Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
Filter
Add filters








Year range
1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 243-252, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088938

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o perfil de ácidos graxos (AG) do leite de vacas alimentadas com dietas à base de silagem de milho contendo 0% e 8,9% de glicerina bruta (GB) na matéria seca (MS). Foram utilizadas 18 vacas Holandês x Gir com 48±18 dias em lactação, produzindo 19,8±4,9kg/dia de leite. Utilizou-se delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com nove vacas/tratamento e duas medidas repetidas no tempo, com os resultados analisados por modelos mistos. A inclusão de GB na dieta não alterou a ingestão de MS, mas reduziu os consumos dos AG oleico, linoleico e α-linolênico. Os teores dos AG mirístico, palmítico, rumênico, vacênico, esteárico, oleico, linoleico, α-linolênico e CLA trans-10 cis-12 na gordura do leite foram semelhantes entre dietas. A inclusão de GB reduziu os teores dos AG elaídico e C18:1 trans-10 e aumentou os teores dos AG de cadeia ímpar linear e do ácido láurico. Não houve efeito da inclusão da GB sobre os índices de aterogenicidade e trombogenicidade da gordura do leite. Concluiu-se que a inclusão de glicerina bruta em dieta à base de silagem de milho não afetou a qualidade nutricional da gordura do leite de vacas Holandês x Gir.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the milk fatty acid (FA) composition of cows fed corn silage-based diets containing 0% and 8.9% of crude glycerin (GB) on a dry matter (DM) basis. Eighteen Holstein x Gyr cows with 48±18 days in milk and producing 19.8±4.9kg milk/day were used in the study. The experimental design was a randomized block with nine cows per treatment and two repeated measures. Results were analyzed using mixed models. The milk fat contents of myristic, palmitic, rumenic, vaccenic, estearic, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, and trans-10 cis-12 CLA were similar between diets. Dietary inclusion of GB decreased elaidic and trans-10 C18:1, and increased lauric acid and odd linear-chain FA contents in milk fat. Both atherogenicity and trombogenicity indices were unaffected by GB inclusion. It was concluded that GB inclusion in corn silage-based diets had no effect on the nutritional quality of milk fat from Holstein x Gyr dairy cows.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Silage , Milk/chemistry , Fatty Acids/analysis , Glycerol/administration & dosage , Biofuels , Animal Feed
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(4): 1150-1158, July-Aug. 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-759242

ABSTRACT

O experimento foi realizado na Embrapa Gado de Leite, em delineamento quadrado latino (QL) 4x4, com o objetivo de avaliar o perfil de ácidos graxos (AG) e os índices de qualidade nutricional da gordura do leite de vacas Holandês x Gir (n = 16) sob pastejo em Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu suplementada com concentrado (6kg/vaca/dia) contendo 0; 1,3; 2,6 e 3,9kg (base matéria natural) de grão de soja tostado (GST). Foram observados decréscimos lineares (P<0,0001) nas concentrações e nas secreções dos AG láurico, mirístico e palmítico e dos AG de cadeia ímpar linear e ramificada, bem como incrementos lineares (P<0,0001) nas concentrações e secreções dos AG α-linolênico, linoleico, oleico e esteárico na gordura do leite, com a inclusão do GST no concentrado. As concentrações e as secreções dos AG vacênico e rumênico apresentaram comportamento quadrático (P<0,001) em resposta à inclusão de quantidades crescentes de GST na dieta. As alterações observadas no perfil de AG do leite com o aumento da inclusão de GST no concentrado resultaram em reduções lineares (P<0,0001) nos índices de aterogenicidade e de trombogenicidade e em incrementos lineares (P<0,0001) nas relações entre AG hipo:hipercolesterolêmicos e entre AG ω-6:ω-3 da gordura do leite. Os resultados deste estudo mostraram que a inclusão de quantidades crescentes de GST na dieta de vacas Holandês x Gir pastejando capim-marandu apresenta potencial para a secreção de leite com gordura enriquecida com ácidos graxos benéficos à saúde humana.


The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Dairy Cattle in order to evaluate the milk fatty acid (FA) composition and indices of nutritional quality of milk fat from Holstein x Gyr cows (n = 16) grazing on Brachiaria brizanta cv. Marandu supplemented with concentrate (6 kg/cow/d) containing 0, 1.3, 2.6 and 3.9 kg (as-fed basis) of roasted soybeans (RS). A linear decrease (P<0.0001) in the content and secretion of lauric, myristic and palmitic FA, and odd- and branched-chain FA was observed, whereas the content and secretion of α-linolenic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic FA in milk fat increased linearly (P<0.0001) as the amount of RS increased in the diet. The milk fat content and secretion of vaccenic and rumenic FA increased quadratically (P<0.001) in response to dietary RS level. As a consequence of the above-mentioned changes in milk FA composition, both atherogeniticy and trombogenicity indices of milk fat were reduced linearly (P<0.0001), whereas hypo:hypercholesterolemic and ω-6:ω-3 FA ratios increased linearly (P<0.0001) in milk fat from cows fed increasing levels of RS. The results showed that dietary supplementation with increasing amounts of RS have the potential to secrete fat milk enriched fatty acids beneficial to human health.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Brachiaria/adverse effects , Fatty Acids , Milk , Soybeans , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Pasture
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(5): 1513-1521, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-729756

ABSTRACT

Este experimento teve como objetivo principal avaliar as alterações no perfil de ácidos graxos do leite decorrentes do fornecimento de diferentes níveis de óleo de girassol (OG) para vacas leiteiras alimentadas com dietas completas à base de capim-elefante. Doze vacas da raça Holandesa receberam quatro níveis de OG na dieta (0; 1,3; 2,5 e 3,7% da MS) em delineamento quadrado latino 4 x 4. Não houve efeito (P>0,05) dos níveis de OG sobre o consumo de MS, a produção de leite ou os teores de sólidos do leite. Por outro lado, o perfil de ácidos graxos (AG) do leite foi amplamante modificado com a inclusão de OG na dieta, e observou-se redução (P<0,0001) dos teores dos AG de cadeia curta e média, elevação dos teores de ácido oleico (P<0,0001), dos isômeros de ácido linoleico conjugado, em especial do ácido rumênico (P<0,0001) e da relação entre os ácidos graxos hipo e hipercolesterolêmicos (P<0,0001). Apesar da maior ingestão diária de ácido linoleico (P<0,01) com o aumento do nível de OG na dieta, sua concentração na gordura do leite não foi alterada. Isso indica extensiva bio-hidrogenação ruminal deste AG no rúmen, o que é compatível com o aumento (P<0,0001) da concentração de ácido esteárico e dos AG C18:1 trans, especialmente do vacênico, na gordura do leite. Em geral, os resultados observados no presente estudo indicam que a inclusão de até 3,7% de OG em dietas completas de vacas leiteiras à base de capim-elefante promove melhoria da qualidade nutricional da gordura do leite, sem comprometimento do desempenho produtivo dos animais...


This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different levels of sunflower oil (SO) (0, 1.3, 2.5 and 3.7% of diet DM) on nutrient intake, milk production, milk composition, and fatty acid (FA) composition of milk and plasma from dairy cows fed elephant-grass based diets. Twelve Holstein cows were divided into three groups and received the dietary treatments in a 4 x 4 Latin-square design. Oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acid intakes increased linearly (P<0.001) by adding SO to the diets. The reduction (P<0.0001) in odd and branched chain FA in milk fat from cows fed SO suggests that rumen microbial growth has been inhibited to some extent. Feeding up to 3.7% of SO in chopped elephantgrass-based diets improved the nutritional quality of milk fat, which was associated with the following changes in milk fatty acid composition: reduction (P<0.0001) of short and medium chain saturated FA contents, increase in oleic acid and rumenic acid contents (P<0.0001), and increase (P<0.0001) in hypo:hypercholesterolemic FA ratio. Overall, these results indicate that including up to 3.7% SO in elephant-grass based-diets improves the nutritional quality of milk fat from dairy cows without causing any detrimental effects on production paramaters...


