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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899882

ABSTRACT

Background@#The purpose of the study was to translate and linguistically validate a Korean language version of the PROMIS (K-PROMIS) for the six profile adult domains: Fatigue, Pain Intensity, Pain Interference, Physical Function, Sleep Disturbance, and Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities. @*Methods@#A total of 268 items were translated into Korean according to the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy multilingual translation methodology. Participants first completed approximately 27 to 35 items and were then interviewed to evaluate the conceptual equivalence of the translation to the original English language source.The K-PROMIS items that met the a priori threshold of ≥ 20% of respondents with comprehension difficulties in the cognitive interview. @*Results@#54 of the 268 items were identified as difficult items to comprehend for at least 20% of respondents in Round 1. The most frequently identified K-PROMIS domain on difficult items to comprehend was the Physical function (24.5%). Most items with linguistic difficulties were Fatigue and Physical function. Cultural difficulties were only included the Physical function and Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities domains. 25 of 54 items were slightly revised, and then these revised items were tested with additional six participants in Round 2, and most participants had no problems to understand modified items. @*Conclusion@#The six profile adult domains of K-PROMIS have been linguistically validated.Further psychometric validation of the K-PROMIS items will provide additional information of meaningful outcomes for chronic disease and clinical setting.

2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 954-957, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896578

ABSTRACT

Nonpharmaceutical interventions (e.g., social distancing) are recommended to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses. However, few epidemiological studies have assessed whether social distancing in actual settings reduces the disease burden of severe acute respiratory infections (SARIs) in the general population. Accordingly, we aimed to assess associations between nationwide social distancing for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and non-COVID-19 SARIs. We collected data on SARI epidemiologic characteristics recorded from January 2018 through December 2020 from the nationwide sentinel SARI surveillance data maintained by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. The number of SARIs per 1000 hospitalized patients decreased significantly to 18.61, 18.15, and 6.25 in 2018, 2019, and 2020 (p<0.001), respectively, during the surveillance period of 3 years. The number of intensive care unit admissions associated with SARIs per 1000 hospitalized patients was 0.83, 0.69, and 0.54 in 2018, 2019, and 2020 (p< 0.001), respectively, and the number of SARI-associated mortalities per 1000 patients was 0.42, 0.29, and 0.27 in 2018, 2019, and 2020 (p<0.001), respectively. Moreover, SARIs had two peak seasons in 2 years of the surveillance period (2018 and 2019). However, seasonality was not observed since social distancing was initiated. Our sentinel surveillance data demonstrated a remarkable reduction in SARI disease burden and a change in seasonality following the implementation of nationwide social distancing. Accordingly, we suggest that social distancing could be effective in forthcoming seasonal epidemics of non-COVID-19 origin, although the impact thereof on other aspects of society needs to be carefully considered.

3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894555

ABSTRACT

Clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is diverse ranging from asymptomatic or mild respiratory symptoms to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and respiratory failure. As the pandemic progresses, the number of critically ill COVID-19 patients continues to increase. Whether or not COVID-19 ARDS patients are distinct from conventional ARDS is not settled, and there is no definite evidence that they should be treated differently from ARDS of other origins. The use of oxygen treatment with high flow nasal cannula has been increased. Invasive mechanical ventilation should be applied with lung protective strategy in mind. Prone positioning should be actively considered. Since the primary cause of death of COVID-19 patients is respiratory failure, understanding the characteristics of COVID-19 ARDS and its treatment is necessary for optimal outcome.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892178

ABSTRACT

Background@#The purpose of the study was to translate and linguistically validate a Korean language version of the PROMIS (K-PROMIS) for the six profile adult domains: Fatigue, Pain Intensity, Pain Interference, Physical Function, Sleep Disturbance, and Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities. @*Methods@#A total of 268 items were translated into Korean according to the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy multilingual translation methodology. Participants first completed approximately 27 to 35 items and were then interviewed to evaluate the conceptual equivalence of the translation to the original English language source.The K-PROMIS items that met the a priori threshold of ≥ 20% of respondents with comprehension difficulties in the cognitive interview. @*Results@#54 of the 268 items were identified as difficult items to comprehend for at least 20% of respondents in Round 1. The most frequently identified K-PROMIS domain on difficult items to comprehend was the Physical function (24.5%). Most items with linguistic difficulties were Fatigue and Physical function. Cultural difficulties were only included the Physical function and Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities domains. 25 of 54 items were slightly revised, and then these revised items were tested with additional six participants in Round 2, and most participants had no problems to understand modified items. @*Conclusion@#The six profile adult domains of K-PROMIS have been linguistically validated.Further psychometric validation of the K-PROMIS items will provide additional information of meaningful outcomes for chronic disease and clinical setting.

