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1.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 420-428, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002163

ABSTRACT

Background@#Dermatophyte infection is one of the most common skin diseases affecting the skin, hair, and nails. Despite widespread recognition of the disease, missing details and misperceptions are commonplace in the general population. @*Objective@#This study aimed to investigate the public perception and behavior regarding dermatophytosis of the hands and feet. @*Methods@#This results from an online survey conducted between July 2022 and August 2022. The survey included 1,000 Korean participants aged 20 to 69 years, of whom 60% experienced symptoms of tinea pedis or onychomycosis. The questionnaire focused on the awareness and personal experience of tinea pedis and perception of the treatment of dermatophytosis. @*Results@#Of the 1,000 participants, nearly 80% regarded tinea pedis as a common skin condition by which anyone can be affected. Furthermore, 88.4% had heard that the treatment of tinea pedis could be harmful, causing skin rash (60.4%) and worsening liver function (48.5%). Among 896 participants who noticed suspicious symptoms, 81.2% did not visit the clinic because it was not severe (50.1%) and seemed easily manageable (25.7%). Of the respondents, 84.4% preferred to meet dermatologists rather than non-dermatologist doctors regarding skin diseases, mainly because of trust in experts and belief in a faster cure. @*Conclusion@#Providing accurate and detailed information via online media, educational campaigns, and medical papers can rectify misconceptions and improve patient appliance, contributing to public skin health.

2.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 443-446, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002160

ABSTRACT

Pilomatricoma is a common benign tumor that originates from hair matrix cells. Bullous pilomatricoma (BP) is a rare variant that often occurs on the upper extremities. A 23-year-old male presented with a cyst on the left upper arm for 6 months. He received the BNT162b2 (Pfizer) mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in the same location approximately 6 months prior to presentation. The lesion appeared 1 week after inoculation and gradually enlarged.Physical examination revealed a 2.5-×2.0-cm-sized, pinkish cystic nodule on the left upper arm. The lesion was excised, and histopathological examination showed a well-circumscribed nodule composed of basophilic cells and eosinophilic shadow cells. Finally, the patient was diagnosed with BP. The exact cause of BP formation following vaccination is yet to be determined; however, this report presents the possibility of BP occurrence in individuals with chronic skin lesions at the site of vaccination.

3.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 226-232, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977207

ABSTRACT

Background@#Oral acitretin (ACT) has been approved for the treatment of psoriasis (PSO), whereas alitretinoin (ALI) has been prescribed off-label. Few studies have compared the efficacy of these two therapeutics. @*Objective@#To evaluate the clinical outcomes of oral ACT versus ALI for treating PSO. @*Methods@#Sixty-five patients diagnosed with PSO and treated with ACT or ALI were reviewed. Patient demographics, clinical efficacy, and adverse effects were evaluated. Treatment efficacy was assessed using physician’s global assessment (PGA) and psoriasis area and severity index (PASI). @*Results@#A total of 38 cases in the ACT group and 27 cases in the ALI group in PSO were retrospectively reviewed. No significant intergroup differences were noted in the proportion of patients achieving PGA score of “clear” or “almost clear” (18.42% vs. 22.22%; p=0.71). The reduction rate of PASI from baseline was higher in the ALI group (24.30% vs. 22.74%; p=0.68), while the rate of achieving 75% improvement in PASI was higher in the ACT group (18.42% vs. 14.81%; p=0.75); no significantly differences were noted. The ALI group had fewer adverse effects (6/27 [22.22%]) than the ACT group (10/38 [26.32%]), and no severe events occurred in either group. @*Conclusion@#ALI can be considered an off-label treatment option for a limited patient population.

4.
Annals of Dermatology ; : S55-S58, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976640

ABSTRACT

Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a well-defined hyperpigmented patch that recurs in a fixed location each time a particular drug is taken. Common causative agents of FDE are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, non-narcotic analgesics, sedatives, anticonvulsants, sulfonamides, and tetracycline. We report a 33-year-old male who presented with a recurrent, localized, brownish-to-erythematous macule and papules on the peri-philtrum area two hours after taking valacyclovir. Three episodes of valacyclovir ingestion for treatment of Herpes simplex virus infection provoked a similar skin rash at the same site. Histopathology results showed vacuolar degeneration in the basal layer of the epidermis, pigmentary incontinence, and perivascular inflammatory cell infiltration in the papillary dermis. Although patch test and skin prick test showed negative responses to acyclovir and valacyclovir, an intradermal test showed a positive reaction only to valacyclovir. The oral provocation test to acyclovir and valacyclovir showed a positive reaction only to valacyclovir. Through drug history, histopathological examination, patch test, intradermal test, and oral provocation test, we established a final diagnosis of FDE due to valacyclovir without cross-reactivity to acyclovir. To find alternative therapeutic drugs, we suggest diagnostic tests with not only the suspected drugs, but also other drugs in the same class.

5.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 830-840, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939105

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a major cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of rituximab (RTX) in patients with idiopathic MN (iMN) who have a high risk of progression. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed data of 13 patients with iMN, who received RTX treatments from January 2014 to July 2020. RTX was indicated in patients with iMN with severe proteinuria and decreasing estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the previous 6 months despite other immunosuppressive therapies. @*Results@#The patients were predominantly males (n = 11) and with a mean age of 55.3 years; median eGFR, 37.0 mL/min/1.73 m2 (interquartile range [IQR], 26.3 to 66.5); serum albumin level, 2.6 g/dL (IQR, 1.9 to 3.1); and spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio at baseline, 6.6 g/g (IQR, 5.7 to 12.9). In a median follow-up of 22 months, eight patients (61.5%) achieved complete or partial remission. In responder group (n = 8), median eGFR increased from 31.5 to 61.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p = 0.049) and serum albumin level increased from 2.3 to 4.2 g/dL (p = 0.017) from RTX initiation to last follow-up. Antiphospholipase A2 receptor antibody (anti-PLA2R-Ab) was positive in six among seven tested patients, which markedly decreased in the responder group. There were no adverse events after RTX. @*Conclusions@#This study suggests that RTX is a safe and effective treatment option for patients with iMN who have a high risk of progression. Individualized therapy based on anti-PLA2R-Ab titer would be needed for better outcomes.

6.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 372-383, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938430

ABSTRACT

The number of elderly patients with end-stage kidney disease has been increasing, but the outcomes of kidney transplants (KT) remain poorly understood in elderly patients. Therefore, we evaluated the clinical outcomes of elderly KT recipients and analyzed the impact of elderly donors. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients who underwent KT between 2000 and 2019. KT recipients were divided into four groups according to a combination of recipient and donor age (≥60 or <60 years); elderly recipients: old-to-old (n = 46) and young-to-old (n = 83); young recipients: old-to-young (n = 98) and young-to-young (n = 796). We compared the risks of mortality, graft failure, and acute rejection between groups using Cox regression analysis. Results: The incidence of delayed graft function, graft failure, and acute rejection was not different among groups. Annual mean tacrolimus trough level was not lower in elderly recipients than young recipients during 10-year follow-up. Mortality was significantly higher in elderly recipients (p = 0.001), particularly infection-related mortality (p < 0.001). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, old-toold and young-to-old groups had increased risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14– 7.32; p = 0.03; aHR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.51–6.20; p = 0.002). However, graft failure and acute rejection risks were not increased in elderly recipients. Conclusion: In elderly recipients, graft survival and acute rejection-free survival were not inferior to those of young recipients. However, mortality, especially risk of infection-related death, was increased in elderly recipients. Thus, low immunosuppression intensity might help decrease mortality in elderly recipients.

7.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 254-257, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926635

ABSTRACT

Cutaneous metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) present as rapidly growing erythematous or purple-round nodules. An 88-year-old male presented with a solitary, deep-seated firm mass on his left forearm that had persisted for 3 years. Ultrasonography revealed an hypervascular mass with rich vessels. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 1.6×1.6×3.3 cm sized, high T2-weighted signal intensity mass at brachioradialis muscle. Histopathologic examination revealed cells with atypical, pleomorphic, oval to spindle-shaped nuclei, and clear cytoplasm with an alveolar pattern within an unencapsulated, lobulated mass. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the tumor cells were positive for PAX8, CD10, epithelial membrane antigen, and vimentin. Ultrasonography of the urinary tract revealed a lesion suspected to be RCC, which was thought to be the primary tumor. As our patient showed peculiar clinical symptoms and the primary tumor was later diagnosed as a metastatic lesion inversely, we report a rare case of metastatic RCC with an intramuscular mass on the forearm.

