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An. bras. dermatol ; 94(2,supl.1): 56-66, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011090


Abstract: Background: Urticarias are frequent diseases, with 15% to 20% of the population presenting at least one acute episode in their lifetime. Urticaria are classified in acute ( ≤ 6 weeks) or chronic (> 6 weeks). They may be induced or spontaneous. Objectives: To verify the diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), according to the experience of Brazilian experts, regarding the available guidelines (international and US). Methods: A questionnaire was sent to Brazilian experts, with questions concerning diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations for CSU in adults. Results: Sixteen Brazilian experts answered the questionnaire related to diagnosis and therapy of CSU in adults and data were analyzed. Final text was written, considering the available guidelines (International and US), adapted to the medical practices in Brazil. Diagnostic work up in CSU is rarely necessary. Biopsy of skin lesion and histopathology may be indicated to rule out other diseases, such as, urticarial vasculitis. Other laboratory tests, such as complete blood count, CRP, ESR and thyroid screening. Treatment of CSU includes second-generation anti-histamines (sgAH) at licensed doses, sgAH two, three to fourfold doses (non-licensed) and omalizumab. Other drugs, such as, cyclosporine, immunomodulatory drugs and immunosuppressants may be indicated (non-licensed and with limited scientific evidence). Conclusions: Most of the Brazilian experts in this study partially agreed with the diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations of the International and US guidelines. They agreed with the use of sgAH at licensed doses. Increase in the dose to fourfold of sgAH may be suggested with restrictions, due to its non-licensed dose. Sedating anti-histamines, as suggested by the US guideline, are indicated by some of the Brazilian experts, due to its availability. Adaptations are mandatory in the treatment of CSU, due to scarce or lack of other therapeutic resources in the public health system in Brazil, such as omalizumab or cyclosporine.

Humans , Adult , Urticaria/diagnosis , Urticaria/drug therapy , Consensus , Societies, Medical , Urticaria/prevention & control , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Chronic Disease , Anti-Allergic Agents/therapeutic use , Cyclosporins/therapeutic use , Histamine H1 Antagonists, Non-Sedating/therapeutic use , Dermatology , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(2,supl.1): 67-75, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011092


Abstract: BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis is a highly prevalent inflammatory and pruritic dermatosis with a multifactorial etiology, which includes skin barrier defects, immune dysfunction, and microbiome alterations. Atopic dermatitis is mediated by genetic, environmental, and psychological factors and requires therapeutic management that covers all the aspects of its complex pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article is to present the experience, opinions, and recommendations of Brazilian dermatology experts regarding the therapeutic management of atopic dermatitis. METHODS: Eighteen experts from 10 university hospitals with experience in atopic dermatitis were appointed by the Brazilian Society of Dermatology to organize a consensus on the therapeutic management of atopic dermatitis. The 18 experts answered an online questionnaire with 14 questions related to the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Afterwards, they analyzed the recent international guidelines on atopic dermatitis of the American Academy of Dermatology, published in 2014, and of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, published in 2018. Consensus was defined as approval by at least 70% of the panel. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: The experts stated that the therapeutic management of atopic dermatitis is based on skin hydration, topical anti-inflammatory agents, avoidance of triggering factors, and educational programs. Systemic therapy, based on immunosuppressive agents, is only indicated for severe refractory disease and after failure of topical therapy. Early detection and treatment of secondary bacterial and viral infections is mandatory, and hospitalization may be needed to control atopic dermatitis flares. Novel target-oriented drugs such as immunobiologicals are invaluable therapeutic agents for atopic dermatitis.

Humans , Consensus , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Societies, Medical , Ultraviolet Therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Administration, Topical , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Dermatology , Calcineurin Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(3): 405-411, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949868


Abstract: Infantile hemangioma can be linked to other organ malformations. In 1996, PHACE syndrome was first defined as the association of large and segmental infantile hemangioma, usually on the face, head, or cervical region, with malformations of the posterior fossa of the brain, arterial anomalies of the central nervous system, coarctation of the aorta, cardiac defects, and ocular abnormalities. Over 300 cases of PHACE syndrome have been reported, and it is cconsidered one of the most common neurocutaneous vascular disorders in childhood. Knowledge of the features and locations of lesions that imply a greater risk of systemic involvement is crucial for the diagnosis and proper management of PHACE syndrome patients. This review highlights the diagnostic criteria for PHACE syndrome, the imaging workup for extracutaneous involvement, the treatment of infantile hemangioma, and the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in the management of these patients.

Humans , Aortic Coarctation/diagnosis , Facial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Eye Abnormalities/diagnosis , Neurocutaneous Syndromes/diagnosis , Hemangioma/diagnosis , Aortic Coarctation/complications , Aortic Coarctation/diagnostic imaging , Propranolol/therapeutic use , Brain/abnormalities , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Facial Neoplasms/drug therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Eye Abnormalities/complications , Eye Abnormalities/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology , Neurocutaneous Syndromes/complications , Neurocutaneous Syndromes/diagnostic imaging , Face/diagnostic imaging , Hemangioma/drug therapy , Infant
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(2): 172-180, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887196


Abstract: Gnathostomiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the third larval stage of nematodes of the genus Gnathostoma. The disease is endemic in some countries around the world. In the American continent, the majority of cases is concentrated in Mexico, Ecuador, and Peru. However, due to increasing traveling either at the intercontinental or intracontinental level, the disease is seen each time more frequently in tourists. Furthermore, countries, such as Brazil, that have never been considered endemic are reporting autochthonous cases. The disease usually presents as a deep-seated or slightly superficial migratory nodule in patients with history of eating raw fish, in the form of ceviche, sushi, or sashimi. Along with the clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria include either blood or tissue eosinophilia. In most instances, these criteria are enough for the attending physician to institute therapy. Chances of finding the parasite are low, unless the biopsy is taken from a very specific area that develops after antiparasitic treatment is started. The potential of other organ involvement with more serious consequences should always be kept in mind.

Humans , Animals , Skin/parasitology , Skin Diseases, Parasitic/pathology , Gnathostomiasis/pathology , Peru , Skin/pathology , Skin Diseases, Parasitic/diagnosis , Biopsy , Brazil , Food Parasitology , Gnathostomiasis/diagnosis , Dermatologists , Gnathostoma
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 20(4): 714-726, Out.-Dez. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-898629


ABSTRACT: Introduction: The Family Health Strategy (FHS) should be first-contact care in the Brazilian Health System. However, Primary Health Care (PHC) still encompasses two models: the FHS and the traditional health care facilities. The expansion of the FHS has been slow and heterogeneous in many cities, rendering a comparative evaluation of key quality-related elements of PHC models crucial. Objective: To compare the performance of PHC models as perceived by health professionals. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving managers and health professionals from PHC of a medium-size city in South-eastern Brazil. Data were collected by applying the Primary Care Assessment Tool. The performance was estimated through primary health care indexes (general and partial PHCI by attributes). Univariate polytomous logistic regression was performed to compare care model performances according to their attributes. Strength of association was estimated by odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Results: Three managers and 81 health professionals participated in the study. The FHS had a better index rating than the traditional care model for general PHCI and for the attributes longitudinality, comprehensiveness, family focus and professional level. Conclusion: Although the FHS attained higher scores compared to the traditional model, it has not yet achieved the performance expected. This scenario points to the need for increased FHS cover and quality improvements at the existing units.