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Fatty Acids , Linoleic Acid , Plant Oils/analysis , Pennisetum , Animal Feed , Animal Nutrition Sciences , Food Analysis , Milk
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(3): 853-860, 06/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-718083

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar a viabilidade econômica da produção de leite de vacas Holandês x Gir, pela inclusão de níveis crescentes de óleo de girassol (0,0; 1,5; 3,0 e 4,5 por cento) na matéria seca de dietas baseadas em cana-de-açúcar. Os dados utilizados no estudo foram obtidos de experimento realizado com 12 vacas Holandês x Gir, multíparas, com produção média de 18,2kg/dia de leite, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos 4 x 4, conforme a produção de leite, a ordem de lactação e o peso corpóreo. As dietas foram isoproteicas, fornecidas ad libitum na forma de mistura total (relação volumoso:concentrado de 60:40, base matéria seca), e os consumos das vacas determinados diariamente. As produções individuais diárias de leite foram registradas, e sua composição foi analisada quanto aos teores de gordura, proteína e ácidos graxos. A viabilidade econômica foi realizada considerando-se os preços dos ingredientes fornecidos e o consumo diário da dieta de cada tratamento. O benefício econômico foi obtido pela diferença entre a receita, com a venda do leite, e o custo com alimentação dos animais. O pagamento por qualidade foi estimado pela média de oito sistemas utilizados por empresas do ramo de laticínios, com base nos teores de gordura, proteína e no volume de leite. A dieta sem inclusão de OG foi a que proporcionou maior benefício econômico. A inclusão de OG nas dietas baseadas em cana-de-açúcar não foi viável, economicamente, devido aos gastos adicionais com OG e às penalizações resultantes da redução dos teores de proteína e de gordura do leite...


The aim of this study was to evaluate the economic viability of the milk yield of Holstein x Gir cows by the addition of growing levels of sunflower oil (SO) (0.0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 percent) in the dry matter of sugar-cane based diets. The data utilized in the study were obtained from an experiment conducted with 12 multiparous Holstein x Gir cows, with average yield of 18.2kg/day of milk, distributed into three 4 x 4 Latin squares according to milk yield, lactation order and body weight. The diets were isoprotein, a total mixture fed at libitum (ratio roughage concentrate of 60:40, dry matter basis) and cow consumption was determined daily. The individual milk yields were recorded daily and their composition analyzed regarding fat, protein and fatty acids content. The economic viability was carried out by considering the prices of the feedstuffs fed and the daily consumption in the diet for each treatment. The economic benefit was obtained by the difference between the receipt with the milk sale and the cost with the feeding of the animals. The pay for quality was estimated on the basis of the mean of eight systems utilized by businesses in the dairy branch on the basis of the fat and protein contents and by milk volume. The diet without the addition of SO was the one which provided the greatest economic benefit. The addition of SO in the sugar-cane based diets was not economically viable due to the additional expenditures with SO and the penalizations resulting from the reduction of the milk protein and fat content...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Helianthus , Lactation , Milk/economics , Plant Oils/administration & dosage , Animal Feed/economics , Saccharum , Milk/chemistry
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 65(5): 1545-1553, out. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-689775

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o perfil de ácidos graxos (AG), os índices de qualidade nutricional e a estabilidade oxidativa (EO) de manteigas produzidas do leite de vacas alimentadas com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar contendo níveis crescentes de óleo de girassol (OG): 0 (controle); 1,5; 3,0 e 4,5% da matéria seca (MS). O perfil de AG das manteigas foi analisado por cromatografia gasosa, e a EO foi determinada utilizando-se o equipamento Rancimat®, modelo 743, operado a 120ºC e fluxo de ar de 20L/h. As concentrações dos AG rumênico (CLA cis-9, trans-11), vacênico (C18:1 trans-11) e oleico (C18:1 cis-9) na gordura das manteigas foram aumentadas em 867, 687 e 148%, respectivamente, à medida que se aumentou de 0 para 4,5% o nível de OG na dieta. Por outro lado, as concentrações dos AG saturados de cadeia média foram linearmente reduzidas (P<0,0001) na gordura das manteigas, em razão do incremento de OG nas dietas. Quanto aos índices de qualidade nutricional, houve redução linear (P<0,0001) no índice de aterogenicidade e no de trombogenicidade e aumento da relação entre AG hipo e hipercolesterolêmicos, em resposta ao aumento do nível de OG na dieta. Consistente com o incremento (P<0,0001) nas concentrações totais dos AG mono e poli-insaturados, a EO da gordura das manteigas foi linearmente reduzida (P<0,0001) em razão do incremento de OG nas dietas. Concluiu-se que a suplementação com OG melhorou a qualidade nutricional das manteigas produzidas do leite de vacas Holandês x Gir devido a mudanças positivas no perfil de AG da gordura. Entretanto, tais mudanças na composição dos AG da gordura foram acompanhadas de redução da EO das manteigas, associada à menor vida de prateleira.


