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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830276

ABSTRACT

Background@#The analgesic effect of perineural opioid in clinical practice are still controversial. This randomized controlled trial compared analgesic effect of ropivacaine with fentanyl or ropivacaine alone for continuous femoral nerve block following unilateral total knee arthroplasty. @*Methods@#Fourty patients of ASA PS Ⅰ or Ⅱ receiving total knee arthroplasty with spinal anesthesia were enlisted and randomly allocated into two groups. Group R; bolus injection of 0.375% ropivacaine, 30 ml and an infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine at 8 ml/h (n = 20). Group RF; 0.375% ropivacaine, 29 ml added with 50 μg of fentanyl as a bolus and an infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine mixed with 1 μg/ml of fentanyl at 8 ml/h (n = 20). Local anesthetic infusion via a femoral nerve catheter was started at the end of operation and continued for 48 h. Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with hydromorphone (0.15 mg/ml, 0-1-10) were used for adjuvant analgesics. Position of catheter tip and contrast distribution, visual analog scale of pain, hydromorphone consumption, side effects were recorded for 48 h after operation. Patient satisfaction for the pain control received were noted. @*Results@#The pain visual analogue scale, incidences of side effects and satisfaction were not different between the two groups (P > 0.05), but the hydromorphone usage at 48 h after operation were lower in the Group RF than in the Group R (P = 0.047). @*Conclusions@#The analgesic effect of ropivacaine with fentanyl for continuous femoral nerve block after knee replacement arthroplasty was not superior to that of the ropivacaine alone.

2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 735-741, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762112

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The most common method of monitoring cardiac output (CO) is thermodilution using pulmonary artery catheter (PAC), but this method is associated with complications. Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a non-invasive CO monitoring technique. This study compared the accuracy and efficacy of ICG as a non-invasive cardiac function monitoring technique to those of thermodilution and arterial pressure contour. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients undergoing liver transplantation were included. Cardiac index (CI) was measured by thermodilution using PAC, arterial waveform analysis, and ICG simultaneously in each patient. Statistical analysis was performed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis to assess the degree of agreement. RESULTS: The difference by thermodilution and ICG was 1.13 L/min/m², and the limits of agreement were −0.93 and 3.20 L/min/m². The difference by thermodilution and arterial pressure contour was 0.62 L/min/m², and the limits of agreement were −1.43 and 2.67 L/min/m². The difference by arterial pressure contour and ICG was 0.50 L/min/m², and the limits of agreement were −1.32 and 2.32 L/min/m². All three percentage errors exceeded the 30% limit of acceptance. Substantial agreement was observed between CI of thermodilution with PAC and ICG at preanhepatic and anhepatic phases, as well as between CI of thermodilution and arterial waveform analysis at preanhepatic phase. Others showed moderate agreement. CONCLUSION: Although neither method was clinically equivalent to thermodilution, ICG showed more substantial correlation with thermodilution method than with arterial waveform analysis. As a non-invasive cardiac function monitor, ICG would likely require further studies in other settings.


Subject(s)
Arterial Pressure , Cardiac Output , Cardiography, Impedance , Catheters , Electric Impedance , Humans , Liver Transplantation , Methods , Pulmonary Artery , Thermodilution
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the increasing demand for general anesthesia for endoscopic esophageal procedures, anesthesiologists should understand the clinical characteristics of post-procedural complications (PPCs). METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the incidence of and risk factors associated with PPCs of endoscopic esophageal procedures performed under general anesthesia from July 2013 to November 2016. The final analysis included 129 patients; 114 who underwent esophageal endoscopic dissection for esophageal tumors and 15 cases of peroral endoscopic myotomy for achalasia. Frank perforation during the procedure was defined as an endoscopically recognizable or clinically detected perforation during the procedures. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify independent risk factors for PPCs. RESULTS: The overall incidence of PPCs was 19.4% (25/129). All of the PPCs were managed successfully with conservative measures. The most common PPC was symptomatic, radiologically documented atelectasis (11/25, 44.0%), followed by esophageal perforation-related PPCs (symptomatic pneumomediastinum or pneumoperitoneum; 9/25, 36.0%). In the multivariable analysis, frank perforation during the procedure was the only independent risk factor for PPCs (odds ratio, 8.470, 95% CI, 2.051–34.974, P = 0.003). Although frank perforation during the procedure occurred in 13 patients, 38.5% (5/13) of them did not develop any clinical sequelae after their procedures. Compared with patients without PPCs, patients who developed PPCs took longer to their first oral intake and had prolonged hospital stays (P = 0.047 and 0.026, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Iatrogenic perforation during endoscopic esophageal procedures under general anesthesia was the only independent risk factor for PPCs; therefore, proactive measures and close follow-up are necessary.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Esophageal Achalasia , Esophagus , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Length of Stay , Logistic Models , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumoperitoneum , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-191314

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the features that predict size increase and development of potential malignant features in incidentally detected, unilocular cystic pancreatic lesions (CPLs) less than 3 cm in diameter, during subsequent follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrieved data of patients diagnosed with unilocular CPLs less than 3 cm in diameter during the period from November 2003 through December 2014, using a computerized search. All serial CT and MR images were analyzed to identify the number, size, and location of CPLs; dilatation of the main pancreatic duct; and occurrence of worrisome features and high-risk stigmata of malignancy in the lesion. The characteristics of CPLs were compared between the increase (i.e., size increase during subsequent follow-up) and no-increase groups. For CPLs in the increase group, subgroup analysis was performed according to the lesion size at the last follow-up (< 3 cm vs. ≥ 3 cm). RESULTS: Among 553 eligible patients, 132 (23.9%) had CPLs that increased in size, and 421 (76.1%) had CPLs that did not, during follow-up. Of the 132, 12 (9.1%) CPLs increased to diameters ≥ 3 cm at the final follow-up. Among the various factors, follow-up duration was a significant independent factor for an interval size increase of CPLs (p < 0.001). In the increase group, initial cyst size was a significant independent factor to predict later size increase to or beyond 3 cm in diameter (p < 0.001), and the initial cyst diameter ≥ 1.5 cm predicted such a growth with a sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 72%, respectively. No significant factors to predict the development of potential malignant features were identified. CONCLUSION: Follow-up duration was associated with an interval size increase of CPLs. Among the growing CPLs, initial cyst size was associated with future lesion growth to and beyond 3 cm.


Subject(s)
Christianity , Dilatation , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Pancreas , Pancreatic Cyst , Pancreatic Ducts , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136415

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is widely performed these days as the standard procedure for the treatment of early gastric cancer. During ESD, insertion and rotation of the scope, air insufflation, incision and hemostasis may provoke pain, which commonly requires either general anesthesia or moderate to deep sedation. Deep sedation precludes the need for general anesthesia, and can help endoscopists speed up the procedure compared to light sedation. But, there are risks of respiratory complication. We report a case of respiratory compromise caused by pneumoperitoneum from unrecognized gastric perforation during ESD under deep sedation.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Deep Sedation , Hemostasis , Insufflation , Pneumoperitoneum , Respiratory Insufficiency , Stomach Neoplasms
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136414

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is widely performed these days as the standard procedure for the treatment of early gastric cancer. During ESD, insertion and rotation of the scope, air insufflation, incision and hemostasis may provoke pain, which commonly requires either general anesthesia or moderate to deep sedation. Deep sedation precludes the need for general anesthesia, and can help endoscopists speed up the procedure compared to light sedation. But, there are risks of respiratory complication. We report a case of respiratory compromise caused by pneumoperitoneum from unrecognized gastric perforation during ESD under deep sedation.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Deep Sedation , Hemostasis , Insufflation , Pneumoperitoneum , Respiratory Insufficiency , Stomach Neoplasms
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-185297

ABSTRACT

To investigate the influence of leukoaraiosis (LA) on the functional outcomes of subcortical stroke in the subacute phase after onset. We retrospectively analyzed 41 patients with subacute subcortical infarct at a single center from 2011 to 2015. We explored the relationship between LA severity at admission/transfer (initial evaluation) and functional outcome at the time of discharge (follow-up evaluation), as assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), Functional Ambulation Category (FAC), and modified Barthel Index (mBI). LA severity was graded as mild, moderate, or severe according to the Fazekas scale. Scores of the mRS, FAC, and mBI were compared in patients grouped based on LA severity: no LA (n = 12), mild LA (n = 19), and moderate-to-severe LA (n = 10). Significant inter-group differences were observed in all 3 scores at both the initial and follow-up evaluations. After adjustment for age, scores at follow-up evaluation were significantly different between the 2 groups. LA is related to functional outcomes of subcortical stroke in the subacute phase after onset. After adjustment for age, severe LA was correlated with poor functional outcomes in the subacute phase.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Infarction , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Leukoaraiosis , Retrospective Studies , Stroke , Walking
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21267

