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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915514

ABSTRACT

Background@#The code stroke system is designed to identify stroke patients who may benefit from reperfusion therapy. It is essential for emergency physicians to rapidly distinguish true strokes from stroke mimics to activate code stroke. This study aimed to investigate the clinical and neurological characteristics that can be used to differentiate between stroke and stroke mimics in the emergency department (ED). @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective observational study of code stroke patients in the ED from January to December 2019. The baseline characteristics and the clinical and neurological features of stroke mimics were compared with those of strokes. @*Results@#A total of 409 code stroke patients presented to the ED, and 125 (31%) were diagnosed with stroke mimics. The common stroke mimics were seizures (21.7%), drug toxicity (12.0%), metabolic disorders (11.2%), brain tumors (8.8%), and peripheral vertigo (7.2%). The independent predictors of stroke mimics were psychiatric disorders, dizziness, altered mental status, and seizure-like movements, while current smoking, elevated systolic blood pressure, atrial fibrillation on the initial electrocardiogram, hemiparesis as a symptom, and facial palsy as a sign suggested a stroke. In addition, the likelihood of a stroke in code stroke patients tended to increase as the number of accompanying deficits increased from the following set of seven focal neurological deficits: hemiparesis (or upper limb monoparesis), unilateral limb sensory change, facial palsy, dysarthria, aphasia (or neglect), visual field defect, and oculomotor disorder (P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Some clinical and neurological characteristics have been identified to help differentiate stroke mimics from true stroke. In particular, the likelihood of stroke tended to increase as the number of accompanying focal neurological deficits increased.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899925

ABSTRACT

Background@#We performed this study to establish a prediction model for 1-year neurological outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients who achieved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) immediately after ROSC using machine learning methods. @*Methods@#We performed a retrospective analysis of an OHCA survivor registry. Patients aged ≥ 18 years were included. Study participants who had registered between March 31, 2013 and December 31, 2018 were divided into a develop dataset (80% of total) and an internal validation dataset (20% of total), and those who had registered between January 1, 2019 and December 31, 2019 were assigned to an external validation dataset. Four machine learning methods, including random forest, support vector machine, ElasticNet and extreme gradient boost, were implemented to establish prediction models with the develop dataset, and the ensemble technique was used to build the final prediction model. The prediction performance of the model in the internal validation and the external validation dataset was described with accuracy, area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, area under the precision-recall curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Futhermore, we established multivariable logistic regression models with the develop set and compared prediction performance with the ensemble models. The primary outcome was an unfavorable 1-year neurological outcome. @*Results@#A total of 1,207 patients were included in the study. Among them, 631, 139, and 153were assigned to the develop, the internal validation and the external validation datasets, respectively. Prediction performance metrics for the ensemble prediction model in the internal validation dataset were as follows: accuracy, 0.9620 (95% confidence interval [CI],0.9352–0.9889); area under receiver-operator characteristics curve, 0.9800 (95% CI, 0.9612– 0.9988); area under precision-recall curve, 0.9950 (95% CI, 0.9860–1.0000); sensitivity, 0.9594 (95% CI, 0.9245–0.9943); specificity, 0.9714 (95% CI, 0.9162–1.0000); PPV, 0.9916 (95% CI, 0.9752–1.0000); NPV, 0.8718 (95% CI, 0.7669–0.9767). Prediction performance metrics for the model in the external validation dataset were as follows: accuracy, 0.8509 (95% CI, 0.7825–0.9192); area under receiver-operator characteristics curve, 0.9301 (95% CI, 0.8845–0.9756); area under precision-recall curve, 0.9476 (95% CI, 0.9087–0.9867); sensitivity, 0.9595 (95% CI, 0.9145–1.0000); specificity, 0.6500 (95% CI, 0.5022–0.7978); PPV, 0.8353 (95% CI, 0.7564–0.9142); NPV, 0.8966 (95% CI, 0.7857–1.0000). All the prediction metrics were higher in the ensemble models, except NPVs in both the internal and the external validation datasets. @*Conclusion@#We established an ensemble prediction model for prediction of unfavorable 1-year neurological outcomes in OHCA survivors using four machine learning methods. The prediction performance of the ensemble model was higher than the multivariable logistic regression model, while its performance was slightly decreased in the external validation dataset.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892221

ABSTRACT

Background@#We performed this study to establish a prediction model for 1-year neurological outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients who achieved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) immediately after ROSC using machine learning methods. @*Methods@#We performed a retrospective analysis of an OHCA survivor registry. Patients aged ≥ 18 years were included. Study participants who had registered between March 31, 2013 and December 31, 2018 were divided into a develop dataset (80% of total) and an internal validation dataset (20% of total), and those who had registered between January 1, 2019 and December 31, 2019 were assigned to an external validation dataset. Four machine learning methods, including random forest, support vector machine, ElasticNet and extreme gradient boost, were implemented to establish prediction models with the develop dataset, and the ensemble technique was used to build the final prediction model. The prediction performance of the model in the internal validation and the external validation dataset was described with accuracy, area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, area under the precision-recall curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Futhermore, we established multivariable logistic regression models with the develop set and compared prediction performance with the ensemble models. The primary outcome was an unfavorable 1-year neurological outcome. @*Results@#A total of 1,207 patients were included in the study. Among them, 631, 139, and 153were assigned to the develop, the internal validation and the external validation datasets, respectively. Prediction performance metrics for the ensemble prediction model in the internal validation dataset were as follows: accuracy, 0.9620 (95% confidence interval [CI],0.9352–0.9889); area under receiver-operator characteristics curve, 0.9800 (95% CI, 0.9612– 0.9988); area under precision-recall curve, 0.9950 (95% CI, 0.9860–1.0000); sensitivity, 0.9594 (95% CI, 0.9245–0.9943); specificity, 0.9714 (95% CI, 0.9162–1.0000); PPV, 0.9916 (95% CI, 0.9752–1.0000); NPV, 0.8718 (95% CI, 0.7669–0.9767). Prediction performance metrics for the model in the external validation dataset were as follows: accuracy, 0.8509 (95% CI, 0.7825–0.9192); area under receiver-operator characteristics curve, 0.9301 (95% CI, 0.8845–0.9756); area under precision-recall curve, 0.9476 (95% CI, 0.9087–0.9867); sensitivity, 0.9595 (95% CI, 0.9145–1.0000); specificity, 0.6500 (95% CI, 0.5022–0.7978); PPV, 0.8353 (95% CI, 0.7564–0.9142); NPV, 0.8966 (95% CI, 0.7857–1.0000). All the prediction metrics were higher in the ensemble models, except NPVs in both the internal and the external validation datasets. @*Conclusion@#We established an ensemble prediction model for prediction of unfavorable 1-year neurological outcomes in OHCA survivors using four machine learning methods. The prediction performance of the ensemble model was higher than the multivariable logistic regression model, while its performance was slightly decreased in the external validation dataset.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834901

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Prior studies have explored the relationship between initial body temperature (BT) and mortality in patients with sepsis in the emergency department (ED). However, there has been no study on whether or not changes in BT are associated with prognosis in these patients. We hypothesize that BT measured upon ED arrival and septic shock registry enroll time are related to the prognosis of patients with septic shock. @*Methods@#We conducted a prospective, observational, registry-based study. Each patient was assigned to 1 of 4 groups according to BT upon ED arrival and registry enrollment. Odds ratios for 28-day mortality according to the patient group were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. We also conducted logistic regression sensitivity analysis, except for patients whose time interval between arrival and enrollment was less than 1 hour. @*Results@#A total of 2,138 patients with septic shock were included. The 28-day mortalities were 13.7%, 11.2%, 13.0%, and 25.8% in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively (P<0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, mean atrial pressure, respiratory rate, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, lactate concentration, comorbidity, and suspicious infection focus, the risk of mortality was significantly low in patients from group 1 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.433; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.310-0.604) and group 2 (aOR, 0.540; 95% CI, 0.336-0.868) compared with group 4. In the sensitivity analysis, group based on BT measured upon ED arrival and registry enrollment also remained an independent predictor of mortality. @*Conclusion@#Afebrile status upon ED arrival and registry enrollment were strongly associated with higher 28-day mortality in patients with septic shock.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831259

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We aimed to compare the multi-marker strategy (copeptin and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I [hs-cTnI]) with serial hs-cTnI measurements to rule out acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with chest pain. @*Methods@#This prospective observational study was performed in a single emergency department. To test the non-inferiority margin of 4% in terms of negative predictive value (NPV) between the multi-marker strategy (0 hour) and serial hs-cTnI measurements (0 and 2 hours), 262 participants were required. Samples for copeptin and hs-cTnI assays were collected at presentation (0 hour) and after 2 hours. The measured biomarkers were considered abnormal when hs-cTnI was >26.2 ng/L and when copeptin was >10 pmol/L. @*Results@#AMI was diagnosed in 28 patients (10.7%). The NPV of the multi-marker strategy was 100% (160/160; 95% confidence interval [CI], 97.7% to 100%), which was not inferior to that of serial hs-cTnI measurements (201/201; 100%; 95% CI, 98.2% to 100%). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of the multi-marker strategy were 100% (95% CI, 87.7% to 100%), 68.1% (95% CI, 61.7% to 74.0%), and 27.2% (95% CI, 18.9% to 36.8%), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of serial hs-cTnI measurements were 100% (95% CI, 87.7% to 100%), 85.5% (95% CI, 80.4% to 89.8%), and 45.2% (95% CI, 32.5% to 58.3%), respectively. @*Conclusion@#The multi-marker strategy (copeptin and hs-cTnI measurement) was not inferior to serial hs-cTnI measurements in terms of NPV for AMI diagnosis, with a sensitivity and NPV of 100%. Copeptin may help in the early rule-out of AMI in patients with chest pain.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785587

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score, derived from vital signs taken during triage and recommended by current sepsis guidelines for screening patients with infections for organ dysfunction, is not sensitive enough to predict the risk of mortality in emergency department (ED) sepsis patients.METHODS: Patients diagnosed with severe sepsis and septic shock using the old definition between May 2014 and April 2015 were retrospectively reviewed in three urban tertiary hospital EDs. The sensitivities of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, qSOFA, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores ≥2 were compared using McNemar’s test. Diagnostic performances were evaluated using specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value.RESULTS: Among the 928 patients diagnosed with severe sepsis or septic shock using the old definition, 231 (24.9%) died within 28 days. More than half of the sepsis patients (493/928, 53.1%) and more than one-third of the mortality cases (88/231, 38.1%) had a qSOFA score <2. The sensitivity of a qSOFA score ≥2 was 61.9%, which was significantly lower than the sensitivity of SIRS ≥2 (82.7%, P<0.001) and SOFA ≥2 (99.1%, P<0.001). The specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of a qSOFA score ≥2 for 28-day mortality were 58.1%, 32.9%, and 82.2%, respectively.CONCLUSION: The current clinical criteria of the qSOFA are less sensitive than the SIRS assessment and SOFA to predict 28-day mortality in ED patients with sepsis.