The objective of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid (FA) profile, nutritional quality and oxidative stability (OE) indexes of butter obtained from milk of cows fed sugar cane-based diets containing increasing levels of sunflower oil (SO): 0 (Control); 1.5; 3.0 and 4.5% of diet DM. The butter FA profile was analyzed by gas chromatography and OE was determined using the Rancimat® equipment (model 743) operated at 120ºC and air flow of 20 L/h. The concentrations of rumenic acid (cis-9 trans-11 CLA), vaccenic acid (trans-11 C18:1) and oleic acid (cis-9 C18:1) in butter fat were increased by 867, 687 and 148%, respectively, as the dietary SO level increased from 0 to 4.5%. In contrast, the concentrations of medium chain saturated FA were linearly reduced (P<0.05) in butter fat from cows fed increasing levels of SO. Regarding the butter nutritional quality, a linear decrease (P<0.0001) in atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indexes and a linear increase (P<0.0001) in the hypocholesterolemic/ hypercholesterolemic ratio were observed compared to control, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% SO, respectively. Consistent with the increased (P<0.0001) concentration of mono and polyunsaturated FA, the OE of butter fat was linearly reduced (P<0.0001) as the dietary SO level increased. It was concluded that diet supplementation with SO improved the nutritional quality of butter fat of Holstein x Gir dairy cows as a result of positive changes in milk FA profile. However, these changes in milk FA composition were accompanied by a reduction in the SO of butter, which in turn is associated with a shorter shelf life.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Dairy Products/analysis , Milk , Nutrition Assessment
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 64(5): 1223-1231, out. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-655896

ABSTRACT

Avaliaram-se o consumo, metabólitos sanguíneos e a produção e composição do leite de 16 vacas Holandês x Gir, manejadas em pastagem de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, suplementadas com 6kg/vaca/dia (base matéria natural) de concentrado contendo 0; 1,3; 2,6 e 3,9kg/vaca/dia de grão de soja tostado (GST). Foi utilizado o delineamento com quatro quadrados latinos (QL) 4 x 4, sendo cada fase do QL constituída de 10 dias de período de adaptação à dieta e de cinco para coleta de amostras. A suplementação da dieta com GST resultou em redução linear (P<0,05) nos consumos de matéria seca e de fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro do pasto e total. A concentração de glicose não foi afetada (P>0,05), porém a de ácidos graxos não esterificados aumentou com a inclusão do GST na dieta (P<0,05). Não houve efeito (P>0,05) da adição do GST sobre a produção e composição do leite, exceto para o teor (P=0,10) e produção (P=0,08) de gordura no leite.


Feed intake, blood metabolites, and milk yield and composition of Holstein x Gir cows grazing Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu receiving 6kg/cow/day (natural matter based) of concentrate containing 0, 1.3, 2.6, 3.9kg/cow/day of roasted soybean seeds (RSS) were evaluated. The experimental design was four 4 x 4 latin square (LS) in wich each phase consisted of 10 days for diet adaptation period and 5 days for samples collection. Diet supplementation with RSS decreased linearly (P<0.05) the intake of pasture, total diet dry matter and neutral detergent fiber. The plasma glucose concentration was unaffected (P>0.05), but nonesterified fatty acids increased with RSS supplementation (P<0.05). There was no effect (P>0.05) of RSS supplement on milk production and composition, except the linear reduction on the content (P=0.10) and yield (P=0.08) milk fat, which can present positive financial implication to farmers, knowing that most of the Brazilian dairy use payment programs by milk composition.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle/metabolism , Milk/classification , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Brachiaria/adverse effects , Soybeans/adverse effects , Poaceae/adverse effects
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 63(2): 518-521, abr. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-591151

ABSTRACT

Milk fatty acids profile was evaluated using 12 Holstein cows producing 15 kg/day of milk with 4.0% of fat. The animals were assigned to four treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (two tropical grasses - Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, supplemented with two concentrate levels - 3 and 6 kg/cow/day) in a completely randomized block design. There was no effect of forage and concentrate level (P>0.05) on concentrations of rumenic, vaccenic, (C18: 1 trans-11) and oleic acids in milk fat (mean values of 1.01, 1.79, and 22.55 g/100 g of total fatty acids, respectively). The concentrations of lauric (C12:0), myristic (C14:0), and palmitic (C16:0) acids were also unaffected by treatments (mean values of 2.63, 9.77, and 27.44g/100g of total fatty acids, respectively). Overall, the results illustrate the potential of tropical grasses in producing milk containing a more desirable fatty acids profile in terms of human health.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle/classification , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Brachiaria/classification
8.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 7(2): 284-294, 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-641011

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in adipose tissue explant cultures of growing pigs on the following responses: lipogenesis (measured as rate of 14C-labeled glucose incorporation over a subsequent 2-h incubation in the presence or absence of insulin), lipolysis (release of non-esterified fatty acid over a 2-h incubation in the presence or absence of isoproterenol), activities of lipogenic enzymes, and mRNA abundance of fatty acid synthase (FAS). Adipose tissue explants from nine growing pigs (78 ± 3 kg) were cultured in 199 medium with insulin, dexamethasone and antibiotics for 4, 12, 24, and 48 h. The treatments were 1) control: 100 μM polyvinyl alcohol (PVA); 2) pGH: 100 ng/mL porcine growth hormone (pGH) plus 100 μM PVA; 3) CLA200: 200 μM trans-10, cis-12 CLA; 4) CLA50: 50 μM trans-10, cis-12 CLA, and 5) LA: 200 μM linoleic acid. Fatty acids were added along with PVA (2:1), respectively, for 24 h. Explants were collected after each culture period and assayed for lipogenesis. Transcripts of FAS mRNA were quantified by real-time RT-PCR after 24 and 48 h. Lipolysis and activities of FAS, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and NADP-malate dehydrogenase were determined after 48 h. As expected, glucose incorporation was decreased (P < 0.05) in response to pGH treatment (positive control). LA had no effect on any parameter evaluated. Treatment with trans-10, cis-12 CLA decreased FAS activity (P < 0.05), but NADPH-generating enzymes were unaffected by treatments. Consistent with reduction in FAS activity, both lipid synthesis and FAS mRNA abundance were reduced with chronic CLA treatment, pGH increased baseline and stimulated lipolysis (P < 0.05) after 48 h of culture, while CLA treatment had no effect on non-esterified fatty acid release. Results of this study showed that trans-10, cis-12 CLA alters lipogenesis but has no effect on lipolysis...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Linoleic Acids, Conjugated/pharmacology , Lipid Metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Swine/genetics , Adipose Tissue , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Fatty Acid Synthases/genetics , Fatty Acid Synthases/metabolism , Lipogenesis , Lipolysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Tissue Culture Techniques , Adipose Tissue/growth & development , Adipose Tissue/metabolism
9.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 6(1): 214-221, 2007. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-456767

ABSTRACT

Cultures of adipose tissue explants are a valuable tool for studying the intracellular mechanisms involving hormones and nutrients. However, testing how fatty acids affect cells requires a carrier molecule; bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been used for this purpose. However, contaminants can alter the cellular response. Our objectives were to: 1) test BSA as a fatty acid carrier and 2) evaluate polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a replacement for BSA. Adipose tissue explants from nine pigs were cultured in medium 199 for 4, 12, 24, and 48 h, with the following treatments: control, PVA (100 mM PVA added) and PVA + pGH (100 mM PVA plus 0.1 mg/mL porcine growth hormone). After each culture period, explants were collected and assayed for lipogenesis. After 48 h in culture, explants were assayed for lipolysis. A preliminary study with different commercial sources and high concentrations showed that BSA affected lipogenic rates. On the other hand, there were no effects of PVA on lipid synthesis, while pGH (positive control) reduced glucose incorporation into lipids (P < 0.01) when compared to both control and PVA (P < 0.05). There was no difference between control and PVA for lipolysis rates. However, pGH increased lipolysis when compared to control (P < 0.01) and PVA (P < 0.05). We demonstrated that BSA can alter lipogenesis, which precludes its use as a carrier molecule. On the other hand, addition of PVA had no effect on lipolysis or lipogenesis. We suggest the use of PVA instead of BSA for adding bioactive fatty acids to cultures of adipose tissue


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cattle , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Lipogenesis/drug effects , Lipolysis/drug effects , Polyvinyl Alcohol/pharmacology , Tissue Culture Techniques/veterinary , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Serum Albumin, Bovine , Swine , Time Factors , Tissue Culture Techniques/methods
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL