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1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-183631

ABSTRACT

Background: Rubella infection in pregnant mothers is of great concern as it acts as a teratogen causing abortions, still births, intra-uterine foetal deaths and multiple birth defects. In India, rubella causes significant bad obstetric pregnancy outcome including congenital deformities due to lack of proper surveillance and immunization coverage with rubella vaccination. Aim: To determine Sero-prevalence of rubella IgM and IgG antibodies in Bad Obstetric History (BOH) pregnant women in Tertiary Rural Medical College in Eastern India. Materials and Methods: Cross sectional study was conducted from 1st January 2017 to 31st March 2017 on sera of 100 antenatal mothers with bad obstetric history aged between 20-40 years of age group with pregnancy of ≥18 wks. Rubella IgM and IgG antibodies were assessed by ELISA. Statistical Analysis: Percentage, proportions and ᵡ2 test were applied. Results: Eleven per cent (11%) sero-prevalence for IgM antibodies and 54% for IgG antibodies was observed with maximum sero-positivity among 20-25 years mothers. Repeated abortions were the commonest pregnancy outcome. Conclusion: All antenatal cases should be routinely screened for rubella, so that early diagnosis will help in proper management and foetal outcome and strong recommendation for universal coverage of MMR in early age group of children.

2.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-183569

ABSTRACT

Background: Rubella infection in pregnant mothers is of great concern as it acts as a teratogen causing abortions, still births, intra-uterine foetal deaths and multiple birth defects. In India, rubella causes significant bad obstetric pregnancy outcome including congenital deformities due to lack of proper surveillance and immunization coverage with rubella vaccination. Aim: To determine Sero-prevalence of rubella IgM and IgG antibodies in Bad Obstetric History (BOH) pregnant women in Tertiary Rural Medical College in Eastern India. Materials and Methods: Cross sectional study was conducted from 1st January 2017 to 31st March 2017 on sera of 100 antenatal mothers with bad obstetric history aged between 20-40 years of age group with pregnancy of ≥18 wks. Rubella IgM and IgG antibodies were assessed by ELISA. Statistical Analysis: Percentage, proportions and ᵡ2 test were applied. Results: Eleven per cent (11%) sero-prevalence for IgM antibodies and 54% for IgG antibodies was observed with maximum sero-positivity among 20-25 years mothers. Repeated abortions were the commonest pregnancy outcome. Conclusion: All antenatal cases should be routinely screened for rubella, so that early diagnosis will help in proper management and foetal outcome and strong recommendation for universal coverage of MMR in early age group of children.

3.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196266

ABSTRACT

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), a systemic necrotizing vasculitis with multiorgan development, is generally restricted to the medium-sized muscular arteries. The varied initial clinical presentations of PAN can lead to a delayed diagnosis. We present the case of a middle-aged male patient who presented with an acute onset right-sided testicular pain as the initial clinical symptom with ischemic changes on ultrasonogram, thereby requiring orchiectomy. This was reported to be a case of tubercular epididymo-orchitis. On review, the biopsy revealed features of necrotizing arteritis as seen in PAN with fibrinoid necrosis and giant cells, thus highlighting the fact that vasculitis due to PAN may have a localized presentation at the time of diagnosis. PAN should be distinguished from other causes of epididymo-orchitis and other vasculitis lesions, the most common being tubercular etiology in the Asian population.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-183506

ABSTRACT

The incidence of sepsis is increasing globally, with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is still a clinical and laboratory challenge. Though blood culture is gold standard, it sometimes gives false negative result. So, judgement of clinical condition along with various investigations is important

6.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-164966

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose: People with knee Osteoarthritis (OA) sometimes report episodes of knee instability that limit their activities of daily living. Proprioception and balance are important aspects of osteoarthritis treatment because of their strong correlation with function in the knee. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of balancing exercises and strengthening exercises to improve functional ability in knee osteoarthritis patients and also it may be helpful to identify the use of best treatment protocol for OA knee. Material and methods: Thirty OA knee patients randomly allocated into two groups and received either balancing exercises (Group A) or strengthening exercises (Group B). Both the groups received TENS and taken treatment for 4 days a week for 4 weeks. The outcome measures were VAS and WOMAC. VAS was used to measure intensity of knee pain and WOMAC was used for assessment of perceived pain, stiffness and functional ability. Results: After 4 weeks of treatment, significant reduction in the WOMAC score and VAS was found in both the Groups. The result showing statistical improvement is more in Group A than Group B. Conclusion: The results of the study shows that balancing exercise is more effective than strengthening exercise to improve the functional ability of OA involving knee joint. The improvement in Group A is more than Group B and having statistically highly significant.