5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 954-957, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904282

ABSTRACT

Nonpharmaceutical interventions (e.g., social distancing) are recommended to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses. However, few epidemiological studies have assessed whether social distancing in actual settings reduces the disease burden of severe acute respiratory infections (SARIs) in the general population. Accordingly, we aimed to assess associations between nationwide social distancing for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and non-COVID-19 SARIs. We collected data on SARI epidemiologic characteristics recorded from January 2018 through December 2020 from the nationwide sentinel SARI surveillance data maintained by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. The number of SARIs per 1000 hospitalized patients decreased significantly to 18.61, 18.15, and 6.25 in 2018, 2019, and 2020 (p<0.001), respectively, during the surveillance period of 3 years. The number of intensive care unit admissions associated with SARIs per 1000 hospitalized patients was 0.83, 0.69, and 0.54 in 2018, 2019, and 2020 (p< 0.001), respectively, and the number of SARI-associated mortalities per 1000 patients was 0.42, 0.29, and 0.27 in 2018, 2019, and 2020 (p<0.001), respectively. Moreover, SARIs had two peak seasons in 2 years of the surveillance period (2018 and 2019). However, seasonality was not observed since social distancing was initiated. Our sentinel surveillance data demonstrated a remarkable reduction in SARI disease burden and a change in seasonality following the implementation of nationwide social distancing. Accordingly, we suggest that social distancing could be effective in forthcoming seasonal epidemics of non-COVID-19 origin, although the impact thereof on other aspects of society needs to be carefully considered.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902259

ABSTRACT

Clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is diverse ranging from asymptomatic or mild respiratory symptoms to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and respiratory failure. As the pandemic progresses, the number of critically ill COVID-19 patients continues to increase. Whether or not COVID-19 ARDS patients are distinct from conventional ARDS is not settled, and there is no definite evidence that they should be treated differently from ARDS of other origins. The use of oxygen treatment with high flow nasal cannula has been increased. Invasive mechanical ventilation should be applied with lung protective strategy in mind. Prone positioning should be actively considered. Since the primary cause of death of COVID-19 patients is respiratory failure, understanding the characteristics of COVID-19 ARDS and its treatment is necessary for optimal outcome.

7.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 908-918, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917374

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Despite recent improvements in advanced life support, the overall survival rate after cardiac arrest remains low. We aimed to examine the association of a multidisciplinary team approach with clinical outcomes in patients undergoing extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) in the emergency department (ED). @*Methods@#This retrospective, single-center, observational study included 125 patients who underwent ECPR in the ED between May 2004–December 2018. In January 2014, our institution implemented a multidisciplinary extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) team. Eligible patients were classified into pre-ECMO-team (n=65) and post-ECMO-team (n=60) groups. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. @*Results@#In-hospital mortality (72.3% vs. 58.3%, p=0.102) and poor neurological outcomes (78.5% vs. 68.3%, p=0.283) did not differ significantly between the pre- and post-ECMOteam groups. However, among the 60 patients who experienced in-hospital cardiac arrest,in-hospital mortality (75.8% vs. 40.7%, p=0.006) and poor neurological outcomes (78.8% vs. 48.1%, p=0.015) significantly decreased after the multidisciplinary team formation.Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the multidisciplinary team approach (adjusted odds ratio, 0.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.07–0.61; p=0.005) was an independent prognostic factor for in-hospital mortality in in-hospital cardiac arrest patients. @*Conclusions@#A multidisciplinary team approach was associated with improved clinical outcomes in in-hospital cardiac arrest patients undergoing ECPR in the ED. These findings may help in improving the selection criteria for ECPR in the ED. Further studies to overcome the study limitations may help improving the outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899780