8.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 673-685, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Obesity is associated with the impaired regulation of T cells characterized by increased numbers of Th1 and Th17 cells and the dysregulation of vitamin D metabolism. Both obesity and vitamin D have been reported to affect autophagy; however, a limited number of studies have investigated the effects of vitamin D on T cell autophagy in obese mice. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether in vitro treatment with vitamin D affects the proliferation, function, and autophagy of T cells from obese and control mice.MATERIALS/METHODS: Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed control or high-fat diets (10% or 45% kcal fat: CON or HFDs, respectively) for 12 weeks. Purified T cells were stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies and cultured with either 10 nM 1,25(OH)2D3 or 0.1% ethanol (vehicle control). The proliferative response; expression of CD25, Foxp3, RORγt, and autophagy-related proteins (LC3A/B, SQSTM1/P62, BECLIN-1, ATG12); and the production of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-17A, and IL-10 by T cells were measured. @*RESULTS@#Compared with the CON group, T cell proliferation tended to be lower, and the production of IFN-γ was higher in the HFD group. IL-17A production was reduced by 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment in both groups. The LC3 II/I ratio was higher in the HFD group than the CON group, but P62 did not differ. We observed no effect of vitamin D treatment on T cell autophagy. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Our findings suggest that diet-induced obesity may impair the function and inhibit autophagy of T cells, possibly leading to the dysregulation of T cell homeostasis, which may be behind the aggravation of inflammation commonly observed in obesity.

9.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 749-760, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917626

ABSTRACT

Background@#Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease. Some studies have demonstrated a relationship of psoriasis with vitamin D (Vit D) deficiency or serum lipid levels. @*Objective@#We aimed to compare serum levels of Vit D and lipids in patients with active psoriasis and control subjects. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship of disease severity with serum Vit D and lipid levels. @*Methods@#A total of 243 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Statistical data were evaluated, and the values were considered significant at p<0.05. @*Results@#Statistically significant difference in Vit D levels between the psoriasis (n=117) and the control groups (n=126) was not found. In addition, an association between Vit D levels and the disease severity, using the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) was not observed. The proportion of overweight patients (body mass index [BMI]≥ 23 kg/m2 ) was higher in the psoriasis group than in the control group, and there was a significant relationship between the increase in PASI and the serum triglycerides (TG) levels (p<0.05). @*Conclusion@#The psoriasis and control groups did not show a statistical difference in serum Vit D levels. In the subgroup analysis of cases with normal BMI, excluding the underlying disease, no significant difference in Vit D levels between the two groups was observed. However, the association of psoriasis with factors, such as BMI and TG, was found to be significant; hence, these could be therapeutic targets in patients with psoriasis to improve their quality of life. Controlled and well-designed studies are required in the future.

10.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 785-792, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917622

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cosmetic units are designated based on their similarity in topographic anatomy, texture and color, solar exposure, hair density, and sebaceous features. The difference of such features in facial port-wine stain (PWS) cases can affect the response to pulsed dye laser (PDL) treatment. @*Objective@#To evaluate the response of facial PWS to PDL treatment based on the underlying cosmetic units. @*Methods@#A retrospective study was conducted on 18 patients with facial PWS who received PDL treatment. For clinical assessment, three dermatologists evaluated the photographs taken before each treatment session. The response grade was assigned according to the quartile grading scale. The lesion was classified based on the underlying cosmetic units. @*Results@#The cheek was the most (50%) commonly involved area. All PWS (6/6) confined to one cosmetic unit showed a marked improvement compared with 16% PWS (2/12) affecting two or more units (p<0.05). Patients with PWS within one cosmetic unit required fewer treatment sessions to achieve marked improvement. @*Conclusion@#PWS confined to a single cosmetic unit than that located in two or more units responded better to PDL treatment. Before PDL treatment for facial PWS, age, initial lesion size, as well as the number of cosmetic units affected by the lesion should be considered.

11.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 797-800, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917620

ABSTRACT

Granuloma annulare (GA) is a common non-infectious granulomatous disease. Generalized GA is the second most common variant of GA. It is often associated with recalcitrant disease progression despite treatment. The lesion of generalized GA typically presents widespread papules that coalesce to form annular plaques over the whole body.We report a case of a patient with disseminated papules and coalescing annular plaques, primarily involving the intertriginous area and mimicking tinea corporis or cruris. Histopathological findings confirmed the lesion as GA. This case underscored the unusual clinical presentation of generalized GA. A case of GA localized to the intertriginous area has rarely been reported. Given the recalcitrant nature of the disease, dermatologists should consider generalized GA as a differential diagnosis in patients with an annular lesion involving the intertriginous area. Thus, we report this as an atypical case of generalized GA localized to the intertriginous area.