7.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144679

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Majority of cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed at an advanced stage as cytology based screening programmes are ineffective in developing countries. The present study was done to look for carcinoma cervix and its precursors by visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI), visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolaou smear, and to analyse their sensitivity, specificity and predictive values using colposcopic directed biopsy as reference. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 350 women were subjected to Pap smear, VIA, VILI and colposcopy. Cervical biopsy and endocervical curettage was taken from patients positive on any of these tests and in 10 per cent of negative cases. Results: The Pap smear was abnormal in 3.71 per cent, including (2.85%), low grade (LSIL) and (0.85%) high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Thirteen per cent of the patients were found to be positive by VIA and 11.71 per cent were positive on VILI. Sensitivity for VIA, VILI and Pap smear was 89.5, 100 and 52.6 per cent, respectively, while the specificity for VIA, VILI and Pap smear was 91.2, 93.3 and 99.1 per cent, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: In low resource settings, cervical cancer screening by Pap smear can be replaced by visual methods like VILI, which has the highest sensitivity (100%) to detect any grade of dysplasia, and a good specificity (93.3%).


Subject(s)
Adult , Anatomic Landmarks , Female , Humans , Iodides/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Vaginal Smears/methods
8.
Indian Pediatr ; 2010 May; 47(5): 409-414
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-168529

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine whether “interactional group discussions” could reduce prescriptions of injections by physicians. Study design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Rural public health care facilities, North 24 Parganas district, West Bengal, India. Subjects: 72 medical officers, 36 each in intervention and control groups. Intervention: Interactional group discussions. Outcome measure: Proportion of prescriptions including at least one injection. Results: In the intervention group, 249 of 1,080 prescriptions (23%) included at least one injection compared with 79 of 1,080 prescriptions (7%) before and after the intervention, respectively. (RR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.25-0.40). In the control group, 231 of 1,080 prescriptions (21%) included at least one injection before the intervention vs 178 of 1,080 prescriptions (16%) after the intervention (RR 0.77, 95% CI: 0.65-0.92). Conclusion: Interactional group discussions reduce prescription of injections.

9.
J Biosci ; 2009 Mar; 34(1): 21-26
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-161256

ABSTRACT

The biotransformation of acrylonitrile was investigated using thermophilic nitrilase produced from a new isolate Streptomyces sp. MTCC 7546 in both the free and immobilized state. Under optimal conditions, the enzyme converts nitriles to acids without the formation of amides. The whole cells of the isolate were immobilized in agar-agar and the beads so formed were evaluated for 25 cycles at 50°C. The enzyme showed a little loss of activity during reuse. Seventy-one per cent of 0.5 M acrylonitrile was converted to acid at 6 h of incubation at a very low density of immobilized cells, while 100% conversion was observed at 3 h by free cells.

10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-16924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are serological hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Conventionally, the test is carried out on human epithelial cells (HEp2) by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) technique. Since culturing and maintaining HEp2 cells in the laboratory are labour intensive, in-house assays have given way to kits manufactured by commercial companies. The reference screening dilutions provided by the manufacturers are based on different ethnic population than ours. Therefore, it becomes mandatory for every laboratory to have its own screening dilutions for the local population that distinguishes best between healthy and diseased state. As, there is paucity of such data, we aimed to define the optimum screening dilution that distinguishes the patient with SLE from healthy individuals. METHODS: Sera of patients fulfilling ACR criteria for diagnosis of SLE, idiopathic inflammatory polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and age and sex matched healthy individuals were tested for ANA by IIF using a commercial kit (Euroimmun, Germany) at 5 dilutions, namely 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, 1:320 and 1:640. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve were constructed to define the optimum dilution that distinguished healthy sera from the diseased ones. RESULTS: Test was performed on 213 sera from 94 healthy individuals, and 43 SLE, 37 RA and 39 DM/PM patients. In healthy individuals, ANA at dilutions 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, 1:320 and 1:640 was positive in 13.8, 4.3, 2.1, 2.1 and 0 per cent respectively, whereas in SLE it was positive in 95.3, 95.3, 65.1, 53.5 and 23.3 per cent respectively. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: ROC curves analysis showed that at 1:40 dilution, sera of 95.3 per cent of SLE and 13.8 per cent of normal individuals were (ANA) positive, whereas at 1:80 dilution it was 95.3 per cent for SLE and 4.3 per cent for healthy individuals. A fluorescent intensity of > or =2 was more specific for SLE. The best discrimination between healthy individuals and the SLE patients was found at screening dilution of 1:80 and fluorescent intensity of > or =2 in our laboratory.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Antinuclear/blood , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/methods , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/blood , Male , Middle Aged , ROC Curve
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-46576