RESUMO: Introdução: A Estratégia de Saúde da Família (ESF) deve ser o primeiro contato do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Contudo dois modelos de atenção operam concomitantemente no âmbito da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS): a ESF e o modelo tradicional. A expansão da ESF tem sido lenta e heterogênea em muitos municípios, tornando fundamental a condução de avaliações comparativas de atributos relacionados à qualidade dos modelos da APS. Objetivo: Comparar o desempenho dos modelos de atenção da APS de acordo com a percepção dos profissionais de saúde. Métodos: Estudo transversal com gestores e profissionais de saúde da APS do município de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais. Dados foram coletados por meio do Primary Care Assessment Tool. O desempenho dos modelos foi estimado por meio do Índice de Atenção Primária à Saúde (IAPS geral e específico). Regressão logística politômica univariada foi conduzida para comparação do desempenho dos modelos da APS de acordo com os atributos. A força da associação foi estimada por meio do odds ratio com intervalo de confiança de 95%. Resultados: Três gestores e 81 profissionais de saúde participaram do estudo. A ESF obteve melhor avaliação do que o modelo tradicional com relação ao IAPS geral e aos atributos vínculo, elenco de serviços, enfoque familiar e formação profissional. Conclusão: A ESF obteve escores superiores aos do modelo tradicional, entretanto ainda não atingiu o seu desempenho esperado. Esse cenário aponta para a necessidade de ampliação da cobertura da ESF e para a melhoria da qualidade das unidades de ESF existentes no Brasil.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Primary Health Care , Attitude of Health Personnel , Family Health , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Models, Theoretical , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Middle Aged
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(2): 200-205, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838037


Abstract: Background: Large congenital melanocytic nevus (LCMN) is considered a risk factor for melanoma, although the magnitude of this risk is controversial. Objective: To evaluate the risk of melanoma development in patients with LCMN seen at a dermatology referral center in Brazil during a twelve-year period. To the best of our knowledge, there are no published similar studies on large congenital melanocytic nevus in South America. Methods: Our prospective cohort included only patients with congenital nevi ≥20cm. The cumulative risk of developing melanoma and the standardized morbidity ratio were calculated for patients followed up prospectively for at least 1 month. Results: Sixty-three patients were enrolled in this study. One patient who developed melanoma prior to enrollment was excluded, and five were eliminated because of insufficient follow-up time. Mean follow-up for the remaining 57 patients was 5.5 years (median 5.2 years). Median age of entry into the study was 2.6 years. Most patients (75.4%) underwent only clinical observation. Melanomas occurred in 2 (3.5%) patients. Five-year cumulative risk for melanoma was 4.8% (95% CI: 1.9-11.5%). Standardized morbidity ratio was 1584 (95% CI: 266-5232, p<0.001). Study limitations: The small sample size reduces the accuracy of risk estimates. Conclusions: This study analyzed prospectively for the first time data from South America demonstrating that patients with LCMN have a higher risk of developing melanoma than the general population (p<0.001).

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Skin Neoplasms/etiology , Melanoma/etiology , Nevus, Pigmented/complications , Referral and Consultation , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Nevus, Pigmented/congenital
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(3): 378-380, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787300


Abstract: CLOVES syndrome is a rare, newly described, and relatively unknown syndrome, related to somatic mutations of the PIK3CA gene. Clinical findings include adipose tissue overgrowth, vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, scoliosis, and spinal deformities. This report deals with a characteristic phenotype case, highlighting peculiar cutaneous and radiological changes.

Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Vascular Malformations/diagnosis , Lipoma/diagnosis , Musculoskeletal Abnormalities/diagnosis , Nevus/diagnosis , Abnormalities, Multiple/diagnosis , Abnormalities, Multiple/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Adipose Tissue/abnormalities , Vascular Malformations/diagnostic imaging , Photograph , Lipoma/diagnostic imaging , Musculoskeletal Abnormalities/diagnostic imaging , Nevus/diagnostic imaging
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(6): 807-813, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769514


Abstract: BACKGROUND: There have been few studies on pentamidine in the Americas; and there is no consensus regarding the dose that should be applied. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of pentamidine in a single dose to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS: Clinical trial of phase II pilot study with 20 patients. Pentamidine was used at a dose of 7 mg/kg, in a single dose. Safety and adverse effects were also assessed. Patients were reviewed one, two, and six months after the end of treatments. RESULTS: there was no difference between the treatment groups in relation to gender, age, number or location of the lesions. Pentamidine, applied in a single dose, obtained an effectiveness of 55%. Mild adverse events were reported by 17 (85%) patients, mainly transient pain at the site of applications (85%), while nausea (5%), malaise (5%) and dizziness (5%) were reported in one patient. No patient had sterile abscess after taking medication at a single dose of 7mg/kg. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical studies with larger samples of patients would enable a better clinical response of pent amidine at a single dose of 7mg, allowing the application of more powerful statistical tests, thus providing more evidences of the decrease in the effectiveness of that medication. Hence, it is important to have larger studies with new diagrams and/or new medications.