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There has been no consensus regarding the discontinuation order of vasopressors in patients recovering from septic shock treated with concomitant norepinephrine (NE) and arginine vasopressin (AVP). The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of hypotension within 24 hours based on whether NE or AVP was discontinued first in order to determine the optimal sequence for discontinuation of vasopressors.@*METHODS@#A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register. The primary end-point was incidence of hypotension within 24 hours after discontinuation of the first vasopressor.@*RESULTS@#We identified five studies comprising 930 patients, of whom 631 (67.8%) discontinued NE first and 299 (32.2%) discontinued AVP first. In pooled estimates, a random-effect model showed that discontinuation of NE first was associated with a significant reduction of the incidence of hypotension compared to discontinuing AVP first (31.8% vs. 54.8%; risk ratios, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.16 to 0.76; P = 0.008; I² = 90.7%). Although a substantial degree of heterogeneity existed among the trials, we could not identify the significant source of bias. In addition, there were no significant differences in intensive care unit (ICU) mortality, in-hospital mortality, 28-day mortality, or ICU length of stay between the groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Discontinuing NE prior to AVP was associated with a lower incidence of hypotension in patients recovering from septic shock. However, our results should be interpreted with caution, due to the considerable between-study heterogeneity.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898872

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to analyze the temporal change of resuscitation fluid use based on all fluids administered in a surgical intensive care unit (ICU). @*Methods@#The administration of resuscitation fluid to all patients admitted to a surgical ICU of a tertiary referral hospital was investigated from 2008 to 2015. The types and volumes of fluid, and laboratory data taken within 7 days after ICU admission were evaluated. Resuscitation fluids were defined as fluids infused according to stat orders, rather than routine orders. @*Results@#There were a total of 8,885 admissions to the ICU for 7,886 patients. The volumetric proportion of crystalloid to total resuscitation fluids increased significantly over the study period (p < 0.001; 79.6% in 2008; 93.7% in 2015). Although the proportion of 0.9% saline to crystalloids decreased, that of balanced solutions increased (p < 0.001; 29.5% in 2008; 55.6% in 2015). The use of colloids decreased from 20.4% in 2008, to 6.3% in 2015 (p < 0.001). Proportions calculated using the number of individual fluids administered revealed trends similar to those calculated using volumetric data. The amount of infused 0.9% saline was weakly correlated with the lowest blood pH and the highest serum chloride levels (ρ = -0.26 and 0.19, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Changes in the trends of fluid resuscitation practice were noted in a single surgical ICU over the 8-year study period. Crystalloid use increased owing to a rise in the utilization of balanced solutions with a downward trend in colloid use.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There has been no consensus regarding the discontinuation order of vasopressors in patients recovering from septic shock treated with concomitant norepinephrine (NE) and arginine vasopressin (AVP). The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of hypotension within 24 hours based on whether NE or AVP was discontinued first in order to determine the optimal sequence for discontinuation of vasopressors.@*METHODS@#A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register. The primary end-point was incidence of hypotension within 24 hours after discontinuation of the first vasopressor.@*RESULTS@#We identified five studies comprising 930 patients, of whom 631 (67.8%) discontinued NE first and 299 (32.2%) discontinued AVP first. In pooled estimates, a random-effect model showed that discontinuation of NE first was associated with a significant reduction of the incidence of hypotension compared to discontinuing AVP first (31.8% vs. 54.8%; risk ratios, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.16 to 0.76; P = 0.008; I² = 90.7%). Although a substantial degree of heterogeneity existed among the trials, we could not identify the significant source of bias. In addition, there were no significant differences in intensive care unit (ICU) mortality, in-hospital mortality, 28-day mortality, or ICU length of stay between the groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Discontinuing NE prior to AVP was associated with a lower incidence of hypotension in patients recovering from septic shock. However, our results should be interpreted with caution, due to the considerable between-study heterogeneity.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891168