Subject(s)
Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Mass Screening , Mortality , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sepsis , Shock, Septic , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Tertiary Care Centers , Triage , Vital Signs
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758427

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Tracheal intubation in a hemorrhagic airway is a difficult procedure because the visibility can be obscured by blood or vomitus. Several devices and methods have been developed to overcome such obstacles, but they are not available at all practical sites. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the time and success rate of tracheal intubation according to the type of suction tip used in a hemorrhagic airway manikin model. METHODS: This study was a randomized crossover manikin simulation study. We recruited 18 emergency physicians to perform intubation with suction using a Yankauer suction tip and a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) catheter suction tip in a hemorrhagic airway manikin model. We then measured the time and success rate of intubation for each suction tip. RESULTS: The mean intubation time using the Yankauer suction tip was 42.3 seconds, and the mean intubation time using the PVC catheter suction tip was 91.1 seconds (p < 0.001). Two cases of esophageal intubation occurred when the PVC catheter suction tip was used (success rate, 88.9%). In contrast, there was no esophageal intubation when the Yankauer suction tip was used (success rate, 100%) (p=0.217). CONCLUSION: Intubation of a hemorrhagic airway manikin model can be performed in a shorter time when a Yankauer suction tip is used than when a PVC catheter suction tip is used.


Subject(s)
Catheters , Emergencies , Hemorrhage , Intubation , Manikins , Polyvinyl Chloride , Polyvinyls , Suction
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718719

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether simultaneous decreases in the serum levels of cell adhesion molecules (intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [VCAM-1], and E-selectin) and S100 proteins within the first 24 hours after the return of spontaneous circulation were associated with good neurological outcomes in cardiac arrest survivors. METHODS: This retrospective observational study was based on prospectively collected data from a single emergency intensive care unit (ICU). Twenty-nine out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors who were admitted to the ICU for post-resuscitation care were enrolled. Blood samples were collected at 0 and 24 hours after ICU admission. According to the 6-month cerebral performance category (CPC) scale, the patients were divided into good (CPC 1 and 2, n=12) and poor (CPC 3 to 5, n=17) outcome groups. RESULTS: No difference was observed between the two groups in terms of the serum levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, and S100 at 0 and 24 hours. A simultaneous decrease in the serum levels of VCAM-1 and S100 as well as E-selectin and S100 was associated with good neurological outcomes. When other variables were adjusted, a simultaneous decrease in the serum levels of VCAM-1 and S100 was independently associated with good neurological outcomes (odds ratio, 9.285; 95% confidence interval, 1.073 to 80.318; P=0.043). CONCLUSION: A simultaneous decrease in the serum levels of soluble VCAM-1 and S100 within the first 24 hours after the return of spontaneous circulation was associated with a good neurological outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors.


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Cell Adhesion , Cell Adhesion Molecules , E-Selectin , Emergencies , Endothelium , Heart Arrest , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Observational Study , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , S100 Proteins , Survivors , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717565

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the clinical characteristics and prognoses of patients with septic shock who transferred to the emergency department (ED) in a tertiary referral center. METHODS: This study was performed using a prospective, multi-center registry of septic shock, with the participation of 11 tertiary referral centers in the Korean Shock Society between October 2015 and February 2017. We classified the patients as a transferred group who transferred from other hospitals after meeting the inclusion criteria upon ED arrival and a non-transferred group who presented directly to the ED. Primary outcome was hospital mortality. We conducted multiple logistic regression analysis to assess variables related to in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 2,098 patients were included, and we assigned 717 patients to the transferred group and 1,381 patients to the non-transferred group. The initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score was higher in the transferred group than the non-transferred group (6; interquartile range [IQR], 4–9 vs. 6; IQR, 4–8; P < 0.001). Mechanical ventilator (29% vs. 21%, P < 0.001) and renal replacement therapy (12% vs. 9%, P=0.034) within 24 hours after ED arrival were more frequently applied in the transferred group than the non-transferred group. Overall hospital mortality was 22% and there was no significant difference between transferred and non-transferred groups (23% vs. 22%, P=0.820). Multivariable analysis showed an odds ratio for in-hospital mortality of 1.00 (95% confidence interval, 0.78–1.28; P=0.999) for the transferred group compared with the non-transferred group. CONCLUSION: The transferred group showed higher severity and needed more organ support procedures than the nontransferred group. However, inter-hospital transfer did not affect in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Logistic Models , Mortality , Observational Study , Odds Ratio , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis , Shock , Shock, Septic , Tertiary Care Centers , Ventilators, Mechanical
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-648806

