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1.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 137-142, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003004

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune gastritis (AIG), a chronic inflammatory disease occurs as a result of a complex interaction between host-related and environmental factors. AIG may progress to severe atrophic gastritis secondary autoimmune-mediated parietal cell destruction in the stomach. AIG can be diagnosed based on anti-parietal cell antibody tests and endoscopy, which reveals widespread gastric corpus atrophy in patients with low serum pepsinogen I levels, a low pepsinogen I/II ratio, and elevated serum gastrin levels on serological testing. Tissue biopsy findings, which include mucosal atrophy and lymphocytic infiltration of the lamina propria may be useful for diagnostic confirmation. Decreased gastric acid secretion causes hypergastrinemia and enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell proliferation, which can lead to neuroendocrine tumor development. Additionally, an autoimmune response results in parietal and chief cell injury, and proliferating ECL cells are detected in the deep mucosal layers in patients with AIG. Therefore, this condition may easily be misdiagnosed as a subepithelial tumor, and establishing a differential diagnosis for other types of subepithelial tumor accompanied by AIG is challenging. We present the case of a 54-year-old woman who was diagnosed with AIG with a concomitant subepithelial tumor based on serologic tests and biopsy findings and underwent wedge resection, which confirmed diagnosis of a schwannoma.

2.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 31-34, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918971

ABSTRACT

5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is used widely to treat ulcerative colitis. The common side effects of 5-ASA include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, and skin rash. 5-ASA-induced myocarditis is a rare side effect, and few cases have been reported. 5-ASA-induced myocarditis usually occurs within 2-4 weeks of drug use and causes chest pain and dyspnea. This paper reports 5-ASA-induced myocarditis in a 31-year-old male patient who took 5-ASA for 20 days prior. The patient was hospitalized with dyspnea that worsened when lying down, with chest pain radiating to the left neck, fever, and vomiting. Myocarditis was suspected. The work-up included electrocardiogram, transthoracic echocardiogram, cardiac MRI, and laboratory investigations. The patient’s signs and symptoms improved within a few days after withdrawing 5-ASA. This case shows that an evaluation including the possibility of myocarditis should be performed when patients with ulcerative colitis receiving 5-ASA present with cardiac problems, such as dyspnea and chest pain.

3.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 605-613, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900879

ABSTRACT

The treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases has evolved with the development of anti-tumor necrosis factor agents. Despite the long-term effectiveness, many patients experience primary non-response, secondary loss of response, or intolerance. Therefore, the development of new drugs that act on different inflammatory pathways has become necessary. This review focuses on biologic agents and new therapies for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.Current Concepts: Vedolizumab, a gut-selective agent that targets α4β7 integrin is effective in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Ustekinumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to p40 subunit of interleukin-12/interleukin-23. Ustekinumab is available for the treatment of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Tofacitinib is the first Janus kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The advantage of tofacitinib is an oral prescription medicine and has rapid action.Discussion and Conclusion: Since vedolizumab, ustekinumab and tofacitinib are effective agents for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, positioning of old and new biologic agents and small molecules should be determined. The safety and efficacy of novel and emerging drugs needs to be evaluated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

4.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 157-160, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897743

ABSTRACT

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an accepted procedure for the management of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections. FMT is generally considered safe and well-tolerated - even in high-risk patients. Most short-term risks are mild and known to be associated with delivery methods. Long-term side effects have not been established, and no signs of harm have been found to date. However, causality for several microbiome-associated diseases has to be established. Even though FMT is generally considered safe with strict donor screening, serious adverse events have been recently associated with the FMT product from the stool bank, where screening for multi-drug resistant organisms is not included in protocols. Here, we discuss the adverse events associated with FMT and safety issues.