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Benzamidines/administration & dosage , Leishmania guyanensis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Phenyl Ethers/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Benzamidines/adverse effects , Blood Glucose/analysis , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Pilot Projects , Phenyl Ethers/adverse effects , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
An. bras. dermatol ; 89(5): 735-744, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720798


BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease and its pathogenesis involves an interaction between genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. Recent studies have suggested that the chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis may predispose to an association with other inflammatory diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. OBJECTIVES: To describe the demographic, clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics of a sample of psoriasis patients; to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities in this group of patients; and to identify the cardiovascular risk profile using the Framingham risk score. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving the assessment of 190 patients. Participants underwent history and physical examination. They also completed a specific questionnaire about epidemiological data, past medical history, and comorbidities. The cardiovascular risk profile was calculated using the Framingham risk score. RESULTS: Patients' mean age was 51.5 ± 14 years, and the predominant clinical presentation was plaque psoriasis (78.4%). We found an increased prevalence of systemic hypertension, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Increased waist circumference was also found in addition to a considerable prevalence of depression, smoking, and regular alcohol intake. Patients' cardiovascular risk was high according to the Framingham risk score, and 47.2% of patients had moderate or high risk of fatal and non-fatal coronary events in 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: Patients had high prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities, and high cardiovascular risk according to the Framingham risk score. Further epidemiological studies are needed in Brazil for validation of our results. .

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Psoriasis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , /epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Distribution , Smoking/epidemiology
An. bras. dermatol ; 88(6,supl.1): 150-153, Nov-Dec/2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-696783


Pyoderma gangrenosum is an uncommon and recurrent neutrophilic dermatosis of unknown cause. The lesions usually start as tender sterile papulopustules or erythematous nodules that undergo necrosis followed by ulceration. The lower limbs are most commonly affected and around half of the cases are associated with systemic disorders. Although rare, cases of pyoderma gangrenosum with extramucocutaneous sterile neutrophilic infiltrate have been reported, with the lungs being the most commonly affected organ. We report a case of pyoderma gangrenosum with splenic and renal impairment. Pyoderma gangrenosum should be considered a multisystemic disease with classic cutaneous manifestations and potential involvement of internal organs.

Pioderma gangrenoso é uma dermatose neutrofílica incomum, recorrente e de etiologia desconhecida. As lesões geralmente se iniciam como papulopústulas estéreis ou nódulos eritematosos que sofrem necrose seguida de ulceração. Os membros inferiores são mais comumente afetados e quase a metade dos casos está associada a doenças sistêmicas. Apesar de raros, casos de pioderma gangrenoso com infiltrado neutrofílico estéril extramucocutâneo foram relatados e os pulmões são os órgãos mais comumente acometidos. Nós relatamos um caso de manifestação esplênica e renal do pioderma gangrenoso. Pioderma gangrenoso deve ser considerado doença multissistêmica com manifestações cutâneas clássicas e potencial envolvimento de órgãos internos.

Female , Humans , Young Adult , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Pyoderma Gangrenosum/pathology , Splenic Diseases/pathology , Biopsy , Kidney Diseases/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Necrosis , Pyoderma Gangrenosum/complications , Splenic Diseases/complications
An. bras. dermatol ; 88(6): 1001-1003, Nov-Dec/2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-698991


Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare, clinically heterogeneous desease. Since there is considerable clinical overlap among the four described variants (Hand-Schüller-Christian, eosinophilic granuloma, Letterer-Siwe and Hashimoto-Pritzker), the concept of spectral disease applies to this entity. The Hashimoto-Pritzker variant was first described in 1973. Characteristically, it is present at birth or during the first days of life, impairment is limited to the skin and prognosis is favorable with spontaneous resolution. We report a newborn male patient with Hashimoto-Pritzker disease presenting as a S100 + and CD1a + single congenital perianal lesion with rapid involution in two months.