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether serum levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA1), after the return of spontaneous circulation, can predict the neurologic outcome in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study conducted in a single tertiary hospital intensive care unit. All adult OHCA survivors with admission lipid profiles were enrolled from March 2013 to December 2015. Good neurologic outcome was defined as discharge cerebral performance categories 1 and 2. RESULTS: Among 59 patients enrolled, 13 (22.0%) had a good neurologic outcome. Serum levels of HDL (56.7 vs. 40 mg/dL) and ApoA1 (117 vs. 91.6 mg/dL) were significantly higher in patients with a good outcome. Areas under the HDL and ApoA1 receiver operating curves to predict good outcomes were 0.799 and 0.759, respectively. The proportion of good outcome was significantly higher in patients in higher tertiles of HDL and ApoA1 (test for trend, both P=0.003). HDL (P=0.018) was an independent predictor in the multivariate logistic regression model. CONCLUSION: Admission levels of HDL and ApoA1 are associated with neurologic outcome in patients with OHCA. Prognostic and potential therapeutic values of HDL and ApoA1 merit further evaluation in the post-cardiac arrest state, as in other systemic inflammatory conditions such as sepsis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Apolipoprotein A-I , Apolipoproteins , Cholesterol, HDL , Heart Arrest , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lipoproteins , Logistic Models , Observational Study , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis , Survivors , Tertiary Care Centers
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-646640

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics, therapeutic interventions, and outcomes of patients with septic shock admitted to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: This study was a preliminary, descriptive analysis of a prospective, multi-center, observational registry of the EDs of 10 hospitals participating in the Korean Shock Society. Patients aged 19 years or older who had a suspected or confirmed infection and evidence of refractory hypotension or hypoperfusion were included. RESULTS: A total of 468 patients were enrolled (median age, 71.3 years; male, 55.1%; refractory hypotension, 82.9%; hyperlactatemia without hypotension, 17.1%). Respiratory infection was the most common source of infection (31.0%). The median Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment score was 7.5. The sepsis bundle compliance was 91.2% for lactate measurement, 70.3% for blood culture, 68.4% for antibiotic administration, 80.3% for fluid resuscitation, 97.8% for vasopressor application, 68.0% for central venous pressure measurement, 22.0% for central venous oxygen saturation measurement, and 59.2% for repeated lactate measurement. Among patients who underwent interventions for source control (n=117, 25.1%), 43 (36.8%) received interventions within 12 hours of ED arrival. The in-hospital, 28-day, and 90-day mortality rates were 22.9%, 21.8%, and 27.1%, respectively. The median ED and hospital lengths of stay were 6.8 hours and 12 days, respectively. CONCLUSION: This preliminary report revealed a mortality of over 20% in patients with septic shock, which suggests that there are areas for improvement in terms of the quality of initial resuscitation and outcomes of septic shock patients in the ED.


Subject(s)
Central Venous Pressure , Compliance , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Hyperlactatemia , Hypotension , Lactic Acid , Male , Mortality , Oxygen , Patient Care Bundles , Prospective Studies , Resuscitation , Sepsis , Shock , Shock, Septic
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158111

