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Experimental Neurobiology ; : 151-157, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93433


Albumin is known to have neuroprotective effects. The protein has a long half-life circulation, and its effects can therefore persist for a long time to aid in the recovery of brain ischemia. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of human serum albumin (HSA) on brain hemodynamics. Albumin is administrated using repeated oral gavage to the rodents. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion procedures and served as a stroke model. Afterwards, 25% human serum albumin (1.25 g/kg) or saline (5 ml/kg) was orally administrated for 2 weeks in alternating days. After 2 weeks, the rodents were assessed for levels of brain ischemia. Our testing battery consists of behavioral tests and in vivo optical imaging sessions. Modified neurological severity scores (mNSS) were obtained to assess the levels of ischemia and the effects of HSA oral administration. We found that the experimental group demonstrated larger hemodynamic responses following sensory stimulation than controls that were administered with saline. HSA administration resulted in more significant changes in cerebral blood volume following direct cortical electric stimulation. In addition, the mNSS of the treatment group was lower than the control group. In particular, brain tissue staining revealed that the infarct size was also much smaller with HSA administration. This study provides support for the efficacy of HSA, and that long-term oral administration of HSA may induce neuroprotective effects against brain ischemia.

Administration, Oral , Animals , Hypoxia , Behavior Rating Scale , Blood Volume , Brain Ischemia , Brain , Electric Stimulation , Half-Life , Hemodynamics , Humans , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Ischemia , Neuroprotection , Neuroprotective Agents , Optical Imaging , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rodentia , Serum Albumin , Stroke
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 130-138, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-213644


Ischemia can cause decreased cerebral neurovascular coupling, leading to a failure in the autoregulation of cerebral blood flow. This study aims to investigate the effect of varying degrees of ischemia on cerebral hemodynamic reactivity using in vivo real-time optical imaging. We utilized direct cortical stimulation to elicit hyper-excitable neuronal activation, which leads to induced hemodynamic changes in both the normal and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) ischemic stroke groups. Hemodynamic measurements from optical imaging accurately predict the severity of occlusion in mild and severe MCAO animals. There is neither an increase in cerebral blood volume nor in vessel reactivity in the ipsilateral hemisphere (I.H) of animals with severe MCAO. The pial artery in the contralateral hemisphere (C.H) of the severe MCAO group reacted more slowly than both hemispheres in the normal and mild MCAO groups. In addition, the arterial reactivity of the I.H in the mild MCAO animals was faster than the normal animals. Furthermore, artery reactivity is tightly correlated with histological and behavioral results in the MCAO ischemic group. Thus, in vivo optical imaging may offer a simple and useful tool to assess the degree of ischemia and to understand how cerebral hemodynamics and vascular reactivity are affected by ischemia.

Animals , Arteries , Blood Volume , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Hemodynamics , Homeostasis , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Ischemia , Middle Cerebral Artery , Neurons , Neurovascular Coupling , Optical Imaging , Rodentia , Stroke
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121081


The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is the regeneration of periodontal tissue and repair of function. For more than a decade there have been many efforts to develop materials and methods of treatment to promote periodontal wound healing. Recently many efforts are concentrated on the regeneration potential of material used in oriental medicine. In some in vitro and in vivo experiments, there have been many evidences that these materials have an effect on bone regeneration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate histologically and radiologically in Sprague-Dawley rats the effects of safflower seed extracts on the regeneration of the calvarial defects surgically produced. So in this study, the critical size defects were surgically produced in the calvarial bone of 30 Sprague-Dawley rats using the 8mm trephine bur. The safflower seed extract was applied into the defect of each rat in experimental group, whereas nothing was applied into the defect of each rat in control group. Rats were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8 weeks following operation and histomorphometric and radiodensitometric analysis were performed. 1. The newly formed bone length was 102.91+/-22.05, 178.29+/-24.40 at 2 week in the each control, experimental group, 130.95+/-39.24, 242.62+/-50.33 at 4 week and 181.53+/-76.35, 240.36+/-22.00 at 8 week(unit, micrometer). In the 2, 4 week, there were statistically significant difference between control and experimental group(P<0.05). 2. The newly formed bone area was 2962.06+/-1284.48, 10648.35+/-1284.48 at 2 week, 5103.25+/-1375.88, 9706.78+/-1481.81 at 4 week, 8046.02+/-818.99, 12057.06+/- 740.47 at 8 week(unit, micrometer2). In every week, there were statistically significant difference between control and experimental group(P<0.05). 3. The radiopacity was 14.26+/-.33, 25.47+/-4.33 at 2 week, 20.06+/-9.07, 26.61+/-2.78 at 4 week, 22.99+/-3.76, 27.29+/-1.54 at 8 week(unit, %). In the 2 week, there was statistically significant difference between control and experimental group(P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that safflower seed extract initially has an effect on the newly formed bone area, length and radiopacity when it is applied to the calvarial defect of Sprague - Dawley rat. Then. the material has an effect on newly formed bone area and length.

Animals , Bone Regeneration , Carthamus tinctorius , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Osteogenesis , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Regeneration , Wound Healing
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121078


Deer antler has been widely prescribed in Chinese and Korean pharmacology. Although there have been several reports concerning the effects of deer antler, such as anti-aging action, anti-inflammatory activity, antifungal action and regulatory activity of the level of glucose, the effect on bone has not determined yet. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of deer antler on osteoblast differentiation. Hexane extract(CNH) and chloroform extract(CN-C) were acquired from deer antler(Cervus nippon) and MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts were cultured in the presence or absence of each extract. Osteoblast differentiation was estimated with the formation of mineralized nodules and the mRNA expression of alkaline phosphatase(ALP), osteocalcin(OC) and bone sialoprotein(BSP) which are markers of osteoblast differentiation. Non-treated group did not show mineralized nodule. CN-C or CN-H-treated group showed minerlaized nodules in 16 days. In northern blot analysis, CN-C or CN-H-treated group showed the elevated expression of ALP, BSP and OC in 16 days. These results suggest the possibility to develop deer antler as a bone regenerative agent in periodontal therapy by showing the stimulating activity of deer antler on differentiation of osteoblast.

Animals , Antlers , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Blotting, Northern , Chloroform , Deer , Glucose , Humans , Osteoblasts , Pharmacology , RNA, Messenger