A histiocitose de células de Langerhans é doença rara, clinicamente heterogênea. Como há considerável sobreposição clínica entre as quatro variantes descritas (Hand-Schüller-Christian, granuloma eosinofílico, Letterer-Siwe e Hashimoto-Pritzker), o conceito de doença espectral aplica-se a esta entidade. A variante de Hashimoto-Pritzker foi descrita em 1973. Classicamente, está presente ao nascimento ou nos primeiros dias de vida, acomete exclusivamente a pele e o prognóstico é favorável, com regressão espontânea. Relatamos caso de paciente recém-nascido, masculino, com doença de Hashimoto-Pritzker, que se apresenta com positividade para S100 e CD1a, observando-se lesão congênita única perianal com involução rápida em dois meses.

An. bras. dermatol ; 88(6): 863-878, Nov-Dec/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699013


Giant congenital melanocytic nevus is usually defined as a melanocytic lesion present at birth that will reach a diameter ≥ 20 cm in adulthood. Its incidence is estimated in <1:20,000 newborns. Despite its rarity, this lesion is important because it may associate with severe complications such as malignant melanoma, affect the central nervous system (neurocutaneous melanosis), and have major psychosocial impact on the patient and his family due to its unsightly appearance. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus generally presents as a brown lesion, with flat or mammilated surface, well-demarcated borders and hypertrichosis. Congenital melanocytic nevus is primarily a clinical diagnosis. However, congenital nevi are histologically distinguished from acquired nevi mainly by their larger size, the spread of the nevus cells to the deep layers of the skin and by their more varied architecture and morphology. Although giant congenital melanocytic nevus is recognized as a risk factor for the development of melanoma, the precise magnitude of this risk is still controversial. The estimated lifetime risk of developing melanoma varies from 5 to 10%. On account of these uncertainties and the size of the lesions, the management of giant congenital melanocytic nevus needs individualization. Treatment may include surgical and non-surgical procedures, psychological intervention and/or clinical follow-up, with special attention to changes in color, texture or on the surface of the lesion. The only absolute indication for surgery in giant congenital melanocytic nevus is the development of a malignant neoplasm on the lesion.

O nevo melanocítico congênito gigante é, geralmente, definido como lesão melanocítica presente ao nascimento e que atinge, no mínimo, 20 cm de diâmetro na vida adulta. Sua incidência é estimada em menos de 1:20.000 recém-nascidos. Contudo, apesar de sua raridade, possui importância tanto por estar associado a complicações graves, como o melanoma maligno e o acometimento do sistema nervoso central (melanose neurocutânea), quanto pelo grande impacto psicossocial que ocasiona no paciente e nos familiares, devido a seu aspecto comumente inestético. O nevo congênito gigante, geralmente, apresenta-se como lesão acastanhada, plana ou elevada, de bordas bem definidas e com hipertricose, e seu diagnóstico é eminentemente clínico. Do ponto de vista histológico, porém, os nevos melanocíticos congênitos são diferenciados dos nevos adquiridos, principalmente pelo seu tamanho maior, pela disseminação das células névicas para as camadas mais profundas da pele e pela sua arquitetura e morfologia mais variadas. O nevo congênito gigante é considerado fator de risco para o desenvolvimento do melanoma. Todavia, a real incidência de malignização ainda é controversa. Estima-se que o risco de melanoma ao longo da vida esteja entre 5 e 10%. Diante dessas incertezas e do tamanho das lesões, a abordagem do nevo gigante representa um desafio e deve ser individualizada. O tratamento pode incluir procedimentos cirúrgicos ou não cirúrgicos, intervenções psicológicas e/ou acompanhamento clínico, com atenção a mudanças de coloração, superfície ou textura do nevo. Considera-se que a única indicação absoluta para a intervenção cirúrgica é o surgimento de uma neoplasia maligna sobre a lesão.