ABSTRACT

The potential health hazard of the large amounts of Lead that occurs in canned baby food, domestic water from lead-lined tanks and, in printing and petroleum industries. Lead acetate administration at a does of 8 mg/kg body weight for 21 days resulted a significant increase in adrenal steroidogenic enzyme (Delta5-3beta- HSD) and serum levels of corticosterone, while serum levels of testosterone, FSH, LH and testicular spermatogenesis were decreased in albino rats. But lead-treated rats received exogenous testosterone for the last 14 days of lead treatment, showed prevention of adrenocortical hyperactivity by decreasing adrenal Delta5-3beta-HSD activity and serum level of corticosterone. Testosterone administration also increased serum level of testosterone, FSH and LH along with spermatogenesis. The results suggest that testosterone supplementation in lead-treated rats protects adrenocortical activity and testicular spermatogenesis.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex/drug effects , Androgens/blood , Animals , Corticosterone/blood , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Genitalia, Male/drug effects , Lead Poisoning/drug therapy , Male , Organ Size/drug effects , Rats , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Testosterone/blood
12.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2006 Apr; 44(4): 336-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-59191

ABSTRACT

In the biosphere, bacteria can function as geo-chemical agents, promoting the dispersion, fractionation and/or concentration of materials. Microbial mineral precipitation is resulted from metabolic activities of microorganisms. Based on this biomineralogy concept, an attempt has been made to develop bioconcrete material incorporating of an enrichment culture of thermophilic and anaerobic bacteria within cement-sand mortar/concrete. The results showed a significant increase in compressive strength of both cement-sand mortar and concrete due to the development of filler material within the pores of cement sand matrix. Maximum strength was observed at concentration 10(5)cell/ml of water used in mortar/concrete. Addition of Escherichia coil or media composition on mortar showed no such improvement in strength.


Subject(s)
Anaerobiosis , Biomass , Cells, Cultured , Compressive Strength , Construction Materials , Shewanella/growth & development , Silicon Dioxide , Temperature , Time Factors
13.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2006 Feb; 43(1): 25-31
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-28212

ABSTRACT

The antioxidant activity of C-Phycocyanin (C-PC) isolated from three cyanobacterial species Lyngbya (marine), Phormidium (marine) and Spirulina (fresh water) was studied in vitro. The results demonstrate that C-PCs from Lyngbya, Phormidium and Spirulina spp. are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals (determined by crocin bleaching assay) with relative rate constant ratio of 3.13, 1.89 and 1.8, respectively. C-PCs also scavenge hydroxyl radicals (determined by deoxyribose degradation assay) with second order rate constant values of 7.87 x 10(10), 9.58 x 10(10) and 6.42 x 10(10), respectively. Interestingly, Lyngbya C-PC is found to be an effective inhibitor of peroxyl radicals (IC50 6.63 microM), as compared to Spirulina (IC50 12.15 microM) and Phormidium C-PC (IC50 12.74 microM) and is close to uric acid (IC50 2.15 microM). Further, the studies suggest that the covalently-linked tetrapyrrole chromophore phycocyanobilin is involved in the radical scavenging activity of C-PC. The electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of C-PCs indicate the presence of free radical active sites, which may play an important role in its radical scavenging property. This is the first report on the ESR activity of native C-PCs without perturbations that can cause radical formation.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/chemistry , Cyanobacteria/physiology , Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy , Free Radicals/chemistry , Kinetics , Phycocyanin/chemistry
15.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 2002 Sep; 20(3): 215-22
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-915

ABSTRACT

Isolated circulating immune complexes (CICs) from sera of patients with amoebiasis were characterized to determine Entamoeba histolytica antigens that participate in the disease process. In total, 116 serum samples were collected before starting anti-amoebic therapy, and their CICs were isolated by differential polyethylene glycol precipitation. The presence of amoeba-specific antigens in CICs was detected by antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by immunoblot assay. Antigen capture ELISA showed significantly higher optical density (p < 0.001) in all patients with amoebiasis than in the normal healthy controls and patients of non-amoebic hepatic disorder. Immunoblot assay detected amoeba-specific CICs in all 18 patients (100%) with confirmed amoebic liver abscess, 28 (80%) of 35 patients with clinically-suspected amoebic liver abscess, and 18 (78.26%) of 23 patients with amoebic colitis. No patients with non-amoebic hepatic disorders and healthy control subjects had any detectable level of amoebic antigens in CICs. Immunoblot assay revealed E. histolytica antigens of relative molecular masses of 35, 56, 70, and 90 kDa present in CICs of 64 of 76 patients with amoebiasis. The 35-kDa polypeptide was observed in 52 patients (81.25%). The results of the study suggest that the 35-kDa polypeptide antigen can be a diagnostic marker in active amoebiasis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Amebiasis/blood , Animals , Antigen-Antibody Complex/blood , Antigens, Protozoan/blood , Dysentery, Amebic/diagnosis , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Entamoeba histolytica/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoblotting , Liver Abscess, Amebic/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Male , Chemical Precipitation , Propylene Glycol/immunology
16.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 2000 Sep; 18(2): 109-14
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-974

ABSTRACT

Delayed-type hypersensitive (DTH) response was evaluated in C3H/HeJ mice intestinally infected with Entamoeba histolytica. Infected and non-infected control mice were challenged with amoebic antigen on day 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, and 60 post-infection. Maximum footpad swelling was observed after 24 hours of the challenge. The E. histolytica-infected mice exhibited a DTH response on day 5, 15, 20, 25, 40 and 60 post-infection. However, on day 10, 30, and 50, such response was similar to that of the non-infected control mice. The mice developed an evident DTH response late in the course of infection (25 days post-infection). The infected mice did not show any alteration to their DTH response against heterologous unrelated antigen (sheep red blood cells), suggesting that cellular anergy was antigen-specific.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Dysentery, Amebic/immunology , Entamoeba histolytica/isolation & purification , Hypersensitivity, Delayed , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Time Factors
18.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1999 Aug; 37(8): 803-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56929

ABSTRACT

The reactivity of sera from experimentally infected animal was studied from 5-60 days postinoculation to determine which of the E. histolytica antigens are recognized frequently to infection. Crude extract of E. histolytica trophozoites was used and sera were examined by immunoelectrotransference assay. It was observed that sera recognized polypeptide with 70 kDa molecular mass after 15 days postinoculation onward and later 14 to 24 polypeptide with molecular weight of 110-22 kDa were recognized. All the amebic antigens (polypeptides) could be recognized by sera till 60 days postinoculated animals. Significance of expression of different amebic polypeptides in terms of pathogenesis needs further investigations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Antigens, Protozoan/chemistry , Entamoeba histolytica/immunology , Entamoebiasis/immunology , Enteritis/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Molecular Weight
19.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 1998 Dec; 35(6): 377-81
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-27269

ABSTRACT

Earlier, we had reported purification of three thiol proteinase inhibitors (TPI-1 of 70 kDa, TPI-3 of 195 kDa and TPI-4 of 497 kDa) from human plasma. In the present study we report that TPI-1 binds to papain in the stoichiometry ratio (E/I) of 1:1 while TPI-3 and TPI-4 bind in the ratio of 1.5:1 and 3.2:1 respectively. The K(m) for papain with BAPNA as substrate and Kcat/K(m) values for TPI-1, TPI-3 and TPI-4 were 2.7 x 10(-6) M, 0.84 nM/sec; 3.2 x 10(-6) M, 0.75 nM/sec; and 3.6 x 10(-6) M, 0.72 nM/sec respectively. The Ki values were found to be 1.48 nM for TPI-1, 0.133 nM for TPI-3 and 0.117 nM for TPI-4. The UV absorption and fluorescence emission spectra study suggest involvement of aromatic residues in the binding process. This study suggests that TPI-4 is the most potent inhibitor of thiol proteinases.


Subject(s)
Benzoylarginine Nitroanilide/metabolism , Binding Sites/drug effects , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/blood , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Humans , Papain/antagonists & inhibitors , Spectrometry, Fluorescence
20.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1998 Sep; 36(9): 911-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-59938

ABSTRACT

Axenic E. histolytica trophozoite strain NIH:200 and HMI:IMSS when co-associated with aerobic bacteria Escherichia coli strain K12 and serotype 056 showed marked increase in virulence as observed by destruction of baby hamster kidney (BHK) monolayers. However, when incubated with anaerobic bacterial strains Clostridium perfringens and Bacteroides fragilis virulence remained unaltered. Further, adherence of E. histolytica to BHK monolayer was found to be mediated by N-acetyl-D-galactosamine.


Subject(s)
Acetylgalactosamine/pharmacology , Animals , Bacteroides fragilis/pathogenicity , Cell Adhesion/drug effects , Cell Line , Clostridium perfringens/pathogenicity , Cricetinae , Entamoeba histolytica/drug effects , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Virulence/drug effects
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