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1.
J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 10: e20210028, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365067

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Research on the genetics, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of Fabry disease (FD) has increased significantly in recent years. However, some relevant clinical questions still need to be answered to develop better approaches to patient management. This review focuses on answering specific questions raised by Brazilian experts based on their experience in diagnosing and managing patients with FD. The questions are as follows: What is the role of globotriaosylsphingosine in diagnosis? How does one proceed with the diagnosis if there is a variant of unknown significance? What are the earliest and most reliable markers of renal, cardiac, and neurological impairment? What is the prevalence of FD in patients with cryptogenic stroke? What is the average delay in diagnosis in patients with FD? Based on these questions, our objective was to highlight epidemiological, diagnostic, and clinical aspects relating to the literature in the FD field.

2.
J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 9: e20200022, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154710

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Gaucher disease (GD) is one of the common lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) with an estimated frequency of one in 40,000 newborns globally. GD is an autosomal recessive condition, which results from mutations in the GBA1 gene, causing partial or complete deficiency of β-glucocerebrosidase enzyme activity, which leads to the widespread accumulation of the substrate glucosylceramide. Aims: This report presents different challenges of clinical management and communication between medical specialties to reach diagnose of any rare disease in Mozambique, a low-income country, which health system has limited infrastructure, trained personnel, and budget for diagnosis and to provide treatment for rare genetic disorders such as GD. Case Presentation: The patient was a 15-year old black female patient of Mozambican nationality born from non-consanguineous parents. Three of the four patient's siblings were healthy; one sister had died of a disease with a similar clinical features. Our patient presented with abdominal distention and hepatosplenomegaly. Blood tests revealed pancytopenia and a high level of ferritin. Liver biopsy and histologic examination revealed infiltration of the splenic parenchyma and portal area of the liver as well as enlarged histiocytic cells with granular cytoplasm. Magnetic resonance imaging showed liver enlargement, changes in the femoral heads without osteonecrosis, a pathological fracture of the third thoracic vertebrae (T3), with absence of brain and spinal cord neurological abnormalities. The biochemical investigation disclosed low levels of β-glucocerebrosidase (0.223 nmol/h/ml; normal: above 0.98) and increased levels of lyso-Gb1 (0.43 µg/ml; normal: up to 0.003). Genotyping of the GBA1 gene indicated the presence of the pathogenic variant p.Arg87Trp (R48W) in homozygosis. Discussion and Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first case of GD type 1 confirmed via biochemical and molecular genetic testing in Mozambique. As awareness of the GD and rare genetic diseases among Mozambican health professionals is very limited, and resources for diagnosis are scarce in the national health system, it is possible that other cases remain undiagnosed in this low-income country.

3.
J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 8: e20200010, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143188

ABSTRACT

Abstract Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), also referred as "Batten disease", are a group of thirteen rare genetic conditions, which are part of the lysosomal storage disorders. CLN type 2 (CLN2) is caused by the deficient activity of the tripeptidyl peptidase I (TPP1) enzyme, encoded by the TPP1 gene, most frequently leading to the classic late infantile phenotype. Nearly 140 CLN2-causing mutations have been described. In this case report, we describe the identification of a new disease-causing mutation and highlight the importance of appropriate laboratory investigation based on clinical suspicion. The collection of dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper, which is a convenient sample, can be used to measure the TPP1 enzyme activity and detect CLN2-related mutations. Since the biochemical and genetic diagnoses are possible and as the disease progression is fast and the therapeutic window is short, the investigation of CLN2 should be always considered when this diagnostic hypothesis is raised in order to enable the patients to benefit from the specific pharmacological treatment.

4.
J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 8: e20200005, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1135003

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sanfilippo syndrome or mucopolysaccharidosis III (MPS III), includes a group of four autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorders caused by deficient activity of enzymes involved in the catabolism of heparan sulfate. The four types of MPS III are recognized in accordance with the deficient enzyme, resulting in the accumulation of heparan sulfate with particularly deleterious effects in the central nervous system. The incidence of MPS III remains to be established in Latin American countries. We describe the journey of a patient with MPS IIIB whom, even in the presence of speech delay and deterioration, behavioral problems and motor incoordination, showed unaltered urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) levels. An investigation for MPS was undertaken and enzyme analysis indicated a deficiency of alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase, leading to the diagnosis of MPS IIIB. With the correct diagnosis, the patient's symptoms could be properly managed, and the parents received appropriate genetic counseling. The present case report reinforces the need of investigating MPS III in patients with language delay and/or regression, neurological impairment and behavioral alterations, even when urinary GAGs are within normal range. A definitive diagnosis ends the diagnostic journey and enables the medical team and family to provide a better care for the child.

5.
J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 8: e20200002, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1135004

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis III (MPS III) is a rare inherited metabolic disease primarily affecting the central nervous system, leading to developmental and/or speech regression. Early diagnosis of the disease is important to introduce appropriate management measures and to optimize therapeutic outcomes. The diagnosis of MPS III is often significantly delayed due to the rarity of the disease, the more attenuated somatic presentation compared to other MPS types, and the symptom overlap with other developmental disorders. To shorten the time to diagnosis, a list of eight early signs and symptoms was identified through an expert system approach by a global, multidisciplinary working group of 13 specialists with expertise in various aspects of MPS and developmental disorders and three parents of MPS III patients. Coarse facial features and persistent hirsutism or prominent, thick eyebrows were identified as the most important MPS III early signs. The list of eight early MPS III signs and symptoms is the first step towards the development of a clinical algorithm aiming to identify neonates and infants with MPS III before the onset of neurocognitive damage, ultimately shortening the diagnostic journey of MPS III patients.

6.
J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 8: e20190011, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090989

ABSTRACT

Abstract Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by deficient activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), responsible for the conversion of phenylalanine (Phe) to tyrosine (Tyr). Monitoring of patients with PKU requires the measurement of Phe in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or in dried blood spots (DBS) using different techniques to adjust treatment strategy. The objective of this study was to evaluate Phe levels in DBS measured by two different methods and compare them with Phe levels measured in plasma by HPLC. We analyzed 89 blood samples from 47 PKU patients by two different methods: fluorometric method developed in-house (method A) and the commercially available PerkinElmer® Neonatal Phenylalanine Kit (method B) and in plasma by HPLC. The mean Phe levels by method A, method B, and HPLC were 430.4±39.9μmol/L, 439.3±35.4μmol/L, and 442.2±41.6μmol/L, respectively. The correlation values between HPLC and methods A and B were 0.990 and 0.974, respectively (p < 0.001 for both). Our data suggest that methods A and B are useful alternatives for monitoring Phe levels in patients with PKU, with method A being in closer agreement with the reference standard (HPLC).

7.
Rev. pesqui. cuid. fundam. (Online) ; 11(1): 20-24, jan.-mar. 2019. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-968478

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar a ocorrência de infecções em pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica em uso do cateter temporário duplo-lúmen (CTDL). Método: Estudo prospectivo ou de seguimento realizado em uma Clínica de Nefrologia, em Recife (PE), Brasil, entre os meses de janeiro de 2009 a dezembro de 2010. A coleta foi realizada por meio da avaliação clínica e de prontuários de 88 pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica (IRC) em tratamento hemodialítico. Os dados foram analisados por meio da quantificação das variáveis contidas no instrumento de coleta. Resultados: A infecção do sítio de inserção do cateter ocorreu em 52,3% dos pacientes, e em 47,7% foi verificada a infecção da corrente sanguínea associada ao cateter. Conclusão: É primordial a conscientização da equipe de saúde em relação aos cuidados na implantação e manipulação do cateter. As condições de higiene do paciente contribuem com processos infecciosos, sendo assim, ele precisa ser informado sobre os riscos de infecção


