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Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(1): 14-21, Jan.-Feb. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892957


ABSTRACT Background Radical prostatectomy (RP) has been used as the main primary treatment for prostate cancer (PCa) for many years with excellent oncologic results. However, approximately 20-40% of those patients has failed to RP and presented biochemical recurrence (BCR). Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) has been the pivotal tool for recurrence diagnosis, but there is no consensus about the best PSA threshold to define BCR until this moment. The natural history of BCR after surgical procedure is highly variable, but it is important to distinguish biochemical and clinical recurrence and to find the correct timing to start multimodal treatment strategy. Also, it is important to understand the role of each clinical and pathological feature of prostate cancer in BCR, progression to metastatic disease and cancer specific mortality (CSM). Review design A simple review was made in Medline for articles written in English language about biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Objective To provide an updated assessment of BCR definition, its meaning, PCa natural history after BCR and the weight of each clinical/pathological feature and risk group classifications in BCR, metastatic disease and CSM.

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Prostatectomy , Risk Factors , Disease-Free Survival , Disease Progression
Int. braz. j. urol ; 37(2): 213-222, Mar.-Apr. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-588994


PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term efficacy of prostate cancer control and complication rates, in the elderly, after focal therapy with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between June 1997 and March 2000, patients with localized prostate cancer were included into a focal therapy protocol. Inclusion criteria were: PSA < 10 ng/mL, < 3 positive biopsies with only 1 lobe involved, clinical stage < T2a, Gleason score < 7 (3+4), negative CT scan and bone scan. Hemi-ablation of the prostate was performed with the Ablatherm(R) device. Survival, complication rates and urinary continence were evaluated. Control biopsies were performed at 1 year. Treatment failure was defined as a positive biopsy or need for salvage therapy. RESULTS: Twelve patients with a mean age 70 years were included. Median follow-up was 10 years. Control prostate biopsies were negative in 11/12 (91 percent) patients. Overall survival was 83 percent (10/12) and cancer specific survival was 100 percent at 10 years. Two patients died from other causes. Recurrence free survival was 90 percent (95 percent CI; 0.71-1) at 5 years, and 38 percent (95 percent CI; 0.04-0.73) at 10 years. Five patients had salvage therapy with repeat HIFU (n = 1) or hormonal therapy (n = 4) and all salvage patients were alive at 10 years. No patients developed lymph node or bone metastasis. No patients suffered from urinary incontinence. International Prostate Symptom Score was stable at 1 year. Complications included two urinary tract infections and one episode of acute urinary retention. CONCLUSIONS: Hemi-prostate ablation with HIFU can be safely performed in selected elderly patients with adequate long-term cancer control and low complication rates. Results from larger prospective studies using improved imaging techniques and extensive biopsy protocols are awaited.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Ultrasound, High-Intensity Focused, Transrectal , Feasibility Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Int. braz. j. urol ; 36(4): 385-400, July-Aug. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-562105


Laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS) and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) represent novel approaches in urological surgery. To perform a review of the literature in order describe the current status of LESS and NOTES in Urology. References for this manuscript were obtained by performing a review of the available literature in PubMed from 01-01-02 to 15-05-09. Search terms included single port, single site, NOTES, LESS and single incision. A total of 412 manuscripts were initially identified. Out of these, 64 manuscripts were selected based in their urological content. The manuscript features subheadings for experimental and clinical studies, as NOTES-LESS is a new surgical technique and its future evolution will probably rely in initial verified feasibility. A subheading for reviews presents information regarding common language and consensus for the techniques. The issue of complications published in clinical series and the future needs of NOTES-LESS, are also presented.

Humans , Male , Laparoscopy/methods , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Robotics/methods , Treatment Outcome , Urologic Surgical Procedures
Int. braz. j. urol ; 36(2): 129-140, Mar.-Apr. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-548372


PURPOSE: To review the literature and present a current picture of the evolution in radical prostatectomy from the laparoscopic point of view. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an extensive Medline literature search. Articles obtained regarding laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) and our experience at Institut Montsouris were used for reassessing anatomical and technical issues in radical prostatectomy. RESULTS: LRP nuances were reassessed by surgical teams in order to verify possible weaknesses in their performance. Our basic approach was to carefully study the anatomy and pioneer open surgery descriptions in order to standardized and master a technique. The learning curve is presented in terms of an objective evaluation of outcomes for cancer control and functional results. In terms of technique-outcomes, there are several key elements in radical prostatectomy, such as dorsal vein control-apex exposure and nerve sparing with particular implications in oncological and functional results. Major variations among the surgical teams' performance and follow-up prevented objective comparisons in radical prostatectomy. The remarkable evolution of LRP needs to be supported by comprehensive results. CONCLUSIONS: Radical prostatectomy is a complex surgical operation with difficult objectives. Surgical technique should be standardized in order to allow an adequate and reliable performance in all settings, keeping in mind that cancer control remains the primary objective. Reassessing anatomy and a return to basics in surgical technique is the means to improve outcomes and overcome the difficult task of the learning curve, especially in minimally access urological surgery.

Humans , Male , Laparoscopy/methods , Prostate/surgery , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Robotics/methods , Prostatectomy/trends , Treatment Outcome
Int. braz. j. urol ; 34(6): 676-690, Nov.-Dec. 2008. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-505648


OBJECTIVE: To review the current modalities of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search for keywords: renal cell carcinoma, radical nephrectomy, nephron sparing surgery, minimally invasive surgery, and cryoablation was performed for the years 2000 through 2008. The most relevant publications were examined. RESULTS: New epidemiologic data and current treatment of renal cancer were covered. Concerning the treatment of clinically localized disease, the literature supports the standardization of partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic approaches as therapeutic options with better functional results and oncologic success comparable to standard radical resection. Promising initial results are now available for minimally invasive therapies, such as cryotherapy and radiofrequency ablation. Active surveillance has been reported with acceptable results, including for those who are poor surgical candidates. CONCLUSIONS: This review covers current advances in radical and conservative treatments of localized kidney cancer. The current status of nephron-sparing surgery, ablative therapies, and active surveillance based on natural history has resulted in great progress in the management of localized renal cell carcinoma.

Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Catheter Ablation , Cryosurgery , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Laparoscopy , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Nephrectomy/methods , Radiosurgery
Rev. chil. urol ; 73(1): 21-23, 2008.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-545884


El tratamiento del cáncer vesical de células transicionales con invasión muscular sigue siendo difícil, debido a los múltiples patrones de comportamiento biológico que muestra esta enfermedad. Existe controversia en cuanto a la aplicación de tratamiento sistémico en cáncer invasor vesical y el tiempo ideal de indicación de la quimioterapia perioperatoria. Se presenta una visión general de la terapia sistémica en cáncer invasor vesical.

Defining adequate therapy in every patient with invasive transitional cell carcinoma remains difficult, because multiple biologic behavior patterns can be found in this disease. There is controversy regarding the use of systemic treatment in invasive bladder carcinoma and the momentum for chemotherapy deployment. We present an overview of current trends for systemic treatment in bladder carcinoma.

Humans , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cystectomy , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Muscle, Smooth , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant