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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180473, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990445


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Candidiasis is the most frequent opportunistic mycosis in humans and can cause mortality, particularly in immunodeficient patients. One major concern is the increasing number of infections caused by drug-resistant Candidas trains, as these cannot be efficiently treated with standard therapeutics. The most common mechanism of fluconazole resistance in Candida is mutation of ERG11, a gene involved in the biosynthesis of ergosterol, a compound essential for cell integrity and membrane function. METHODS: Based on this knowledge, we investigated polymorphisms in the ERG11 gene of 3 Candida species isolated from immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. In addition, we correlated the genetic data with the fluconazole susceptibility profile of the Candida isolates. RESULTS: A total of 80 Candida albicans, 8 Candida tropicalis and 6 Candida glabrata isolates were obtained from the saliva of diabetic, kidney transplant and immunocompetent patients. Isolates were considered susceptible to fluconazole if the minimum inhibitory concentration was lower than 8 μg/mL. The amino acid mutations F105L, D116E, K119N, S137L, and K128T were observed in C. albicans isolates, and T224C and G263A were found in C. tropicalis isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high number of polymorphisms observed, the mutations occurred in regions that are not predicted to interfere with ergosterol synthesis, and therefore are not related to fluconazole resistance.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic/drug effects , Candida/drug effects , Candida/genetics , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Kidney Transplantation , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Saliva/microbiology , Candida/isolation & purification , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics , Immunocompetence , Middle Aged , Mutation/drug effects
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(7): 417-422, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787553


Yeasts of the genus Candida have high genetic variability and are the most common opportunistic pathogenic fungi in humans. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity among 120 isolates of Candida spp. obtained from diabetic patients, kidney transplant recipients and patients without any immune deficiencies from Paraná state, Brazil. The analysis was performed using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and a partial sequence of 28S rDNA. In the phylogenetic analysis, we observed a consistent separation of the species C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis, however with low intraspecific variability. In the analysis of the C. albicans species, two clades were formed. Clade A included the largest number of isolates (91.2%) and the majority of isolates from GenBank (71.4%). The phylogenetic analysis showed low intraspecific genetic diversity, and the genetic polymorphisms between C. albicans isolates were similar to genetic divergence found in other studies performed with isolates from Brazil. This low genetic diversity of isolates can be explained by the geographic proximity of the patients evaluated. It was observed that yeast colonisation was highest in renal transplant recipients and diabetic patients and that C. albicans was the species most frequently isolated.

Humans , Male , Female , Candida/genetics , Candidiasis, Invasive/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Genetic Variation , Kidney Transplantation , Brazil/epidemiology , Candida/classification , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis, Invasive/classification , Candidiasis, Invasive/epidemiology , Candidiasis, Invasive/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Complications , DNA, Fungal/analysis , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 58(1): 54-60, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-735819


The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a padlock probe based on the Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA), which targeted to 16S-23S rDNA region of S. mutans. The specificity of developed padlock probe was tested for DNA within a panel strains, including S. mutans isolated from the saliva and reference strains of the genus Streptococcus, as well as total DNA samples of biofilm and saliva. The results were positive either for DNA samples of S. mutans or DNA samples recovered from the biofilm and saliva revealing the specificity of designed padlock probe. The padlock probe based on the RCA was proved to be an effective, reproducible method for S. mutans detection and demonstrated the possibility of a rapid detection and accurate identification of S. mutans infection.

Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 52(5): 1063-1073, Sept.-Oct. 2009. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-536380


RAPD markers were used to investigate the distribution of genetic variability among a group of Guignardia citricarpa, G. mangiferae, and Phyllosticta spinarum isolates obtained from several hosts in Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Costa Rica, Thailand, Japan, United States and South Africa. Pathogenic isolates G. citricarpa Kiely (anamorph form P. citricarpa McAlp Van Der Aa) are the etiological agent of the Citrus Black Spot (CBS), a disease that affects several citric plants and causes substantial injuries to the appearance of their fruits, thus preventing their export. Several previous studies have demonstrated the existence of an endophytic species with high morphological similarity to the causal agent of CBS that could remain latent in the same hosts. Consequently, the identification of the plants and fruits free from the causal agent of the disease is severely hampered. The RAPD analysis showed a clear discrimination among the pathogenic isolates of G. citricarpa and endophytic isolates (G. mangiferae and P. spinarum). In addition, a Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCO) based on a matrix of genetic similarity estimated by the RAPD markers showed four clusters, irrespective of their host or geographical origin. An Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) indicated that 62.8 percent of the genetic variation was found between the populations (G. citricarpa, G. mangiferae, P. spinarum and Phyllosticta sp.). Substantial variation was found in the populations (37.2 percent). Exclusive RAPD markers of isolates of G. citricarpa were cloned, sequenced and used to obtain SCARS (Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions), which allowed the development of new specific primers for the identification of G. citricarpa PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis using a pair of primers specific to pathogenic isolates corroborating the groupings obtained by the RAPD markers, underscoring its efficiency in the identification of the causal agent of CBS.