5.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 31-36, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895868

ABSTRACT

The use of 5-ASA, immunomodulators, biologics, and small molecule drugs are the main treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), however, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is also drawing attention as a treatment to improve intestinal dysbiosis by transplantaing normal human stool into patients with IBD. FMT demonstrates relatively good effects in inducing clinical remission in IBD, but unlike Clostridium difficile infection, multiple FMT can enhance the clinical effect. There are no reports of the long-term effectiveness and safety of FMT conducted in IBD yet, therefore, well-designed, prospective studies will be needed. Gut microbiota can affect inflammatory response, intestinal barrier function, and host metabolism, so microbe-based therapies are likely to be a new treatment option for IBD. The deeper the understanding of microbe products or effectors, the more likely it is to provide personalized therapy in IBD.

6.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 605-613, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893175

ABSTRACT

The treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases has evolved with the development of anti-tumor necrosis factor agents. Despite the long-term effectiveness, many patients experience primary non-response, secondary loss of response, or intolerance. Therefore, the development of new drugs that act on different inflammatory pathways has become necessary. This review focuses on biologic agents and new therapies for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.Current Concepts: Vedolizumab, a gut-selective agent that targets α4β7 integrin is effective in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Ustekinumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to p40 subunit of interleukin-12/interleukin-23. Ustekinumab is available for the treatment of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Tofacitinib is the first Janus kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The advantage of tofacitinib is an oral prescription medicine and has rapid action.Discussion and Conclusion: Since vedolizumab, ustekinumab and tofacitinib are effective agents for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, positioning of old and new biologic agents and small molecules should be determined. The safety and efficacy of novel and emerging drugs needs to be evaluated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

7.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 157-160, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890039

ABSTRACT

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an accepted procedure for the management of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections. FMT is generally considered safe and well-tolerated - even in high-risk patients. Most short-term risks are mild and known to be associated with delivery methods. Long-term side effects have not been established, and no signs of harm have been found to date. However, causality for several microbiome-associated diseases has to be established. Even though FMT is generally considered safe with strict donor screening, serious adverse events have been recently associated with the FMT product from the stool bank, where screening for multi-drug resistant organisms is not included in protocols. Here, we discuss the adverse events associated with FMT and safety issues.

8.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 31-36, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903572

ABSTRACT

The use of 5-ASA, immunomodulators, biologics, and small molecule drugs are the main treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), however, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is also drawing attention as a treatment to improve intestinal dysbiosis by transplantaing normal human stool into patients with IBD. FMT demonstrates relatively good effects in inducing clinical remission in IBD, but unlike Clostridium difficile infection, multiple FMT can enhance the clinical effect. There are no reports of the long-term effectiveness and safety of FMT conducted in IBD yet, therefore, well-designed, prospective studies will be needed. Gut microbiota can affect inflammatory response, intestinal barrier function, and host metabolism, so microbe-based therapies are likely to be a new treatment option for IBD. The deeper the understanding of microbe products or effectors, the more likely it is to provide personalized therapy in IBD.

9.
Gut and Liver ; : 331-337, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833151

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#A considerable number of patients with Crohn’s disease still need intestinal resection surgery. Postoperative recurrence is an important issue in Crohn’s disease management, including the selection of high-risk patients. Eastern Asian patients showed several differences from Caucasian patients. Therefore, we investigated the postoperative surgical recurrence outcome and identified risk factors in Korean patients. @*Methods@#Clinical data of 372 patients with Crohn’s disease who underwent first intestinal resection between January 2004 and August 2014 at 14 hospitals in Korea were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#Over the follow-up period, 50 patients (17.1%) showed surgical recurrence. The cumulative surgical recurrence rate was 6.5% at 1 year and 15.4% at 7 years. Age under 16 (p=0.011; hazard ratio [HR], 5.136; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.576 to 16.731), colonic involvement (p=0.023; HR , 2.011; 95% CI, 1.102 to 3.670), and the presence of perianal disease at surgery (p=0.008; HR, 2.239; 95% CI, 1.236 to 4.059) were independent risk factors associated with surgical recurrence. Postoperative thiopurine treatment (p=0.002; HR, 0.393; 95% CI, 0.218 to 0.710) was a protective factor for surgical recurrence. @*Conclusions@#Among the disease characteristics at surgery, younger age, colonic location, and perianal lesions were independent risk factors for surgical recurrence. Postoperative thiopurine treatment significantly reduced the incidence of surgical recurrence.