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to analyze the temporal change of resuscitation fluid use based on all fluids administered in a surgical intensive care unit (ICU). @*Methods@#The administration of resuscitation fluid to all patients admitted to a surgical ICU of a tertiary referral hospital was investigated from 2008 to 2015. The types and volumes of fluid, and laboratory data taken within 7 days after ICU admission were evaluated. Resuscitation fluids were defined as fluids infused according to stat orders, rather than routine orders. @*Results@#There were a total of 8,885 admissions to the ICU for 7,886 patients. The volumetric proportion of crystalloid to total resuscitation fluids increased significantly over the study period (p < 0.001; 79.6% in 2008; 93.7% in 2015). Although the proportion of 0.9% saline to crystalloids decreased, that of balanced solutions increased (p < 0.001; 29.5% in 2008; 55.6% in 2015). The use of colloids decreased from 20.4% in 2008, to 6.3% in 2015 (p < 0.001). Proportions calculated using the number of individual fluids administered revealed trends similar to those calculated using volumetric data. The amount of infused 0.9% saline was weakly correlated with the lowest blood pH and the highest serum chloride levels (ρ = -0.26 and 0.19, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Changes in the trends of fluid resuscitation practice were noted in a single surgical ICU over the 8-year study period. Crystalloid use increased owing to a rise in the utilization of balanced solutions with a downward trend in colloid use.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831485

ABSTRACT

Background@#Despite the increasing importance of rehabilitation for critically ill patients, there is little information regarding how rehabilitation therapy is utilized in clinical practice. Our objectives were to evaluate the implementation rate of rehabilitation therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) survivors and to investigate the effects of rehabilitation therapy on outcomes. @*Methods@#A retrospective nationwide cohort study with including > 18 years of ages admitted to ICU between January 2008 and May 2015 (n = 1,465,776). The analyzed outcomes were readmission to ICU readmission and emergency room (ER) visit. @*Results@#During the study period, 249,918 (17.1%) patients received rehabilitation therapy. The percentage of patients receiving any rehabilitation therapy increased annually from 14% in 2008 to 20% in 2014, and the percentages for each type of therapy also increased over time. The most common type of rehabilitation was physical therapy (91.9%), followed by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (29.6%), occupational (28.6%), respiratory, (11.6%) and swallowing (10.3%) therapies. After adjusting for confounding variables, the risk of 30-day ICU readmission was lower in patients who received rehabilitation therapy than in those who did not (P < 0.001; hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65–0.75). And, the risk of 30-day ER visit was also lower in patients who received rehabilitation therapy (P < 0.001; HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77–0.88). @*Conclusion@#In this nationwide cohort study in Korea, only 17% of all ICU patients received rehabilitation therapy. However, rehabilitation is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of 30-day ICU readmission and ER visit.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765171

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Admission blood glucose (BG) level is a predictor of mortality in critically ill patients with various conditions. However, limited data are available regarding this relationship in critically ill patients with cardiovascular diseases according to diabetic status. METHODS: A total of 1,780 patients (595 with diabetes) who were admitted to cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) were enrolled from a single center registry. Admission BG level was defined as maximal serum glucose level within 24 hours of admission. Patients were divided by admission BG level: group 1 (< 7.8 mmol/L), group 2 (7.8–10.9 mmol/L), group 3 (11.0–16.5 mmol/L), and group 4 (≥ 16.6 mmol/L). RESULTS: A total of 105 patients died in CICU (62 non-diabetic patients [5.2%] and 43 diabetic patients [7.9%]; P = 0.105). The CICU mortality rate increased with admission BG level (1.7%, 4.8%, 10.3%, and 18.8% from group 1 to group 4, respectively; P < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, hypertension, mechanical ventilator, continuous renal replacement therapy, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, and admission BG level significantly influenced CICU mortality in non-diabetic patients (group 1 vs. group 3: hazard ratio [HR], 3.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47–7.44; P = 0.004; group 1 vs. group 4: HR, 6.56; 95% CI, 2.76–15.58; P < 0.001). However, in diabetic patients, continuous renal replacement therapy and APACHE II score influenced CICU mortality but not admission BG level. CONCLUSION: Admission BG level was associated with increased CICU mortality in critically ill, non-diabetic patients admitted to CICU but not in diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
APACHE , Blood Glucose , Cardiovascular Diseases , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Hypertension , Intensive Care Units , Mortality , Prognosis , Renal Replacement Therapy , Ventilators, Mechanical
15.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 160-198, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721992