ABSTRACT

Green discoloration of the urine after propofol administration is a rare clinical phenomenon. Although the exact incidence of propofol-induced green urine is not known, the reported incidence is thought to be less than 1%. In most reported cases of propofol-induced green urine, the clinical effects were benign and reversible. However, many clinicians are unfamiliar with this rare side effect of propofol. Here, we present the case of a patient who showed green urine following two-staged repair of a thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with propofol infusion. His urine had a normal yellowish color after the first operation, but appeared green immediately after the second surgery. Because propofol is a commonly used sedative agent, knowing that green urine can be attributed to propofol administration and that its clinical effect is mostly benign will help clinicians with patient management, as such knowledge will also reduce unnecessary concerns and laboratory tests.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic , Humans , Incidence , Propofol
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a need for investigating the analgesic method as part of early recovery after surgery tailored for laparoscopic colorectal cancer (LCRC) surgery. In this randomized trial, we aimed to investigate the analgesic efficacy of an inverse ‘v’ shaped bilateral, subfascial ropivacaine continuous infusion in LCRC surgery. METHODS: Forty two patients undergoing elective LCRC surgery were randomly allocated to one of two groups to receive either 0.5% ropivacaine continuous infusion at the subfascial plane (n = 20, R group) or fentanyl intravenous patient controlled analgesia (IV PCA) (n = 22, F group) for postoperative 72 hours. The primary endpoint was the visual analogue scores (VAS) when coughing at postoperative 24 hours. Secondary end points were the VAS at 1, 6, 48, and 72 hours, time to first flatus, time to first rescue meperidine requirement, rescue meperidine consumption, length of hospital stay, postoperative nausea and vomiting, sedation, hypotension, dizziness, headache, and wound complications. RESULTS: The VAS at rest and when coughing were similar between the groups throughout the study. The time to first gas passage and time to first rescue meperidine at ward were significantly shorter in the R group compared to the F group (P = 0.010). Rescue meperidine was administered less in the R group; however, without statistical significance. Other study parameters were not different between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Ropivacaine continuous infusion with an inverse ‘v ’ shaped bilateral, subfascial catheter placement showed significantly enhanced bowel recovery and analgesic efficacy was not different from IV PCA in LCRC surgery.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled , Anesthetics, Local , Catheters , Colorectal Neoplasms , Colorectal Surgery , Cough , Dizziness , Fentanyl , Flatulence , Headache , Humans , Hypotension , Laparoscopy , Length of Stay , Meperidine , Methods , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , Wounds and Injuries
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With a rapidly aging population, more elderly patients are being hospitalized than before. Thus, a comprehensive geriatric assessment medium is needed to carefully evaluate geriatric patients. The author's university hospital has a geriatric medicine team to where patients are referred for comprehensive evaluations. Their services will be introduced here. METHODS: From December 2010 to January 2012, the team performed comprehensive geriatric assessments comprising of a thorough review of systems, physical examination, and surveys, and reviewed past medical records of the elderly hospitalized patients aged 65 or over, referred from the Department of Orthopedics. RESULTS: Of total 58 patients, 4 patients (6.9%) had severe dysfunction in the activities of daily living with the score of 16 or higher. Twenty-two patients (73.3%) had cognitive impairment or dementia upon assessing cognitive function after excluding those previously diagnosed with dementia or those within 5 days after surgery, thus predisposed to delirium who had tested mini mental state examination for cognitive function level test. Fifteen patients (31.3%) had mild depression, while four (8.3%) had moderate depression; and 37 patients (67.3%) were at moderate risk and five (9.1%) were at high risk for developing delirium. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive evaluation of the functional status of elderly hospitalized patients was helpful in detecting medical problems other than the initial diagnosis. A significant proportion of the elderly patients we assessed were suspected to have cognitive impairment.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Aging , Delirium , Dementia , Depression , Diagnosis , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Inpatients , Medical Records , Orthopedics , Physical Examination
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164519

ABSTRACT

In addition to its well-known glycolytic activity, GAPDH displays multiple functions, such as nuclear RNA export, DNA replication and repair, and apoptotic cell death. This functional diversity depends on its intracellular localization. In this study, we explored the signal transduction pathways involved in the nuclear translocation of GAPDH using confocal laser scanning microscopy of immunostained human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs). GAPDH was present mainly in the cytoplasm when cultured with 10% FBS. Serum depletion by culturing cells in a serum-free medium (SFM) led to a gradual accumulation of GAPDH in the nucleus, and this nuclear accumulation was reversed by the re-addition of serum or growth factors, such as PDGF and lysophosphatidic acid. The nuclear export induced by the re-addition of serum or growth factors was prevented by LY 294002 and SH-5, inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt/protein kinase B, respectively, suggesting an involvement of the PI3K signaling pathway in the nuclear export of GAPDH. In addition, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), stimulated the nuclear translocation of GAPDH and prevented serum- and growth factor-induced GAPDH export. AMPK inhibition by compound C or AMPK depletion by siRNA treatment partially prevented SFM- and AICAR-induced nuclear translocation of GAPDH. Our data suggest that the nuclear translocation of GAPDH might be regulated by the PI3K signaling pathway acting mainly as a nuclear export signal and the AMPK signaling pathway acting as a nuclear import signal.

12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-213921

ABSTRACT

A 63-year-old woman was admitted due to right upper quadrant abdominal pain. She was going through hemodialysis due to end stage renal disease and taking calcium polystyrene sulfonate orally and rectally due to hyperkalemia. Colonoscopy showed a circular ulcerative mass on the proximal ascending colon. Biopsy specimen from the mass showed inflammation and necrotic debris. It also revealed basophilic angulated crystals which were adherent to the ulcer bed and normal mucosa. These crystals were morphologically consistent with calcium polystyrene sulfonate. She was diagnosed with calcium polystyrene phosphate induced colonic necrosis and improved with conservative treatment.


Subject(s)
Colonic Diseases/chemically induced , Colonoscopy , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Middle Aged , Necrosis , Polystyrenes/adverse effects
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