10.
Intestinal Research ; : 349-356, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764156

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: A once-daily (OD) regimen of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) was easier to comply with than a divided daily (DD) regimen, and that treatment efficacy for ulcerative colitis (UC) was not affected by the dosing regimen. This study evaluated treatment adherence of OD and DD dosing in the Korean UC patients. METHODS: This study was a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial. UC patients were enrolled who have been in remission for more than 3 months. Patients were randomly assigned to the OD or DD group in a 1:1 ratio. The primary endpoint was adherence rate measured by tablet counts and self-reported adherence rate at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The relapse rate was measured at 1 year. RESULTS: Data from the 180 patients who were randomized were analyzed. Both self-reported adherence rate and adherence rate measured by tablet counts were not different at every points, including 1 year. The patients' satisfaction of the OD group was higher than that of the DD group (P<0.001). At 1 year, 91.2% and 95.5% of patients in the OD group and DD group had maintained clinical remission, respectively (P=0.37). CONCLUSIONS: The adherence rates were not different between the OD group and DD group. The patients' satisfaction was higher in the OD group than in the DD group. 5-ASA OD dosing might have the same effect as DD for the maintenance of UC remission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colitis, Ulcerative , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Mesalamine , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome , Ulcer
11.
Intestinal Research ; : 127-134, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an advanced technique that can be used to treat precancerous and early colorectal neoplasms by facilitating en bloc resection regardless of tumor size. In our study, we investigated the clinicopathological feature and the treatment outcome of patients with colorectal laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) that were treated by ESD. METHODS: The study enrolled all of 210 patients with colorectal LSTs who underwent ESD. Clinical outcomes were analyzed by retrospectively reviewing medical records. RESULTS: A cancerous pit pattern (Vi/Vn) was more common in pseudo-depressed (PD) subtype than in flat elevated (FE) subtype. The incidence of adenocarcinoma in the PD subtype and nodular mixed (NM) subtypes was significantly higher than in the homogenous (HG) subtype and FE subtype. The en bloc and R0 resection rates were 89.0% and 85.7%, respectively. The bleeding and perforation rates were 5.2% and 1.9%, respectively. The mean procedure time was much longer in the PD subtype than in the FE subtype. The en bloc resection rate was significantly higher in the NM subtype than in the HG subtype. However, there were no statistically significant differences in mean procedure time, en bloc resection rate, R0 resection rate, bleeding rate, or perforation rate between LST-granular and LST-nongranular types. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that ESD is acceptable for treating colorectal LSTs concerning en bloc resection, curative resection, and risk of complications. Careful consideration is required for complete resection of the PD subtype and NM subtype because of their higher malignant potential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Hemorrhage , Incidence , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
12.
Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 313-314, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761519

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Surveys and Questionnaires , Intestines , Intestinal Diseases
13.
Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 299-302, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761500

ABSTRACT

Rectal involvement by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is quite rare. Approximately 14 cases have been reported worldwide, but only one with ischemic colitis has been reported in Korea. A 17-year-old female patient was hospitalized with abdominal pain and hematochezia. Sigmoidoscopy revealed only a simple rectal ulcer without ischemic colitis. cytomegalovirus and bacterial infections were excluded. A sigmoidoscopic rectal biopsy indicated a rectal invasion by SLE, but the patient showed an acute worsening conditions that did not respond to treatment. This paper reports a case of rectal ulcer that developed in SLE without ischemic colitis with a review of the relevant literature.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Abdominal Pain , Bacterial Infections , Biopsy , Colitis, Ischemic , Cytomegalovirus , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Korea , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Sigmoidoscopy , Ulcer
14.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 313-314, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787167