Objective: To value the occurrence of infections in chronic renal failure patients with use of catheter double-lumen temporary (CDL). Methods: Prospective study and follow-up, realized in a Clinical Nephrology, in Recife (PE), Brazil, between the months of January 2009 to December 2010. In this study 88 chronic renal failure patients participated (CRF) and who are undergoing hemodyalisis. Results: the temporary double-lumen catheters enable the execution of the hemodialysis right after implantation, but it presents an inferior operational implant cost in comparison to the fully implantable ones or to the arteriovenous fistula (AVFs). Conclusion: It is prime to raise awareness of the health team regarding cares when implanting and manipulating the catheter (during the hemodialysis sessions and realization of bandages). The patient's hygiene conditions contribute with infectious processes, they need therefore to be informed about infection risks


Objetivo: Evaluar la ocurrencia de las infecciones en pacientes con insuficiência real crónica en uso del catéter temporario doble lumen (CDL). Métodos: Estudio prospectivo y seguimento, realizado en una Nefrología Clínica, en Recife (PE), Brasil, entre los meses de enero 2009 a diciembre 2010. El estudio incluyó 88 pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC), sometidos al tratamiento de hemodialisis. La colecta de datos fue realizada mediante la evaluación clínica y del archivos. Resultados: El catéter temporario doble lumen (CDL) permite la actuación de hemodialisis poco después del implantación, sin embargo tiene menores costes operativos en comparación con el totalmente implantable o las fistulas arteriovenosas (FAVs). Conclusión: Es de suma importancia la sensibilización del personal de salud respecto a la implementación y manipulación del catéter (durante las sesiones de hemodialisis y vendajes). Las condiciones de higiene del paciente contribuye con procesos infecciosos, siendo así, ellos necesitan estar informados sobre los riesgos de infección


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/nursing , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Vascular Access Devices/adverse effects
8.
J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 7: e20190004, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090974

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) constitute a heterogeneous group of rare genetic disorders caused by enzymatic deficiencies that lead to the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Clinical observations suggest a health-related impairment in quality of life in patients with MPS. Professionals with extensive experience in the care of patients with inborn errors of metabolism, such as MPS, held a meeting in April 2017 to discuss and propose recommendations for the evaluation and management of quality of life in MPS patients in Latin America. In the light of this scenario, the present work summarizes the content of the discussions and presents the recommendations produced at the meeting. The panel had suggested the use of the following tools for the assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL): Children's Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) for children and patients unable to express their feelings, Health Assessments Questionnaire (HAQ) and EuroQol 5 Domains (EQ-5D) scales for adult patients. Based on the scores verified in these scales, the panel proposes interventions that aim reducing the impairment of the quality of life in patients with MPS disorders.

9.
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 36(1): 113-116, jan.-mar. 2018. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-902885

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever a doença de depósito de ésteres de colesterol (DDEC) e a importância da biópsia hepática na realização do diagnóstico. Descrição do caso: Paciente feminina, dois anos e dez meses de idade, com queixa de aumento do volume abdominal secundário à hepatomegalia há quatro meses. Ultrassonografia abdominal demonstrou hepatomegalia e esteatose hepática. Exames laboratoriais mostraram aumento de enzimas hepáticas e dislipidemia. A biópsia hepática foi compatível com DDEC. Comentários: Embora a medida da atividade enzimática seja o padrão-ouro para o diagnóstico de DDEC, a biópsia hepática é muito útil na investigação de casos suspeitos, particularmente quando há outros diagnósticos diferenciais a serem considerados.


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe a case of cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) and discuss the importance of liver biopsy for diagnosis. Case description: A female patient, aged two years and ten months, presented with an increased abdominal volume following hepatomegaly for four months. Abdominal ultrasound demonstrated hepatomegaly and hepatic steatosis. Laboratory tests showed elevated liver serum enzymes and dyslipidemia. Liver biopsy was consistent with CESD. Comments: Although measuring enzyme activity is the gold standard for CESD diagnosis, liver biopsy is very helpful when investigating suspected cases of CESD, particularly upon other differential diagnoses to be considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease/pathology , Wolman Disease/pathology , Liver/pathology , Biopsy
10.
J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 6: 170022, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090953