ABSTRACT

Community-acquired pneumonia is common and important infectious disease in adults. This work represents an update to 2009 treatment guideline for community-acquired pneumonia in Korea. The present clinical practice guideline provides revised recommendations on the appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of community-acquired pneumonia in adults aged 19 years or older, taking into account the current situation regarding community-acquired pneumonia in Korea. This guideline may help reduce the difference in the level of treatment between medical institutions and medical staff, and enable efficient treatment. It may also reduce antibiotic resistance by preventing antibiotic misuse against acute lower respiratory tract infection in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Communicable Diseases , Community-Acquired Infections , Diagnosis , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Humans , Korea , Medical Staff , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections
16.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 160-198, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721487

ABSTRACT

Community-acquired pneumonia is common and important infectious disease in adults. This work represents an update to 2009 treatment guideline for community-acquired pneumonia in Korea. The present clinical practice guideline provides revised recommendations on the appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of community-acquired pneumonia in adults aged 19 years or older, taking into account the current situation regarding community-acquired pneumonia in Korea. This guideline may help reduce the difference in the level of treatment between medical institutions and medical staff, and enable efficient treatment. It may also reduce antibiotic resistance by preventing antibiotic misuse against acute lower respiratory tract infection in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Communicable Diseases , Community-Acquired Infections , Diagnosis , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Humans , Korea , Medical Staff , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-182389

ABSTRACT

Limited data are available on improved outcomes after initiation of neurointensivist co-management in neurosurgical intensive care units (NSICUs) in Korea. We evaluated the impact of a newly appointed neurointensivist on the outcomes of neurosurgical patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). This retrospective observational study involved neurosurgical patients admitted to the NSICU at Samsung Medical Center between March 2013 and May 2016. Neurointensivist co-management was initiated in October 1 2014. We compared the outcomes of neurosurgical patients before and after neurointensivist co-management. The primary outcome was ICU mortality. A total of 571 patients were admitted to the NSICU during the study period, 291 prior to the initiation of neurointensivist co-management and 280 thereafter. Intracranial hemorrhage (29.6%) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) (26.6%) were the most frequent reasons for ICU admission. TBI was the most common cause of death (39.0%). There were no significant differences in mortality rates and length of ICU stay before and after co-management. However, the rates of ICU and 30-day mortality among the TBI patients were significantly lower after compared to before initiation of neurointensivist co-management (8.5% vs. 22.9%; P = 0.014 and 11.0% vs. 27.1%; P = 0.010, respectively). Although overall outcomes were not different after neurointensivist co-management, initiation of a strategy of routine involvement of a neurointensivist significantly reduced the ICU and 30-day mortality rates of TBI patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Cause of Death , Critical Care Outcomes , Critical Care , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Korea , Mortality , Neurosurgery , Observational Study , Retrospective Studies
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42559

ABSTRACT

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is most commonly seen in patients with risk factors, such as cytotoxic chemotherapy, prolonged neutropenia, corticosteroids, transplantation and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. IA commonly occurs in the respiratory tract. Extrapulmonary aspergillosis is usually a part of a disseminated infection, and primary invasive intestinal aspergillosis is very rare. Herein, we report a case of an immunocompetent 53-year-old male who suffered recurrent septic shock in the intensive care unit (ICU) and was finally diagnosed as invasive intestinal aspergillosis without dissemination. IA is rarely considered for patients who do not have an immune disorder. Thus, when such cases do occur, the diagnosis is delayed and the clinical outcome is often poor. However, there is a growing literature reporting IA cases in patients without an immune disorder, mostly among ICU patients. Primary intestinal aspergillosis should be considered for critically ill patients, especially with severe disrupted gastrointestinal mucosal barrier.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Aspergillosis , Critical Illness , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Immune System Diseases , Immunocompromised Host , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Neutropenia , Respiratory System , Risk Factors , Shock, Septic
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