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Surveys and Questionnaires , Intestines , Intestinal Diseases
15.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 299-302, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787148

ABSTRACT

Rectal involvement by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is quite rare. Approximately 14 cases have been reported worldwide, but only one with ischemic colitis has been reported in Korea. A 17-year-old female patient was hospitalized with abdominal pain and hematochezia. Sigmoidoscopy revealed only a simple rectal ulcer without ischemic colitis. cytomegalovirus and bacterial infections were excluded. A sigmoidoscopic rectal biopsy indicated a rectal invasion by SLE, but the patient showed an acute worsening conditions that did not respond to treatment. This paper reports a case of rectal ulcer that developed in SLE without ischemic colitis with a review of the relevant literature.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Abdominal Pain , Bacterial Infections , Biopsy , Colitis, Ischemic , Cytomegalovirus , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Korea , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Sigmoidoscopy , Ulcer
16.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 81-88, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742127

ABSTRACT

The treatment of inflammatory bowel disease has evolved with the development of anti-TNF agents. In spite of long-term effectiveness, many patients do not respond or no longer responds to these drugs. Therefore, the development of new drugs that act on different inflammatory pathways has become necessary. Vedolizumab, a gut-specific biological agent, inhibits interaction α4β7 integrin with mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 without inhibiting systemic immune responses. Long-term vedolizumab therapy in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis was safe and effective. Additionally, vedolizumab can be used in patients already failed an anti-TNF therapy. Ustekinumab is a fully human immunoglobulin G1 kappa monoclonal antibody that blocks the p40 subunit of IL-12 and IL-23. Ustekinumab will be a clinically effective agent to use in medically-refractory Crohn's disease especially as a second line drug. Tofacitinib is an oral, small molecule that inhibits JAK1, JAK3 and in a lesser extent, JAK2. Perhaps the most attractive things of these JAK inhibitors is that they are given orally instead of parenterally. Early results showed that patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis receiving tofacitinib were more likely to achieve remission at 8 weeks than those receiving placebo. However, these results have not been as robust in Crohn's disease. Much of the positioning will depend on the safety profile such as opportunistic infection and atherogenic risk. The challenges for the future are to determine the therapeutic drug monitoring-guided dose optimization, optimal timing and drug combinations to produce the most effective, and safest outcomes for IBD patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Adhesion , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Drug Combinations , Immunoglobulins , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-23 , Opportunistic Infections , Ustekinumab
17.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 247-257, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to analyze the trend of the prevalences of atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) from 2011 to 2016~2017 in Korea. And, the risk factors of AG and IM were compared between 2011 and 2016~2017. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 4,023 subjects in 2011 and 2,506 subjects in 2016~2017 were enrolled. AG and IM were diagnosed on the basis of endoscopic findings. Multivariate analysis was performed for risk factors of AG and IM. Seventeen factors were analyzed. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori decreased from 2011 (59.8%; 2,407/4,023) to 2016~2017 (51.6%; 1,293/2,506; P < 0.001). The prevalence of AG decreased from 2011 to 2016~2017 (P=0.018), but that of IM increased (P < 0.001). The risk factors of AG in 2011 were male sex, old age, H. pylori immuoglobulin G (IgG) positivity, family history of gastric cancer (GC), and high-salt diet. For IM in 2011, the risk factors were male sex, old age, H. pylori IgG positivity, and family history of GC. Risk factors of AG in 2016~2017 were old age, H. pylori IgG positivity, and country of residence. For IM in 2016~2017, the risk factors were male sex, old age, family history of GC, high fasting glucose level (≥126 mg/dL), H. pylori IgG positivity, and low income level. CONCLUSIONS: The difference in prevalence trends of AG and IM between 2016~2017 and 2011 could be the result of the different risk factors of AG and IM, such as decreased prevalence of H. pylori infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Diet , Fasting , Gastritis, Atrophic , Glucose , Helicobacter pylori , Immunoglobulin G , Korea , Metaplasia , Multivariate Analysis , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Stomach Neoplasms
18.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 285-288, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714592