ABSTRACT

Abstract The mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) disorders are a group of rare, inherited lysosomal storage disorders. In each of the 11 MPS (sub)types, deficiency in a specific lysosomal enzyme (1 of 11 identified enzymes) leads to accumulation of glycosaminoglycans, resulting in cell, tissue, and multi-organ dysfunction. There is great heterogeneity in the clinical manifestations both between and within each MPS type. Somatic signs and symptoms include short stature, coarse facial features, skeletal and joint abnormalities, cardiorespiratory dysfunction, hepatosplenomegaly, and vision and hearing problems. In addition, patients with MPS I, II, III, and VII can have significant neurological manifestations, including impaired cognitive, language, and speech abilities, behavioral abnormalities, sleep problems, and/or epileptic seizures. Hydrocephalus is a frequent finding in patients with MPS I, II, and VI. Spinal cord compression can develop in almost all MPS disorders. Effective management and development of therapies that target these neurological manifestations warrant a profound understanding of their pathophysiology and progression in the different MPS types and best practices for evaluation and treatment. In order to obtain expert opinion addressing these topics we performed an online survey among an international group of experts with extensive experience in managing and treating MPS disorders. The results of this survey provide important insights into the management of neurological manifestations of MPS in clinical practice and are a valuable addition to current evidence.

11.
J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 6: e180013, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090962

ABSTRACT

Abstract As therapies are developed for rare disorders, challenges of early diagnosis become particularly relevant. This article focuses on clinical recognition of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS), a group of rare genetic diseases related to abnormalities in lysosomal function. As quality of outcomes with current therapies is impacted by timing of intervention, minimizing time to diagnosis is critical. The objective of this study was to characterize how, when, and to whom patients with MPS first present and develop tools to stimulate earlier recognition of MPS. A tripartite approach was used, including a systematic literature review yielding 194 studies, an online physician survey completed by 209 physicians who described

12.
J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 6: e180010, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090965

ABSTRACT

Abstract Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are a large and heterogeneous group of genetic diseases. In most of these conditions, the presence of variants in specific genes leads to enzyme deficiencies that affect a particular metabolic step. The number of laboratories dedicated to the study of IEM is very limited worldwide, and its multiplication is urgently required for a more effective diagnosis. With the scarcity of specialized centers, the diagnosis of affected individuals comes too late or does not happen at all. Moreover, the biological samples have to travel long distances, compromising its quality and delaying still more the diagnosis. In this work, we suggest a practical guide for a basic biochemical laboratory to get involved in the study of IEM. This proposal was based on already described metabolic tests and involves the need of just a few, simple, and affordable instruments that can give an enormous quantity of information about the possible metabolic defect faced, such as a spectrophotofluorometer and a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) instrument. The procedures proposed can be customized and adapted to particular needs and situations, which make it especially useful for developing countries.

14.
J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 6: e170025, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090972

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is a progressive lysosomal storage disorder with multiorgan and multisystemic pathology. Currently, galsulfase enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is the only approved treatment for MPS VI. A crosssectional survey study of 121 patients with MPS VI conducted in 2001 to 2002 and a 10-year follow-up study of the same patients (resurvey study; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01387854) found that those receiving galsulfase at any time showed physical improvements and a lower mortality rate (16.5%) versus treatment-naive patients (50%). After *15 years, galsulfasetreated patients (n » 104) continue to have a survival advantage over treatment-naive patients (n » 14), as demonstrated by a 24% versus 57% mortality rate. This survival advantage is further supported by data from the commercial use of galsulfase (2005-2016), which show a 5-year mortality rate for galsulfase-treated patients of 12.5%. Together, these findings suggest that galsulfase ERT can increase life expectancies for patients with MPS VI over a period of at least 15 years.

