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Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(4): 784-792, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285193


Resumo Fundamento: O exercício físico tem sido considerado uma importante terapia não farmacológica para a prevenção e tratamento das doenças cardiovasculares. No entanto, seus efeitos na remodelação cardíaca leve não são claros. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência do exercício aeróbico sobre a capacidade funcional, estrutura cardíaca, função ventricular esquerda (VE) e expressão gênica das subunidades da NADPH oxidase em ratos com infarto do miocárdio pequeno (IM). Métodos: Três meses após a indução do IM, ratos Wistar foram divididos em três grupos: Sham; IM sedentário (IM-SED); e IM exercício aeróbico (IM-EA). Os ratos se exercitaram em uma esteira três vezes por semana durante 12 semanas. Um ecocardiograma foi realizado antes e após o treinamento. O tamanho do infarto foi avaliado por histologia e a expressão gênica por RT-PCR. O nível de significância para análise estatística foi estabelecido em 5%. Resultados: Ratos com IM menor que 30% da área total do VE foram incluídos no estudo. A capacidade funcional foi maior no IM-EA do que nos ratos Sham e IM-SED. O tamanho do infarto não diferiu entre os grupos. Ratos infartados apresentaram aumento do diâmetro diastólico e sistólico do VE, diâmetro do átrio esquerdo e massa do VE, com disfunção sistólica. A espessura relativa da parede foi menor no grupo IM-SED do que nos grupos IM-EA e Sham. A expressão gênica das subunidades NADPH oxidase NOX2, NOX4, p22phox e p47phox não diferiu entre os grupos. Conclusão: Infarto do miocárdio pequeno altera a estrutura cardíaca e a função sistólica do VE. O exercício aeróbico tardio pode melhorar a capacidade funcional e a remodelação cardíaca por meio da preservação da geometria ventricular esquerda. A expressão gênica das subunidades da NADPH oxidase não está envolvida na remodelação cardíaca, nem é modulada pelo exercício aeróbico em ratos com infarto do miocárdio pequeno.

Abstract Background: Physical exercise has been considered an important non-pharmacological therapy for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, its effects on minor cardiac remodeling are not clear. Objective: To evaluate the influence of aerobic exercise on the functional capacity, cardiac structure, left ventricular (LV) function, and gene expression of NADPH oxidase subunits in rats with small-sized myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: Three months after MI induction, Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Sham; sedentary MI (MI-SED); and aerobic exercised MI (MI-AE). The rats exercised on a treadmill three times a week for 12 weeks. An echocardiogram was performed before and after training. The infarction size was evaluated by histology, and gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR. The significance level for statistical analysis was set at 5%. Results: Rats with MI lower than 30% of the LV total area were included in the study. Functional capacity was higher in MI-AE than in Sham and MI-SED rats. The infarction size did not differ between groups. Infarcted rats had increased LV diastolic and systolic diameter, left atrial diameter, and LV mass, with systolic dysfunction. Relative wall thickness was lower in MI-SED than in the MI-AE and Sham groups. Gene expression of the NADPH oxidase subunits NOX2, NOX4, p22phox, and p47phox did not differ between groups. Conclusion: Small-sized MI changes cardiac structure and LV systolic function. Late aerobic exercise is able to improve functional capacity and cardiac remodeling by preserving the left ventricular geometry. NADPH oxidase subunits gene expression is not involved in cardiac remodeling or modulated by aerobic exercise in rats with small-sized MI.

Animals , Rats , Ventricular Remodeling , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Exercise , Rats, Wistar , Heart
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-954842


Background The present study evaluated the effect of treatment with benznidazole on mRNA expression of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-10, TGF-β and FoxP3 in spleen and heart tissue of BALB/c mice in the acute phase of an experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, strains JLP or Y. Methods The mRNA expression of cytokines and parasite load were assessed by q-PCR. Dependent groups were compared using Student's paired t-test and independent groups were compared using Student's unpaired t-test. Results Infection with the JLP or Y strains increased expression of IFN-γ in the heart and of IL-10 and IL-17 in the spleen and heart compared to uninfected animals. Treatment increased the expression of IFN-γ and decreased the expression of IL-17, IL-10, TGF- β and Foxp3 in spleen and heart tissue compared to untreated infected animals. Conclusion Benznidazole can induce Th1 profile in the initial of the acute phase. The treatment decreased the parasite load in both organs, although the number of parasites in Y-strain-infected mice remained high. The data suggest that benznidazole may modulate cytokine expression in infection and can be dependent of the strain. However, treatment was not fully effective in the infection provoked by Y strain, probably due to the characteristics of the strain itself.(AU)

Trypanosoma cruzi , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cytokines , Interferons , Chagas Disease , Parasite Load , Immunity
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(6): 735-740, Nov-Dec/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-698064


Introduction Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by the intracellular protozoan Leishmania donovani complex. VL may be asymptomatic or progressive and is characterized by fever, anemia, weight loss and the enlargement of the spleen and liver. The nutritional status of the patients with VL is a major determinant of the progression, severity and mortality of the disease, as it affects the clinical progression of the disease. Changes in lipoproteins and plasma proteins may have major impacts in the host during infection. Thus, our goal was evaluate the serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, glucose, albumin, globulin and total protein levels, as well as the body composition, of VL patients before and after treatment. Methods Nutritional evaluation was performed using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess body composition. Biochemical data on the serum total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, glucose, albumin, globulin and total protein were collected from the medical charts of the patients. Results BIA indicated that both pre-treatment and post-treatment patients exhibited decreased phase angles compared to the controls, which is indicative of disease. Prior to treatment, the patients exhibited lower levels of total body water compared to the controls. Regarding the biochemical evaluation, patients with active VL exhibited lower levels of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and albumin and higher triglyceride levels compared to patients after treatment and the controls. Treatment increased the levels of albumin and lipoproteins and decreased the triglyceride levels. Conclusions Our results suggest that patients with active VL present biochemical and nutritional changes that are reversed by treatment. .

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Nutrition Assessment , Albumins/analysis , Body Mass Index , Globulins/analysis , Glucose/analysis , Lipids/blood , Proteins/analysis
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(5): 573-583, Aug. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597718


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognise pathogen-derived molecules and influence immunity to control parasite infections. This study aimed to evaluate the mRNA expression of TLRs 2 and 4, the expression and production of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-12, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-17, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and the production of nitric oxide (NO) in the spleen of mice infected with Leishmania chagasi. It also aimed to evaluate any correlations between mRNA expression TLR2 and 4 and cytokines and NO production. Infection resulted in increased TLR2-4, IL-17, TNF-α and TGF-β mRNA expression during early infection, with decreased expression during late infection correlating with parasite load. IFN-γ and IL-12 mRNA expression decreased at the peak of parasitism. IL-10 mRNA expression increased throughout the entire time period analysed. Although TGF-β, TNF-α and IL-17 were highly produced during the initial phase of infection, IFN-γ and IL-12 exhibited high production during the final phase of infection. IL-10 and NO showed increased production throughout the evaluated time period. In the acute phase of infection, there was a positive correlation between TLR2-4, TNF-α, IL-17, NO, IL-10 and TGF-β expression and parasite load. During the chronic phase of infection, there was a positive correlation between TLR2-4, TNF-α, IL-17 and TGF-β expression and parasite load. Our data suggest that infection by L. chagasi resulted in modulation of TLRs 2 and 4 and cytokines.

Animals , Female , Mice , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral , DNA Primers , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniasis, Visceral , Parasite Load , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger