a formula to determine the optimal insertion length of PCVC was derived. Coefficient of determination was used to assess how well outcomes were replicated by the formula. @*Results@#The formula to predict the proper insertion length of PCVC via the great saphenous vein at popliteal crease level was obtained as follows: Optimal Length (cm) = 3.8 × Body Weight (kg) + 11.1. With everyday movements such as flexion and extension of the lower extremities, the mean difference in catheter tip position was 7.0 ± 3.9 mm, which was not significant enough to escalate the risk of catheter tip displacement. The rate of catheterrelated complications was as low as 4.9% in this study. @*Conclusions@#The formula derived from this study to predict the optimal PCVC insertion length could benefit VLBW infants by reducing procedural time and lowering the risk of complications.

2.
Journal of Korean Foot and Ankle Society ; : 24-29, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967370

ABSTRACT

Macrodactyly of the toe is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by the overgrowth of a digit/digits in the foot and is one of the most difficult conditions to treat. Since the condition alters functionality and appearance, the treatment goal is to restore function and cosmetically enhance the appearance. Various surgical techniques are used for toe macrodactyly, including amputation, debulking, and epiphysiodesis. Herein, we present a case of a six-year-old patient with a second toe macrodactyly who was successfully treated with a twostage operation over a seven-year period. We initially performed an ostectomy of the middle phalanx with a fusion of the proximal and distal phalanges and then performed a soft tissue debulking procedure.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e350-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001162

ABSTRACT

Background@#Though antenatal magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 ) is widely used for fetal neuroprotection, suspicions about the long-term neuroprotection of antenatal MgSO4 have been raised. @*Methods@#We investigated short- and long-term outcomes of antenatal MgSO4 use for 468 infants weighing < 1,500 g with a gestational age of 24–31 weeks. @*Results@#Short-term morbidities and the risk of developmental delay, hearing loss, and cerebral palsy at a corrected age of 18–24 months and 3 years of age did not decrease in the MgSO4 group (infants who were exposed to MgSO4 for any purpose) or neuroprotection group (infants who were exposed to MgSO4 for fetal neuroprotection) compared with the control group (infants who were not exposed to MgSO4 ). The z-scores of weight, height, and head circumference did not increase in the MgSO4 group or neuroprotection group compared with the control group. @*Conclusion@#Antenatal MgSO4 including MgSO4 for neuroprotection did not have beneficial effects on long-term neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e229-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938062

ABSTRACT

Background@#We aimed to determine the current survival rate and short-term outcomes of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWIs) in Korea, as well as whether the survival rate and short-term outcomes have improved over time since 2013, which was when the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN) was launched. @*Methods@#This study used data from the annual reports of the KNN from 2013 to 2020. A total of 16,351 VLBWIs born at gestational age (GA) ≥ 22 weeks between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2020, and who were registered in the KNN were enrolled. Serial outcomes were analyzed according to era (2013–14, 2015–16, 2017–18, and 2019–20). @*Results@#More mothers delivered by cesarean section, had diabetes or hypertension during their pregnancy, and received antenatal steroids when analyzed by era. Fewer infants were intubated at birth and had air leaks when analyzed by era. The overall survival rate of VLBWIs between 2013 and 2020 was 87%. The rate of respiratory distress syndrome was 77% and that of bronchopulmonary dysplasia was 32% between 2013 and 2020. The rates of intraventricular hemorrhage (grade ≥ 3), periventricular leukomalacia, and sepsis decreased over time. The survival rate of infants with a GA of 26 weeks has improved serially according to era. @*Conclusion@#Since the launch of the KNN in 2013, the survival rates of infants with GA 26 weeks and short-term outcomes have improved, which implies a quality improvement in antenatal and delivery room care. Further studies on the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of these KNN registrants are warranted.

5.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 123-129, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968403

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Erythropoietin (EPO) is a promising neuroprotective drug. We investigated whether EPO has beneficial effects on neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the data of 56 infants with HIE born at or after 35 weeks of gestation who were admitted to Inha University Hospital between 2012 and 2021. Patients were divided into two groups based on EPO use and compared. In the EPO group, patients were administered 1,000 U/kg of EPO on days 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7, starting within 24 hours after birth. The primary outcome was death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at the age of 12 months. @*Results@#EPO was administered to 38 infants, and 18 did not receive EPO. Only 37.5% of patients with HIE (21/56) and 60% of patients with moderate-to-severe HIE (21/35) received therapeutic hypothermia. Among all patients with HIE, death or NDI (21.1 % vs. 50.0%; odds ratio [OR], 0.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01 to 0.78; P=0.029) and brain injury on imaging (42.1% vs. 83.3%; OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.92; P=0.040) were significantly lower in the EPO group than in the control group. Among patients with moderate-to-severe HIE, brain injury on imaging (54.2% vs. 90.9%; OR, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.002 to 0.700; P=0.027) was significantly lower in the EPO group than in the control group. @*Conclusion@#EPO administration significantly reduced mortality and NDI in infants with HIE. EPO can be considered an adjunctive therapeutic agent for neonatal HIE.

6.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 21-26, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874078

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the STANDARD F Influenza A/B FIA test (SD Biosensor Inc., Korea) for the rapid detection of influenza A virus in comparison with the Sofia Influenza A+B FIA (Quidel Corp., USA) and SD BIOLINE Influenza Ag A/B/A(H1N1) (Standard Diagnostic, Inc., Korea) tests. @*Methods@#A total of 227 non-duplicated nasopharyngeal aspirates submitted for real-time RT-PCR analysis were included in the study. We used the three commercial tests in remnant samples from routine assays, according to the manufacturer’s instructions. We analyzed the diagnostic performance, including sensitivity and specificity, of the three tests. @*Results@#Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that 67 (29.5%) samples were positive and 160 (70.5%) were negative for influenza A virus, and that all the specimens were negative for influenza B. The overall sensitivity and specificity for influenza A virus detection were 50.7% and 100% for the STANDARD F, 50.7% and 100% for the Sofia, and 29.9% and 100% for the SD BIOLINE tests, respectively. The STANDARD F and SD BIOLINE tests showed negative results for influenza B virus in all specimens, whereas the Sofia test showed two false-positive results. @*Conclusion@#The STANDARD F Influenza A/B test showed a good diagnostic performance and may be useful for the rapid diagnosis of influenza A.

7.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 1-7, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837012

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most fatal respiratory morbidities in preterm infants, causing adverse respiratory and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Despite advances in neonatal ventilator care, the incidence of BPD has been static or even increased. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of BPD in a single center over 10 years. @*Methods@#Preterm infants with gestational age (GA) @*Results@#Among 629 infants, 521 infants who survived 28 days or more were enrolled (BPD group, n=252; non-BPD group, n=269). The incidence of BPD was 48.4%, with moderate to severe BPD accounting for 13.9%. In preterm infants with GA ≤25, 26 to 27, and 28 to 29 weeks, the incidences of BPD were 57.5%, 51.5%, and 14.6%, respectively, with moderate to severe BPD accounting for 23.8%, 10.5%, and 3.7%, respectively. The incidence of BPD decreased from 68% in 2009 to 34.3% in 2014. Subsequently, it increased. Surfactant re-dosing and patent ductus arteriosus were more frequent in the BPD group than in the non-BPD group. @*Conclusion@#BPD did not decrease over the previous 10 years despite advances in neonatal care.

8.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 111-117, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837002

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is associated with increased mortality and morbidities such as intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, bronch opulmonary dysplasia, and neurodevelopmental impairment. The objective of this study was to evaluate mortality and morbidities according to the time of PDA closure. @*Methods@#For this study, 117 preterm infants with gestational age (GA) of <30 weeks who had PDA were enrolled and allocated to two groups according to the time of PDA closure as follows: early closed group (n=40, PDA closure in <14 days after birth) and delayed closed group (n=77, PDA closure in ≥14 days after birth). @*Results@#GA was higher in the early closed group than in the delayed closed group (27.2±1.6 weeks vs. 26.3±1.7 weeks, P=0.005). Other demographic factors, such as birth weight, Apgar score, and maternal status were not significantly different between the two groups. The incidence rates of surfactant redosing, retinopathy of prematurity (stage ≥II), necrotizing enterocolitis (stage ≥II), moderate to severe bronchopulmo nary dysplasia, and mortality were similar between the two groups. The total durations of mechanical ventilation, invasive ventilation, and hospital stay were longer in the delayed closed group than in the early closed group. However, these became similar after adjustment for GA. The incidence rate of intraventricular hemorrhage (grade ≥III) was significantly higher in the early closed group than in the delayed closed group after adjustment for GA (25.0% vs. 13.0%, adjusted P for GA=0.021). @*Conclusion@#In this study, delayed PDA closure was safe, as it did not increase mortality and morbidity rates.

9.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 118-125, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837001

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The objective of this study was to determine the optimal timing of inguinal herniorrhaphy in preterm infants to reduce the risks of preoperative incarceration and postoperative complications. @*Methods@#Preterm infants with gestational age (GA) of <37 weeks who had ingui­nal herniorrhaphy before the age of 6 months were enrolled. Early repair was defined as undergoing herniorrhaphy before discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and late repair was defined as undergoing herniorrhaphy as an outpatient after discharge from the NICU. @*Results@#The incidence rates of preoperative incarceration and recurrence were not significantly different between the two groups. Postoperative apnea and mechanical ventilation were more frequent in the early-repair group than in the late-repair group.Postoperative apnea was more frequent in the early-repair group after adjustments for GA and birth weight. However, no significant difference in postoperative mechanical ventilation was found between the two groups after adjustments for GA and birth weight. The incidence of postoperative apnea was associated with small weight at repair, early repair, general anesthesia, younger GA, small weight at birth, and bron chopul­monary dysplasia. Contralateral metachronous hernia was most frequent in infants with small weight at repair, early repair, very low birth weight (VLBW), male sex, and right-sided hernia. @*Conclusion@#Late repair was safe and did not increase the risk of incarceration or recurrence, but decreased the risks of postoperative apnea and metachronous hernia.Regional anesthesia could reduce the risk of postoperative apnea. Male infants born with VLBWs and right-sided hernia should be followed up carefully for metachronous hernia.

10.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 444-449, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sixty percent of infants with severe neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy die, while most survivors have permanent disabilities. Treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is limited to therapeutic hypothermia, but it does not offer complete protection. Here, we investigated whether hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) promotes cell survival and suggested neuroprotective strategies.PURPOSE: HIF-1α deficient mice have increased brain injury after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI), and the role of HIF-2α in HI is not well characterized. Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD)1 overexpression is not beneficial in neonatal HI. The expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α was measured in SOD1 overexpressing mice and compared to wild-type littermates to see if alteration in expression explains this lack of benefit.METHODS: On postnatal day 9, C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to HI, and protein expression was measured by western blotting in the ipsilateral cortex of wild-type and SOD1 overexpressing mice to quantify HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Spectrin expression was also measured to characterize the mechanism of cell death.RESULTS: HIF-1α protein expression did not significantly change after HI injury in the SOD1 overexpressing or wild-type mouse cortex. However, HIF-2α protein expression increased 30 minutes after HI injury in the wild-type and SOD1 overexpressing mouse cortex and decreased to baseline value at 24 hours after HI injury. Spectrin 145/150 expression did not significantly change after HI injury in the SOD1 overexpressing or wild-type mouse cortex. However, spectrin 120 expression increased in both wild-type and SOD1 overexpressing mouse at 4 hours after HI, which decreased by 24 hours, indicating a greater role of apoptotic cell death.CONCLUSION: HIF-1α and HIF-2α may promote cell survival in neonatal HI in a cell-specific and regional fashion. Our findings suggest that early HIF-2α upregulation precedes apoptotic cell death and limits necrotic cell death. However, the influence of SOD was not clarified; it remains an intriguing factor in neonatal HI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Infant , Mice , Blotting, Western , Brain Injuries , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Hypothermia, Induced , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Spectrin , Superoxide Dismutase , Superoxides , Survivors , Up-Regulation
11.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 155-161, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760206

ABSTRACT

Following the first successful trial of surfactant replacement therapy for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) by Fujiwara in 1980, several animal-derived natural surfactants and synthetic surfactants have been developed. Synthetic surfactants were designed to overcome limitations of natural surfactants such as cost, immune reactions, and infections elicited by animal proteins contained in natural surfactants. However, first-generation synthetic surfactants that are protein-free have failed to prove their superiority over natural surfactants because they lack surfactant protein (SP). Lucinactant, a second-generation synthetic surfactant containing the SP-B analog, was better or at least as effective as the natural surfactant, suggesting that lucinactant could act an alternative to natural surfactants. Lucinactant was approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration in March 2012 as the fifth surfactant to treat neonatal RDS. CHF5633, a second-generation synthetic surfactant containing SP-B and SP-C analogs, was effective and safe in a human multicenter cohort study for preterm infants. Many comparative studies of natural surfactants used worldwide have reported different efficacies for different preparations. However, these differences are believed to due to site variations, not actual differences. The more important thing than the composition of the surfactant in improving outcome is the timing and mode of administration of the surfactant. Novel synthetic surfactants containing synthetic phospholipid incorporated with SP-B and SP-C analogs will potentially represent alternatives to natural surfactants in the future, while improvement of treatment modalities with less-invasive or noninvasive methods of surfactant administration will be the most important task to be resolved.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Cohort Studies , Infant, Premature , Pulmonary Surfactants , Surface-Active Agents , United States Food and Drug Administration
12.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 121-127, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760590

ABSTRACT

The incidence of cerebral palsy has not decreased despite advances in neonatal care. Preterm infants are at a high risk of cerebral palsy. Moreover, preterm infants might experience permanent neurological sequelae due to injury in the preterm brain. Although the etiology of preterm brain injury is not fully understood, preterm brain injury is strongly associated with abnormal cerebral perfusion and oxygenation. Monitoring systemic blood pressure or arterial oxygen saturation using pulse oximetry is not enough to guarantee proper cerebral perfusion or oxygenation. Early detection of improper cerebral perfusion can prevent irreversible cerebral damage. To decrease brain injury through the early detection of under-perfusion and deoxygenation, other diagnostic modalities are needed. Near-infrared spectroscopy can continuously and noninvasively monitor regional oxygen saturation (rSO₂), which reflects the perfusion and oxygenation status of tissues at bedside. Near-infrared spectroscopy represents a balance between tissue oxygen supply and demand. Cerebral rSO₂ monitoring has been used most frequently in neonatal cardiac surgery to monitor cerebral oxygenation and prevent hypoxic damage or shock. Recently, cerebral, renal, or splanchnic rSO₂ in neonates is frequently monitored. The progression of a disease, brain injury, and death can be prevented by detecting changes in rSO₂ values using near-infrared spectroscopy. In this article, the basic principles, usefulness, and applications of near-infrared spectroscopy in neonates are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Blood Pressure , Brain , Brain Injuries , Cerebral Palsy , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Incidence , Infant, Premature , Oximetry , Oxygen , Perfusion , Shock , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Splanchnic Circulation , Thoracic Surgery
13.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 117-120, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760574

ABSTRACT

Congenital pancreatic cysts are rare in newborn babies, and this makes prenatal diagnosis difficult. Diagnosis can be delayed for a few months after birth until the infant presents with an abdominal mass, abdominal distension, or vomiting due to gastric outlet obstruction. Excision of the cyst is the treatment of choice. A congenital pancreatic cyst should be considered if the fetus has an abdominal cyst without a definite origin. A prompt diagnosis is crucial to prevent fatal complications such as cholangitis, pancreatitis, cyst rupture, and peritonitis. We report a case of neonate with multiple congenital pancreatic cysts suspected prenatally to be stomach diverticulum or duplication cysts of the intestine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Cholangitis , Diagnosis , Diverticulum, Stomach , Fetus , Gastric Outlet Obstruction , Intestines , Pancreatic Cyst , Pancreatic Pseudocyst , Pancreatitis , Parturition , Peritonitis , Prenatal Diagnosis , Rupture , Vomiting
14.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 131-135, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716552

ABSTRACT

Hyponatremia is defined as a plasma sodium concentration of < 135 mEq/L. It is a common electrolyte imbalance in newborns. We report the case of a term neonate with cleft lip, cleft palate, imperforate anus, normal male karyotype, and chronic hyponatremia. On the 4th day of life, he showed hyponatremia (plasma sodium concentration 130 mEq/L) with low serum osmolality (275 mOsm/kg), high urine sodium (116.7 mEq/L), and high urine osmolality (412 mOsm/kg). His thyroid and adrenal functions were normal. Despite intravenous and oral sodium supplementation and hydrocortisone treatment, hyponatremia persisted. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed normal results. He was diagnosed as having reset osmostat, a rare subtype of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone characterized by a subnormal threshold for antidiuretic hormone secretion, with hypotonic hyponatremia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Anus, Imperforate , Brain , Cleft Lip , Cleft Palate , Hydrocortisone , Hyponatremia , Inappropriate ADH Syndrome , Karyotype , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Osmolar Concentration , Plasma , Sodium , Thyroid Gland
15.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 37-43, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741655