ABSTRACT

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy for cancer screening was performed in a 55-year-old woman as part of a health screening program, and revealed a depressed lesion approximately 20 mm in diameter in the lesser curvature of the mid-gastric body. Several biopsy specimens were collected as the lesion resembled early gastric cancer; however, histopathologic evaluation revealed chronic active gastritis with an ulcer and amorphous eosinophilic material deposition. Congo red staining identified amyloid proteins, and apple-green birefringence was shown using polarized light microscopy. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the presence of kappa and lambda chain-positive plasma cells. There was no evidence of underlying plasma cell dyscrasia or amyloid deposition in other segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Echocardiography and computed tomography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis did not show any significant findings. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with localized gastric amyloidosis with kappa and lambda light chain coexpression.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Abdomen , Amyloidogenic Proteins , Amyloidosis , Biopsy , Birefringence , Congo Red , Early Detection of Cancer , Echocardiography , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Eosinophils , Gastritis , Gastrointestinal Tract , Mass Screening , Microscopy, Polarization , Paraproteinemias , Pelvis , Plaque, Amyloid , Plasma Cells , Stomach Neoplasms , Thorax , Ulcer
19.
Intestinal Research ; : 267-272, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been reported to be a cause of flare-ups in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). We evaluated the prevalence and clinical outcomes of CDI in patients with UC hospitalized for flare-ups. METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter study including 7 academic teaching hospitals in Korea. All consecutive patients with UC admitted for disease flare-up were enrolled. We detected the presence of CDI by using enzyme immunoassay, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for toxin genes, and sigmoidoscopy. RESULTS: Eighty-one consecutive patients with UC were enrolled from January 2014 to December 2015. Among 81 patients, 8 (9.9%) were diagnosed with CDI. Most of the cases were identified by RT-PCR. Enzyme immunoassay was positive in 3 of 8 patients, and only 1 had typical endoscopic findings of pseudomembranous colitis. There were no differences in demographic data, length of hospital stay, or colectomy rate between patients with and without CDI. CONCLUSIONS: CDI was not a rare cause of flare-up in patients with UC in Korea. However, CDI did not appear to affect the course of UC flare-up in Korean patients. RT-PCR was sensitive in detecting CDI and can be considered a diagnostic tool in patients with UC flare-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Clostridium , Colectomy , Colitis, Ulcerative , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous , Hospitals, Teaching , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Korea , Length of Stay , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sigmoidoscopy , Ulcer
20.
Gut and Liver ; : 391-398, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Two comparable anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents with different routes of administration (intravenous [iv] infliximab [IFX] vs subcutaneous [sc] adalimumab [ADA]) are available for patients with Crohn's disease (CD) in Korea. This study aimed to identify the preferences of Korean CD patients for a specific anti-TNF agent and the factors contributing to the decision. METHODS: A prospective survey was performed among anti-TNF-naive CD patients in 10 tertiary referral hospitals. A 16-item questionnaire addressed patient preferences and the factors contributing to the decision in favor of a particular anti-TNF agent. A logistic regression was conducted to assess predictive factors for ADA preference. RESULTS: Overall, 189 patients (139 males; mean age, 32.47±11.71 years) completed the questionnaire. IFX and ADA were preferred by 63.5% (120/189) and 36.5% (69/189) of patients, respectively. The most influential reason for choosing IFX was ‘doctor's presence' (68.3%, 82/120), and ADA was “easy to use” (34.8%, 24/69). Amid various clinicodemographic data, having a >60-minute travel time to the hospital was a significant independent predictive factor for ADA preference. CONCLUSIONS: A large number of anti-TNF-naive Korean patients with CD preferred anti-TNFs with an iv route of administration. The reassuring effect of a doctor's presence might be the main contributing factor for this decision.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Crohn Disease , Korea , Logistic Models , Necrosis , Patient Preference , Prospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
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