ABSTRACT

It is unclear whether specific agent groups are associated with outcomes in cases of poisoning-induced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (P-OHCA). The study population comprised cases of confirmed P-OHCA drawn from the national out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) registry (2008–2013). Exposures were categorized into five groups according to the International Classification of Disease, 10th version: group 1, prescribed drugs; group 2, vapors and gases; group 3, pesticides; group 4, alcohol and organic solvents; and group 5, other poisons. The outcome was survival to discharge and good neurological recovery. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to test the association between specific groups and outcomes. A total of 2,083 patients were analyzed; group 1 (10.3%), group 2 (23.6%), group 3 (52.9%), group 4 (1.4%), and group 5 (13.2%). The survival to discharge and good neurological recovery rates were 3.3%/1.3% for all patients, 10.3%/5.6% (group 1), 6.9%/3.4% (group 2), 2.4%/0.4% (group 3), 2.2%/1.0% (group 4), and 3.3%/2.4% (group 5) (all P < 0.001). The aORs (95% CIs) of groups 2–5 compared with group 1 for survival to discharge were 0.47 (0.09–2.51), 0.34 (0.17–0.68), 0.33 (0.14–0.77), and 0.31 (0.13–0.77), respectively. The odds ratios (95% CIs) for good neurological recovery were significant only in group 1, the pesticides group (0.07 [0.02–0.26]) and were not significant in the other groups. P-OHCA outcomes differed significantly among the poisoning agent groups. The pesticides group showed the worst outcomes, followed by the group of vapors or gases.


Subject(s)
Classification , Gases , Heart Arrest , Humans , Odds Ratio , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Pesticides , Poisoning , Poisons , Solvents
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77160

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acute epiglottitis is a potentially fatal condition that can result in airway obstruction. The aim of this study is to examine the clinical features of adult patients who visited the emergency department (ED) with acute epiglottitis. METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted at a single tertiary hospital ED from November 2005 to October 2015. We searched our electronic medical records (EMR) system for a diagnosis of "acute epiglottitis" and selected those patients who visited the ED. RESULTS: A total of 28 patients were included. There was no pediatric case with acute epiglottitis during the study period. The mean age of the patients was 58.0+/-14.8 years. The peak incidences were in the sixth (n=7, 25.0%) and eighth (n=8, 28.6%) decades. The male-to-female ratio was 2.1:1. The most common symptom was sore throat (n=23, 82.1%), followed by dyspnea (n=15, 53.6%), hoarseness (n=7, 25.0%), fever (n=6, 21%), and dysphagia (n=5, 17.9%). The diagnosis of acute epiglottitis was confirmed when edema and hyperemia of the epiglottis were visualized by laryngoscopy. Twenty-six patients were treated conservatively with antibiotics and steroids without definite airway management. Two patients were intubated, but no patients required tracheostomy. CONCLUSION: In adult patients with acute epiglottitis, sore throat and dyspnea were the most common symptoms but fever was infrequent. Most patients improved with conservative management only. Definite airway management was required in only two patients in whom endotracheal intubations were performed successfully in the ED by emergency physicians, and surgical airway management was not required.


Subject(s)
Adult , Airway Management , Airway Obstruction , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Deglutition Disorders , Diagnosis , Dyspnea , Edema , Electronic Health Records , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epiglottis , Epiglottitis , Fever , Hoarseness , Humans , Hyperemia , Incidence , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laryngoscopy , Observational Study , Pharyngitis , Retrospective Studies , Steroids , Tertiary Care Centers , Tracheostomy
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-644629

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study compared the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) angiography in patients with various severities of gastrointestinal hemorrhage (GIH). METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled adult patients (n=262) with GIH who had undergone CT angiography from January 2012 to December 2013. Age, sex, comorbidities, presenting symptoms, initial vital signs, laboratory results, transfusion volume, emergency department disposition, and hospital mortality were abstracted from patient records. CT angiography findings were reviewed and compared to reference standards consisting of endoscopy, conventional angiography, bleeding scan, capsule endoscopy, and surgery, either alone or in combination. Clinical severity was stratified according to the number of packed red blood cell units transfused during the first two days: the first quartile was categorized as mild severity, while the second and third quartiles were categorized as moderate severity. The fourth quartile was categorized as severe. RESULTS: Patients were categorized into the mild (n=75, 28.6%), moderate (n=139, 53.1%), and severe (n=48, 18.3%) groups. The mean number of transfused packed red blood cell units was 0, 3, and 9.6 in the mild, moderate, and severe groups, respectively. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of CT angiography were 73.8%, 94.0%, 97.3%, and 55.3%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the diagnostic performance of CT angiography was 0.780, 0.841, and 0.930 in the mild, moderate, and severe groups, respectively, which significantly differed among groups (P=0.006). CONCLUSION: The diagnostic accuracy of CT angiography is better in patients with more severe GIH.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiography , Capsule Endoscopy , Comorbidity , Diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Endoscopy , Erythrocytes , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Hemorrhage , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Multidetector Computed Tomography , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vital Signs
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160732