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Meconium-related ileus is common in preterm infants. Without proper management, it can cause necrotizing enterocolitis and perforation requiring emergent operation. This study was conducted to describe the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided Gastrografin enema at bedside for preterm infants with meconium-related ileus. METHODS: Between March 2013 and December 2014, this study enrolled preterm infants with birth weight < 1,500 g, who were diagnosed with meconium-related ileus requiring ultrasound-guided Gastrografin enema refractory to glycerin or warm saline enemas. Gastrografin was infused until it passed the ileocecal valve with ultrasound guidance at bedside. RESULTS: A total of 13 preterm infants were enrolled. Gestational age and birth weight were 28.6 weeks (range, 23.9–34.3 weeks) and 893 g (range, 610–1,440 g), respectively. Gastrografin enema was performed around postnatal day 8 (range, day 3–11). The success rate was 84.6% (11 of 13 cases). Three of these 11 infants received a second procedure, which was successful. Among 2 unsuccessful cases, one failed to pass meconium while the other required surgery due to perforation. The time required to pass meconium was 2.8±1.5 hours (range, 1–6 hours). The time until radiographic improvement was 2.8±3.4 days (range, 1–14 days) after the procedure. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound-guided Gastrografin enema at bedside as a first-line treatment to relieve meconium-related ileus was effective and safe for very low birth weight infants. We could avoid unnecessary emergent operation in preterm infants who have high postoperative morbidity and mortality. This could also avoid transporting small preterm infants to fluoroscopy suite.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Birth Weight , Diatrizoate Meglumine , Enema , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing , Fluoroscopy , Gestational Age , Glycerol , Ileocecal Valve , Ileus , Infant, Premature , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Meconium , Mortality , Ultrasonography
16.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 102-107, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123071

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to assess the effects of lights-out at nighttime on body weight, physiological variables, and behavioral status in premature infants and to provide basic data for applying lights-out at night time in premature infants. METHODS: Premature infants of over 32 weeks' corrected age were included in this study (January 2015-June 2015), and were allocated to two groups according to the lights-out at night for 5 hours: study group and control group. Lights-out was applied to the study group from midnight for five hours in a quiet environment. RESULTS: Fifty-two infants were included in the study: 26 in the study group and 26 in the control group. Growth rates of body weight, height, and head circumference were higher in the study group compared to the control group, but there were no statistical differences. In the physiological variables, heart rate decreased by 6.9 beats per minute in the study group, but it increased by 2.7 beats per minute in the control group (P<0.0001) during applied 5 hours at night. Anderson Behavioral State Score decreased in the study group compared to the control group (P=0.042). CONCLUSION: Lights-out at night decreased the heart rate and made the behavioral status more stable. To understand the effects of lights-out on long-term growth and development of premature infants at the highest risk of delayed growth and development, further studies with a larger number of premature infants are needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Body Weight , Circadian Rhythm , Growth and Development , Head , Heart Rate , Infant, Premature
17.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 116-120, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123069

ABSTRACT

Diffuse neonatal hemangiomatosis (DNH) is characterized by multiple capillary or cavernous hemangiomas on the skin and internal organs occurring during the neonatal period. It is a life-threatening condition due to high-output heart failure with a mortality rate of 60-85% without proper treatment. The areas that are most commonly involved include the skin (100%), liver (64-100%), and central nervous system (52%). Corticosteroids are the drugs of choice as an initial treatment and have a response rate of 30-60%. We present here a case of a newborn baby with multiple hemangiomas on her skin (scalp, lips, neck, back, shoulder, arm, buttock, and leg), brain (right cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata), lungs, liver, kidney, and bones. She suffered from 6th, 7th, 9th, 10th, and 12th cranial nerve palsy resulting from hemorrhage of the hemangiomas in the brain. The first-line treatment of prednisolone (4 mg/kg/day) was not effective and propranolol (2 mg/kg/day) was administered as a second-line treatment. After 2 weeks of treatment, the hemangiomas had decreased in size with no associated acute hemorrhage. The infant is now 10 months old and both the multiple hemangiomas and cranial nerve palsy have improved. Propranolol was effective without significant adverse effects in treating DNH resistant to corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Abducens Nerve Diseases , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Arm , Brain , Buttocks , Capillaries , Central Nervous System , Cerebellum , Cranial Nerve Diseases , Cranial Nerves , Facial Paralysis , Heart Failure , Hemangioma , Hemangioma, Cavernous , Hemorrhage , Kidney , Lip , Liver , Lung , Mortality , Neck , Pons , Prednisolone , Propranolol , Shoulder , Skin
18.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 143-150, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179307