15.
An. Fac. Med. (Perú) ; 78(4): 409-413, oct.-dic. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010988

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad por Almacenamiento de Ésteres de Colesterol (CESD; Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease) es una enfermedad de depósito lisosomal, su presentación es bastante variable y su diagnóstico constituye un desafío. Además, existe un número de anomalías observadas en los pacientes con CESD que se sobreponen a diagnósticos más comunes, siendo probable que sea subdiagnosticada. La mayoría de pacientes relatados hasta el momento son portadores de la mutación E8SJM en el gen LIPA. En este sentido, el auxilio en el diagnóstico es fundamental pues existen opciones de terapia en desarrollo. Diseño: Estudio observacional. Objetivo: Estandarizar la técnica de PCR en tiempo real para la detección de la mutación más frecuente, E8SJM, en muestras de sangre periférica y de biopsia hepática para el auxilio diagnóstico de CESD y futuros estudios de prevalencia de la mutación. Institución: Centro de Terapia Génica del Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Brasil. Material biológico: Muestras de ADN extraídas de sangre periférica y tejido hepático parafinado. Principales medidas de resultados: Presencia/Ausencia de la mutación E8SJM. Resultados: Se estandarizó la reacción de PCR en tiempo real, la mutación fue detectada correctamente y posteriormente validada por secuenciación de Sanger. La mutación fue analizada en 137 muestras y encontrada en apenas una paciente que ingresó al Servicio de Genética Médica del HCPA con diagnóstico clínico y bioquímico de CESD/Wolman. Conclusiones: La técnica de PCR en tiempo real es ideal para la detección rápida y en gran escala de la mutación frecuente asociada a CESD.


Introduction: Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease (CESD) is a lysosomal storage disorder, its presentation is highly variable and its diagnosis challenging. In addition, there are several abnormalities observed in patients with CESD who overlap with more common diagnoses and are likely to be underdiagnosed. Most patients reported to date are carriers of the E8SJM mutation in the LIPA gene. In this sense, diagnostic assistance is essential because there are options for therapy in development, as well as mutation prevalence studies. Design: Observational research. Objective: To standardize the real-time PCR technique for the detection of the most frequent mutation, E8SJM, in peripheral blood and liver biopsy specimens for the diagnosis of CESD and future mutation prevalence studies. Institution: Center of Gene Therapy of the Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Brazil. Biological material: DNA samples extracted from peripheral blood and paraffinembedded liver tissue. Main outcome measures: Presence / Absence of E8SJM mutation. Results: The PCR reaction was standardized in real time; the mutation was correctly detected and validated by Sanger sequencing. The mutation was analyzed in 137 samples and found in only one patient who entered the Medical Genetics Service of the HCPA with clinical and biochemical diagnosis of CESD/Wolman. Conclusions: The real-time PCR technique is ideal for rapid and large-scale detection of the frequent CESD-associated mutation.

16.
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 35(3): 258-264, jul.-set. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-902853

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a apresentação clínica inicial dos casos com diagnóstico confirmado de erros inatos do metabolismo (EIM) em um serviço de referência em atendimento pediátrico. Métodos: Estudo clínico, observacional, com delineamento transversal e de coleta retrospectiva em consulta ambulatorial de 2009 a 2013. Critério de inclusão: paciente encaminhado para investigação de EIM. Critério de exclusão: diagnóstico prévio de EIM. Variáveis analisadas: dados de identificação; situação atual da investigação diagnóstica; história familiar; apresentação clínica inicial; alterações laboratoriais. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva Resultados: Incluídos 144 pacientes, sendo 62,5% do sexo masculino. A mediana de idade foi de 2,6 anos e a média de 4,3 ± 4,7 anos. Doze pacientes (8,3%) tiveram o diagnóstico confirmado (três com aminoacidopatias, três com acidemias orgânicas, dois com distúrbios do ciclo da ureia e quatro com doenças de depósito lisossômico). Déficit cognitivo e convulsões foram os sinais e sintomas iniciais; seguidos de retardo de crescimento, atraso do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor, convulsões e hepatomegalia. As principais alterações laboratoriais encontradas foram hiperamonemia e acidose metabólica. Conclusões: O diagnóstico dos EIM ainda traz desafios à prática pediátrica. Neste estudo foram identificados os seguintes fatores: dificuldade de acesso aos exames laboratoriais específicos, reduzido número de especialistas e pouca difusão do conhecimento nas faculdades da área da saúde. O diagnóstico precoce dos EIM tem impacto fundamental no tratamento e prevenção das sequelas, devendo ser considerado já nas hipóteses diagnósticas iniciais.


ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the initial clinical presentation of confirmed cases of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) at a reference facility for pediatric care. Methods: Cross-sectional, observational and descriptive study with data collection of outpatients, from January 2009 to December 2013. Inclusion criterion: referral to IEM investigation. Exclusion criterion: prior diagnosis of IEM. Analyzed variables: identification data; status of diagnostic investigation; family history of IEM; initial clinical presentation, laboratory abnormalities related to the hypothesis of IEM. Descriptive statistical methods were used in the data analysis. Results: We included 144 patients in the study, of which 62.5% were male. The mean and median ages were, respectively, 4.3 ± 4.7 years and 2.6 years. Twelve patients (8.3%) had a confirmed diagnosis of IEM (three with aminoacidopathies, three with organic acidemias, two with urea cycle disorders and four with lysosomal storage diseases). Cognitive impairment and seizures were the initial signs and symptoms, followed by growth retardation, neuropsychomotor developmental delay, seizures and hepatomegaly. The main laboratory abnormalities in the diagnosis were hyperammonemia and metabolic acidosis. Conclusions: The diagnosis of IEM still creates challenges to the pediatric practice. In this study, we identified the following factors: difficulty to access specific laboratory tests, reduced number of experts and poor dissemination of knowledge among healthcare schools. The early diagnosis of IEM majorly impacts the treatment and prevention of sequelae and should be considered in the initial diagnostic hypotheses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/diagnosis , Referral and Consultation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, Pediatric
17.
Genet. mol. biol ; 40(1): 31-39, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-892370

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) comprise a heterogeneous group of more than 50 genetic conditions of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) caused by a defect in lysosomal function. Although there are screening tests for some of these conditions, diagnosis usually depends on specific enzyme assays, which are only available in a few laboratories around the world. A pioneer facility for the diagnosis of IEM and LSDs was established in the South of Brazil in 1982 and has served as a reference service since then. Over the past 34 years, samples from 72,797 patients were referred for investigation of IEM, and 3,211 were confirmed as having an LSD (4.41%, or 1 in 22), with 3,099 of these patients originating from Brazil. The rate of diagnosis has increased over time, in part due to the creation of diagnostic networks involving a large number of Brazilian services. These cases, referred from Brazilian regions, provide insight about the relative frequency of LSDs in the country. The large amount of data available allows for the estimation of the minimal frequency of specific LSDs in Brazil. The reported data could help to plan health care policies, as there are specific therapies available for most of the cases diagnosed.

18.
Clin. biomed. res ; 37(4): 330-333, 2017. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-876699

ABSTRACT

Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA). Limitations such as the need for weekly injections, high morbidity and mortality, and high cost of current treatments show that new approaches to treat this disease are required. In this study, we aimed to correct fibroblasts from a patient with MPS I using non-viral gene therapy. Using a plasmid encoding the human IDUA cDNA, we achieved stable high IDUA levels in transfected fibroblasts up to 6 months of treatment. These results serve as proof of concept that a non-viral approach can correct the enzyme deficiency in cells of patients with lysosomal storage disorders, which can be used as a research tool for a series of disease aspects. Future studies should focus on showing if this approach can be useful in small animals and clinical trials (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Fibroblasts/enzymology , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Vectors , Iduronidase/metabolism , Mucopolysaccharidosis I/therapy , DNA, Complementary , Genetic Therapy/methods , Iduronidase/genetics , Mucopolysaccharidosis I/genetics , Plasmids/genetics , Transfection/methods
19.
J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 5: e160048, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090934