Marcadores de RAPD foram utilizados para investigar a distribuição da variabilidade genética de linhagens de Guignardia citricarpa, G. mangiferae, e Phyllosticta spinarum isolados em diversos hospedeiros no Brasil, Argentina, México, Costa Rica, Tailândia, Japão, EUA e África do Sul. O fungo Guignardia citricarpa Kiely (Phyllosticta citricarpa McAlp Van Der Aa) é o agente causal da Mancha Preta dos Citros (CBS), uma doença que afeta diversas plantas cítricas, causando dano a aparência dos frutos, prejudicando a exportação. Diversos estudos têm demonstrado a existência de uma espécie endofítica muito semelhante morfologicamente a G. citricarpa, e que permanece de forma endofítica no mesmo hospedeiro. Dificultando assim, a identificação de plantas e frutos livres do agente causa da CBS. A análise do perfil de RAPD revelou uma clara discriminação entre isolados patogênicos de G. citricarpa e isolados endofíticos (G. mangiferae e P. spinarum). A Análise de Coordenadas Principais (PCO) baseada na matriz de similaridade genética dos marcadores RAPD, demonstrou a formação de quatro grupos, sem relação com origem geográfica ou com hospedeiros utilizados. A análise de Variância de Marcadores Moleculares (AMOVA) indicou que 62,8 por cento da variação genética é encontrada entre as populações (G. citricarpa, G. mangiferae, P. spinarum and Phyllosticta sp.). Entretanto, variação substancial foi encontrada dentro destas populações (37,2 por cento). Bandas de RAPD exclusivas de isolados de G. citricarpa foram clonadas, sequenciadas e utilizadas na obtenção de SCARS (Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions), que permitiram o desenvolvimento de novos primers específicos para a identificação de G. citricarpa. Reações de PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) utilizando este par de primers corroboraram os agrupamentos obtidos pelos marcadores de RAPD, revelando sua eficiência na identificação do agente causal da CBS.

Braz. j. microbiol ; 38(4): 729-735, Oct.-Dec. 2007. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-473489


The detection of Streptococcus mutans isolates with high genetic variability in different individuals indicates the occurrence of transmissibility. In this context, nine low-income families (40 individuals in total) with similar social conditions were assessed to identify the bioserotypes of S. mutans using both biochemical and RAPD markers and to establish the degree of similarity among the intra-familial isolates. The polymorphism analysis used the coefficient of Jaccard in both a Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCO) and in a UPGMA clustering method. A total of 157 isolates were obtained from salivary samples, using the morphology of colonies recovered using MSB agar as indicators. From those, 64 were characterized biochemically as S. mutans and 10 as S. sombrinus. Genetic variability among isolates based on RAPD markers was not consistent with their intra-familial distribution. In particular, some individuals might have experienced multiple infections given the high genetic variability among their isolates. The occurrence of 4 isolates with 100 percent genetic similarity is indicative of intra-familial transmission.

A detecção de isolados de S. mutans com alta similaridade genética em indivíduos diferentes, sugere a existência de transmissibilidade. Neste contexto, nove famílias (40 indivíduos) de baixo poder aquisitivo com condições sociais homogêneas foram avaliadas, visando identificar os biosorotipos de S. mutans por meio de bioquimismo e marcadores RAPD e estabelecer o grau de similaridade entre os isolados intra-familiar. Para a análise de polimorfismo utilizou-se coeficiente de Jaccard, análise de coordenadas principais (PCO) e método "UPGMA". Foram obtidos 157 isolados, a partir de amostras salivares, usando como indicador a morfologia das colônias recuperadas em ágar MSB. Destes, 64 foram caracterizados bioquimicamente como S. mutans e 10 como S. sobrinus. A partir dos marcadores RAPD verificou-se variabilidade genética entre isolados, sendo diferente a distribuição intra-familiar destes. Em determinados indivíduos podem ter ocorrido infecções múltiplas, devido a grande variabilidade dos isolados. A existência de quatro isolados apresentando 100 por cento de similaridade, sugeriu transmissão intra-familiar.