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Therapeutic hypothermia is an important treatment strategy for control of the overwhelming inflammatory reactions of cardiac arrest patients. Rapid rewarming is related to poor outcome, however the kinds of inflammatory processes that occur during the rewarming period are not well understood. Our aim in the current study was to evaluate the changes in inflammatory cytokine levels during cardiac arrest patients' rewarming period. METHODS: This study was conducted in an emergency intensive care unit of a tertiary referral hospital. Blood samples were collected on admission (0 h) and 24, 26, 28, and 32 h after return of spontaneous circulation. Eight inflammatory cytokines (E-selectin, soluble ICAM, interleukin-10, interleukin-1ra, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and tumor necrosis factor-α) were measured. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were enrolled and completed a protocol of 24 h hypothermia and 8h rewarming. Eight patients were of the good cerebral performance category (CPC) and 20 of the bad. The IL-1Ra level in the good CPC group was statistically changed at 26 (p=0.039) and 28 (p=0.003) but not at 32 h (p=0.632) when compared with the 24 h level. The IL-10 levels of the bad CPC group were decreased at 26 (p=0.017) and 28h (p=0.013) but not at 32 h (p=0.074) when compared with 24 h. None of the other cytokines showed meaningful differences during the rewarming period. CONCLUSION: Change in inflammatory-cytokine-level change during the rewarming period is not significant.


Subject(s)
Chemokine CCL2 , Cytokines , Emergencies , Heart Arrest , Humans , Hypothermia , Hypothermia, Induced , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Necrosis , Prognosis , Rewarming , Tertiary Care Centers
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-157390

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the change in mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in the brain tissue after therapeutic hypothermia in the swine cardiac arrest model. METHODS: After the return of spontaneous circulation by cardiopulmonary resuscitation, following a 6 min of no-flow time induced by ventricular fibrillation, pigs (n=24) were randomly assigned to one of four groups (sham, normothermia, 24 hr of therapeutic hypothermia, 48 hr of therapeutic hypothermia). After 24 or 48 hr of therapeutic hypothermia (core temperature 32-34℃), the pigs were then rewarmed to 36℃ for a period of 8 hr. At 60 hr upon the return of spontaneous circulation, the pigs were sacrificed and brain tissues were harvested. RESULTS: We measured the tissue levels of p38, JNK, and ERK pathway expressions from the hippocampus of the swine brain in all four groups. The phosphorylated p38-to-p38 ratio and phosphorylated JNK-to-JNK ratio were significantly increased in all of the intervention groups compared with the sham group. The phosphorylated ERK-to-ERK ratio was increased only in the therapeutic hypothermia groups (p-value=0.026 in the 24 hr of therapeutic hypothermia group and p-value=0.002 in the 48 hr of therapeutic hypothermia group, compared with the sham group). CONCLUSION: The p38 and JNK pathways were also activated during therapeutic hypothermia and normothermia. However, the ERK pathway was activated only in therapeutic hypothermia. Therapeutic hypothermia activated the ERK pathway in ischemia-reperfusion injury of the brain tissue after cardiac arrest, which seemed to be dependent on the duration of therapeutic hypothermia.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest , Hippocampus , Hypothermia, Induced , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Protein Kinases , Reperfusion Injury , Swine , Ventricular Fibrillation
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-96078