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vitamin D deficiency is still common in pregnant women and infants, especially preterm infants. This study evaluated the prevalence, characteristics, and prenatal and postnatal complications associated with vitamin D deficiency in preterm infants. METHODS: Preterm infants (gestational age of <32 weeks, delivered between January 2014 and December 2014) were divided into two groups according to umbilical cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (deficiency group, <20 ng/mL; non-deficiency group, ≥20 ng/mL), and associated factors were evaluated. RESULTS: The mean concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the preterm infants was 14.3±9.7 ng/mL. 80% (78 out of 98) of subjects had vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL), and 45% (44 out of 98) of preterm infants had a severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL). No seasonal variation was observed in 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. Mean gestational age and birth weight were lower in the deficiency group. The serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations, which reflect bone metabolism, were significantly different between the two groups, but not the serum phosphorous concentrations. Maternal prenatal complications and infant complications were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is high, and it is a persistent problem among Korean mothers and their newborn infants, especially preterm infants. Thus, it is important to prevent vitamin D deficiency by early detection of the deficiency and supplementation of vitamin D.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Alkaline Phosphatase , Birth Weight , Calcium , Fetal Blood , Gestational Age , Infant, Premature , Metabolism , Mothers , Pregnant Women , Prevalence , Seasons , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D , Vitamins
19.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 389-394, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-215541

ABSTRACT

The incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has not decreased over the last decade. The most important way to decrease BPD is by weaning the patient from the ventilator as soon as possible in order to reduce ventilator-induced lung injury that underlies BPD, and by using a noninvasive ventilator (NIV). Use of a heated, humidified, high flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC), which is the most recently introduced NIV mode for respiratory support in preterm infants, is rapidly increasing in many neonatal intensive care units due to the technical ease of use without sealing, and the attending physician's preference compared to other NIV modes. A number of studies have shown that nasal breakdown and neonatal complications were lower when using a HHHFNC than when using nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP), or nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation. The rates of extubation failure during respiratory support were not different between patients who used HHHFNC and nCPAP. However, data from the use of HHHFNC as the initial respiratory support "after birth", particularly in extremely preterm infants, are lacking. Although the HHHFNC is efficacious and safe, large randomized controlled trials are needed before the HHHFNC can be considered an NIV standard, particularly for extremely preterm infants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia , Catheters , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Hot Temperature , Incidence , Infant, Extremely Premature , Infant, Premature , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation , Noninvasive Ventilation , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury , Ventilators, Mechanical , Weaning
20.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 224-229, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83629

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Thyroid dysfunction is common in preterm infants. Congenital hypothyroidism causes neurodevelopmental impairment, which is preventable if properly treated. This study was conducted to describe the characteristics of thyroid dysfunction in very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs), evaluate risk factors of hypothyroidism, and suggest the reassessment of thyroid function with an initially normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) as part of a newborn screening test. METHODS: VLBWIs (January 2010 to December 2012) were divided into two groups according to dysfunction-specific thyroid hormone replacement therapy, and associated factors were evaluated. RESULTS: Of VLBWIs, 246 survivors were enrolled. Only 12.2% (30/246) of enrolled subjects exhibited thyroid dysfunction requiring thyroid hormone replacement. Moreover, only one out of 30 subjects who required thyroid hormone treatment had abnormal thyroid function in the newborn screening test with measured TSH. Most of the subjects in the treatment group (22/30) exhibited delayed TSH elevation. Gestational age, Apgar score, antenatal steroids therapy, respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage, postnatal steroids therapy, and duration of mechanical ventilation did not differ between the two groups. Birth weight was smaller and infants with small for gestational age were more frequent in the treatment group. CONCLUSION: Physicians should not rule out suggested hypothyroidism, even when thyroid function of a newborn screening test is normal. We suggest retesting TSH and free thyroxine in high risk preterm infants with an initially normal TSH level using a newborn screening test.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Apgar Score , Birth Weight , Congenital Hypothyroidism , Ductus Arteriosus, Patent , Gestational Age , Hemorrhage , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Hypothyroidism , Infant, Premature , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Mass Screening , Neonatal Screening , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Therapy , Risk Factors , Sepsis , Steroids , Survivors , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
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