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Interest in screening methods for lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) has increased in recent years, since early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent or attenuate the onset of symptoms and the complications of these diseases. In the current work, we evaluated the performance of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the detection of some LSDs, aiming the future use of this methodology for the screening of these disorders. Methods: Standard curves and quality control dried blood spots were assayed to evaluate the precision, linearity, and accuracy. A total of 150 controls were grouped according to age and subjected to measurement of lysosomal enzymes deficient in Niemann-Pick A/B, Krabbe, Gaucher, Fabry, Pompe, and Mucopolysaccharidosis type I diseases. Samples from 59 affected patients with a diagnosis of LSDs previously confirmed by fluorimetric methods were analyzed. Results: Data from standard calibration demonstrated good linearity and accuracy and the intra- and interassay precisions varied from 1.17% to 11.60% and 5.39% to 31.24%, respectively. Except for galactocerebrosidase and ?-l-iduronidase, enzyme activities were significantly higher in newborns compared to children and adult controls. Affected patients presented enzymatic activities significantly lower compared to all control participants. Conclusion: Our results show that MS/MS is a promising methodology, suitable for the screening of LSDs, but accurate diagnoses will depend on its correlation with other biochemical and/or molecular analyses.

20.
Arch. venez. pueric. pediatr ; 79(4): 127-131, dic. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-838652

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad de Gaucher es un trastorno de herencia autosómica recesiva y la enfermedad de depósito lisosomal más frecuente causada por deficiencia de la actividad enzimática de la β-Glucosidasa. Objetivo: establecer valores de referencia de actividad enzimática lisosomal de β-glucosidasa y quitotriosidasa en lactantes en población Venezolana. Método: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo y transversal en 98 lactantes sanos con edades comprendidas entre 1 mes y 24 meses, de ambos sexos (48 femeninos y 50 masculinos). La actividad enzimática de β-glucosidasa y quitotriosidasa fue determinada en gotas de sangre seca (siglas en inglés, DBS) siguiendo el protocolo propuesto por Chamoles y col. El análisis estadístico de los datos se realizó con el programa estadístico SPSS Statistics 17.0 para Windows. Resultados: El rango de actividad enzimática para la β-Glucosidasa obtenido en esta investigación fue 2,3 - 12 nmol/ml/h, con una media de 6,7 ± 2,5 y para la Quitotriosidasa 0 - 44,2 nmol/ml/h con una media de 18,4 ± 10,4 nmol/ml/h, utilizando discos de papel de filtro de 3mm de diámetro con sangre seca (aproximadamente 3,6 μl de sangre). Conclusión: Los valores de referencia de actividad enzimática lisosomal en DBS para β-glucosidasa y quitotriosidasa son establecidos por vez primera en lactantes sanos venezolanos; no obstante, estos resultados difieren con los reportados en estudios internacionales, recomendándose la determinación de valores de referencias autóctonos en diferentes grupos etarios.


Gaucher´s Disease is an autosomal recessive disorder and the most common lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of β-glucosidase enzyme activity. Objetive: to establish reference values for lysosomal enzyme activity of β-glucosidase and chitotriosidase in Venezuelan infants. Methods:A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 98 healthy infants with ages ranging from 1 month to 24 months (48 females and 50 males). Enzymatic activity of β-glucosidase and chitotriosidase were determined in dried blood spots (DBS) following the protocol by Chamoles et al. Statistical analysis of data was performed with software SPSS 17.0 for Windows Statistics. Results: The range of enzymatic activity for β-glucosidase was 2.3 to 12 nmol/ml/h, with an average of 6.7 ± 2.5. Chitotriosidase activity was from 0 to 44.2 nmol/ml/h with an average of 18.4 ± 10.4 using 3mm diameter discs of filter paper with dried blood (approximately 3.6 μl of blood). Conclusions: The reference values of lysosomal enzyme activity in DBS for β-Glucosidase and quitotriosidase were established for the first time in healthy Venezuelan infants; however, these results differ from those reported in international studies, for which reason autochthonous reference values should be determined in different age groups.

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