ABSTRACT

Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare but life-threatening illness that is mainly caused by toxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Although TSS is classically known to be associated with tampon use, the number of TSS cases with non-menstrual causes such as skin and soft tissue infection has been increasing. Tattooing can result in several complications such as localized and systemic infections, inflammatory skin eruptions and neoplasms. We recently experienced a 26-year-old man diagnosed with typical TSS following tattooing. He complained of fever, chills and erythematous rash at tattoo site. Subsequently, the patient developed sign of shock. The skin cultures on the tattoo site were positive for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. The patient was successfully treated with vasopressor infusion and intravenous antibiotics and was discharged without complications. On discharge from the hospital 7 days later, desquamations on the tattoo site, fingers and toes were observed.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Chills , Exanthema , Fever , Fingers , Humans , Shock , Shock, Septic , Skin , Soft Tissue Infections , Staphylococcus aureus , Tattooing , Toes
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770882

ABSTRACT

Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare but life-threatening illness that is mainly caused by toxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Although TSS is classically known to be associated with tampon use, the number of TSS cases with non-menstrual causes such as skin and soft tissue infection has been increasing. Tattooing can result in several complications such as localized and systemic infections, inflammatory skin eruptions and neoplasms. We recently experienced a 26-year-old man diagnosed with typical TSS following tattooing. He complained of fever, chills and erythematous rash at tattoo site. Subsequently, the patient developed sign of shock. The skin cultures on the tattoo site were positive for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. The patient was successfully treated with vasopressor infusion and intravenous antibiotics and was discharged without complications. On discharge from the hospital 7 days later, desquamations on the tattoo site, fingers and toes were observed.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Chills , Exanthema , Fever , Fingers , Humans , Shock , Shock, Septic , Skin , Soft Tissue Infections , Staphylococcus aureus , Tattooing , Toes
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-651804

ABSTRACT

Life-threatening rectal variceal bleeding is a rare complication of liver cirrhosis. Various therapeutic interventions including endoscopic variceal ligation and percutaneous transvenous obliteration have been proposed to control significant rectal variceal bleeding. However, these definite hemostasis modalities are not readily available and require an experienced endoscopist or interventional radiologist. Therefore, bridging therapy to control active bleeding is necessary especially in patients with massive bleeding. We report a case of massive rectal variceal bleeding in which a Sengstaken-Blakemore tube was effective at stopping the bleeding until percutaneous transvenous obliteration could be performed.


Subject(s)
Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Humans , Hypertension, Portal , Ligation , Liver Cirrhosis
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223353

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has become a standard strategy for reducing brain damage in the postresuscitation period. The aim of this study is to investigate the outcomes and current performance of TH with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survivors through the Korean hypothermia network (KORHN) registry. METHODS: We used the KORHN registry, a web-based, multicenter registry that includes 24 participating hospitals throughout the Republic of Korea. Adult comatose OHCA survivors treated with TH from 2007 to 2012 were included. The primary outcomes were neurologic outcome at hospital discharge and in-hospital mortality. The secondary outcomes were TH performance and adverse events during TH. RESULTS: A total of 930 patients were included; of these, 556 (59.8%) patients survived to discharge and 249 (26.8%) were discharged with good neurologic outcomes. The median time from return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) to the start of TH was 101 (interquartile range (IQR): 46-200) minutes. The induction, maintenance, and rewarming durations were 150 (IQR: 80-267) minutes, 1440 (IQR: 1290-1440) minutes, and 708 (IQR: 420-900) minutes, respectively. The time from the ROSC to coronary angiography was 1,045 (IQR: 121-12,051) hours. Hyperglycemia (46.3%) was the most frequent adverse event. CONCLUSION: Over one quarter of OHCA survivors (26.8%) were discharged with good neurologic outcome. TH performance was managed appropriately in terms of the factors related to the timing of TH, which were the start time for cooling and the rewarming duration.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain , Coma , Coronary Angiography , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Hypothermia , Hypothermia, Induced , Korea , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Registries , Republic of Korea , Rewarming , Survivors
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