12.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 1570-1574, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916861

ABSTRACT

Post-partum galactocele is a common benign disease among breastfeeding women, whereas retromammary and peri-implant galactocele are relatively rare conditions. Herein, a 34-yearold, 1 month-postpartum female, who had augmentation mammoplasty and a 1-month history of breast pump use, presented with left breast enlargement for 2 weeks. An initial left breast US revealed hyperechoic peri-implant fluid collection. Additional US-guided fine needle aspiration was done using a 21G-needle, draining the milk component in the process, and cytologic results revealed numerous crystals, suggestive of galactocele. Various diseases, especially breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma, can cause peri-implant fluid collection in an augmented breast. Thus, correlating imaging features with clinical information and cytologic analysis plays an important role in appropriate management.

13.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 582-583, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913445

ABSTRACT

no abstract available.

14.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 266-276, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902013

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cyclosporine is an effective drug for the treatment of psoriasis. Nonetheless, little is known about the factors associated with its effectiveness. @*Objective@#This study aimed to analyze the factors affecting the treatment efficacy of cyclosporine in patients with psoriasis. @*Methods@#‘Good treatment response’ and ‘treatment failure’ were each defined as achievement of 75% improvement in the psoriasis area and severity index and failure to achieve 50% improvement in the psoriasis area and severity index, respectively. The factors affecting good treatment response were investigated by comparing the group that achieved psoriasis area and severity index 75 to the not achieved group. Similarly, we also analyzed the factors affecting treatment failure and the time required to achieve psoriasis area and severity index 75. @*Results@#In total, 78 patients (63 males and 15 females) were analyzed. Age of onset, body surface area, accompanying hypertension, accompanying psoriatic arthritis, induction phase mean dose, and cumulative dose showed a relationship with good treatment response. Body surface area, initial dose, and accompanying hypertension were correlated with treatment failure. The mean time taken to achieve psoriasis area and severity index 75 was 6.70±3.17 weeks and it did not correlate with any factor. @*Conclusion@#In patients with psoriasis vulgaris, maintaining an adequate mean dose in the induction phase may be necessary for successful treatment with cyclosporine, especially in the patients with early-onset psoriasis, severe psoriasis, or accompanying psoriatic arthritis. In addition, a sufficiently high start dose may be needed to prevent treatment failure, particularly in patients with severe psoriasis vulgaris.

15.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 266-276, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894309

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cyclosporine is an effective drug for the treatment of psoriasis. Nonetheless, little is known about the factors associated with its effectiveness. @*Objective@#This study aimed to analyze the factors affecting the treatment efficacy of cyclosporine in patients with psoriasis. @*Methods@#‘Good treatment response’ and ‘treatment failure’ were each defined as achievement of 75% improvement in the psoriasis area and severity index and failure to achieve 50% improvement in the psoriasis area and severity index, respectively. The factors affecting good treatment response were investigated by comparing the group that achieved psoriasis area and severity index 75 to the not achieved group. Similarly, we also analyzed the factors affecting treatment failure and the time required to achieve psoriasis area and severity index 75. @*Results@#In total, 78 patients (63 males and 15 females) were analyzed. Age of onset, body surface area, accompanying hypertension, accompanying psoriatic arthritis, induction phase mean dose, and cumulative dose showed a relationship with good treatment response. Body surface area, initial dose, and accompanying hypertension were correlated with treatment failure. The mean time taken to achieve psoriasis area and severity index 75 was 6.70±3.17 weeks and it did not correlate with any factor. @*Conclusion@#In patients with psoriasis vulgaris, maintaining an adequate mean dose in the induction phase may be necessary for successful treatment with cyclosporine, especially in the patients with early-onset psoriasis, severe psoriasis, or accompanying psoriatic arthritis. In addition, a sufficiently high start dose may be needed to prevent treatment failure, particularly in patients with severe psoriasis vulgaris.

16.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 551-560, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888665

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent and lethal cancer types around the world. Most of the CRC patients are treated with chemotherapeutic drugs alone or combined. However, up to 90% of metastatic cancer patients experience the failure of treatment mostly because of the acquired drug resistance, which can be led to multidrug resistance (MDR). In this study, we reviewed the recent literature which studied potential CRC MDR reversal agents among herbal medicines (HMs). Among abundant HMs, 6 single herbs, Andrographis paniculata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Hedyotis diffusa, Sophora flavescens, Curcuma longa, Bufo gargarizans, and 2 formulae, Pien Tze Huang and Zhi Zhen Fang, were found to overcome CRC MDR by two or more different mechanisms, which could be a promising candidate in the development of new drugs for adjuvant CRC chemotherapy.

17.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 265-268, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832748

ABSTRACT

Cutaneous Müllerian cyst (CMC) is a rare benign cystic lesion that typically occurs on the lower extremity of young females shortly after puberty. They have been widely regarded as Müllerian heterotopias due to the morphological similarities of the cyst lining cells to the epithelium of the fallopian tubes. A 16-year-old female presented with a two-year history of a solitary, subcutaneous mass involving the left ankle. She had no specific symptoms associated with the skin lesion. However, the lesion had been growing in size. Histopathological findings revealed cystic structures lined by pseudostratified ciliated cuboidal to columnar cells, accompanying intraluminal papillary projection. The immunohistochemical staining profiles, including positive staining for estrogen and progesterone receptors, were characteristic of the fallopian tube epithelium. After being surgically removed, the lesion was cured without recurrence. Based on her typical presentation and histopathological findings, we present this patient as a case of CMC.

18.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 162-167, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832733

ABSTRACT

Background@#Patients with undifferentiated masses on the finger are frequently encountered in the clinic. However, dermatology literature is scarce regarding these tumors. @*Objective@#To investigate the clinical characteristics of digital benign tumors. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed clinical photographs and medical records of 139 patients who visited Kangbuk Samsung Hospital for digital tumors confirmed by skin biopsy between January 2013 and August 2019. @*Results@#The mean patient age was 47.6 years and the male-to-female ratio was 1:1.27. The most common digital tumor was mucous cysts, accounting for 32.37% of the total number, followed by pyogenic granuloma (29.49%) and Masson’s hemangioma (7.19%). The most common digital tumors on the volar and dorsal surfaces were pyogenic granuloma (54.09%) and mucous cyst (55.12%), respectively. @*Conclusion@#Our study demonstrates that various digital tumors can occur. Further studies with larger patient groups are needed to better understand the incidence or site predilection of digital tumors.

19.
Neurointervention ; : 25-30, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837040

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We present ultrasound-guided percutaneous low-dose thrombin (200–250 IU) injection for the treatment of iatrogenic femoral pseudoaneurysms. Second, we compared patient and procedure factors between subcutaneous hematoma and pseudoaneurysm groups. @*Materials and Methods@#From April 2012 to May 2018, 8425 patients underwent neurointervention. Among these patients, 18 had small subcutaneous hematomas and 6 had pseudoaneurysms. Pseudoaneurysms in the neck and entire sac were visualized, and low-dose thrombins were injected while visualizing a “whirlpool” hyperechoic core in the pseudoaneurysm sac. Subcutaneous hematomas were treated with simple compression. We compared the following parameters between the subcutaneous hematoma group and pseudoaneurysm group: sex, age, body mass index (BMI), type of procedure, heparin usage, sheath size, procedure time, and number of previous neurointervention procedures with the Mann-Whitney U test. @*Results@#Most of the pseudoaneurysms were successfully occluded with 200 IU of thrombin (n=5). Only 1 pseudoaneurysm required a slightly higher thrombin concentration (250 IU, n=1). During the short-term follow-up, no residual sac was observed and no surgical repair was necessary. Pain in the groin region was alleviated. During the 1-month follow-up, no evidence of pseudoaneurysm recurrence nor subcutaneous hematoma was noted. Patient factors (sex, age, and BMI) and procedure factors (heparin usage, sheath size, procedure time, number of previous procedures) were not statistically different between the subcutaneous hematoma and pseudoaneurysm groups. @*Conclusion@#Ultrasound-guided percutaneous low-dose thrombin injection (200–250 IU) is safe, effective, and less invasive for treating iatrogenic femoral pseudoaneurysm in neurointervention.

20.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 97-104, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836317

ABSTRACT

Deep learning (DL) is a kind of machine learning technique that uses artificial intelligence to identify the characteristics of given data and efficiently analyze large amounts of information to perform tasks such as classification and prediction. In the field of neuroimaging of neurodevelopmental disorders, various biomarkers for diagnosis, classification, prognosis prediction, and treatment response prediction have been examined; however, they have not been efficiently combined to produce meaningful results. DL can be applied to overcome these limitations and produce clinically helpful results. Here, we review studies that combine neurodevelopmental disorder neuroimaging and DL techniques to explore the strengths, limitations, and future directions of this research area.

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