Humans , Male , Female , Skin Neoplasms/congenital , Melanoma/congenital , Nevus, Pigmented/congenital , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/therapy , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Disease Progression , Melanoma/pathology , Melanoma/therapy , Nevus, Pigmented/pathology , Nevus, Pigmented/therapy
An. bras. dermatol ; 88(3): 344-353, jun. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676225


BACKGROUND: The incidence of melanoma has been steadily rising in past decades. Although it accounts for only 3% of all skin cancers, it is responsible for 75% of deaths. OBJECTIVE: to describe the epidemiological aspects of melanoma in a university hospital setting over a period of 20 years. METHODS: A total of 166 patients were analyzed between January 1990 and January 2010 for clinical and histological variables and correlations between them. A 5% level of significance was adopted. RESULTS: The majority of patients were Caucasians (74%), females (61%), with a mean age at diagnosis of 55. The predominant histological type was lentigo maligna/lentigo maligna melanoma (35.7%) and the head and neck was the most affected site (30.7%). Among non-Caucasians, the acral region was the most affected. Most tumors were in situ (41.1%). Growth of the lesion was the most frequent complaint (58.1%) and bleeding was most frequently associated with melanomas with a depth > 4mm. There were seven deaths (4.2%), with a high risk among men, non-Caucasians and those under 20 years of age, with a Breslow's depth > 2mm, with lentiginous acral melanoma and with a history of growth and bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Our sample differs from most of the studies in the predominant location (head and neck), histological type (lentigo maligna/ lentigo maligna melanoma) and a major risk of death under the age of 20, which could be with a reflex of regional variation. Broader studies are necessary for validation of the results. .

FUNDAMENTOS: A incidência do melanoma cutâneo aumentou nas últimas décadas. Embora represente 3% dos tumores cutâneos, é responsável por 75% dos óbitos. O diagnóstico precoce constitui a principal chance de cura. OBJETIVO: Descrever os aspectos epidemiológicos do melanoma em hospital universitário em 20 anos. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 166 pacientes no período de janeiro de 1990 a janeiro de 2010, quanto s variáveis epidemiológicas, histológicas e óbitos relacionados ao melanoma e suas correlações. Adotou-se nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes era brancos (74%), mulheres (61%), com média de idade ao diagnóstico de 55 anos. O tipo histológico predominante foi o lentigo maligno/lentigo maligno melanoma (35,7%) e a localização mais frequente foi a cabeça e o pescoço (30,7%). Entre os não-brancos, a região acral foi a mais acometida. Quanto espessura tumoral, a maioria dos melanomas era in situ (41,1%). O crescimento da lesão foi a queixa mais frequente (58%) e o sangramento foi mais associado a melanomas espessos. Ocorreram sete óbitos (4,2%), com maior risco de morte em menores de 20 anos e naqueles com história de sangramento, após análise multivariada. CONCLUSÃO: Esta casuística difere da maioria dos estudos em relação localização (cabeça e pescoço), ao tipo histológico (lentigo maligno/lentigo maligno melanoma) e ao maior risco de óbito em menores de 20 anos, o que pode ser devido variação regional. Estudos mais amplos são necessários para validação destes resultados. .

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Melanoma/epidemiology , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Brazil/epidemiology , Early Diagnosis , European Continental Ancestry Group , Hospitals, Teaching , Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle/epidemiology , Incidence , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Skin Pigmentation , Time Factors
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(supl.1): 13-16, Dec. 2012. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-659734


The introduction, implementation, successes and failures of multidrug therapy (MDT) in all Hansen's disease endemic countries are discussed in this paper. The high efficacy of leprosy treatment with MDT and the global reduction of prevalence led the World Health Organization, in 1991, to establish the goal of elimination of Hansen's disease (less than 1 patient per 10,000 inhabitants) to be accomplished by the year 2000. Brazil, Nepal and East Timor are among the few countries that didn't reach the elimination goal by the year 2000 or even 2005. The implications of these aspects are highlighted in this paper. Current data from endemic and previously endemic countries that carry a regular leprosy control programme show that the important fall in prevalence was not followed by the reduction of the incidence. This means that transmission of Mycobacterium leprae is still an issue. It is reasonable to conclude that we are still far from the most important goal of Hansen's disease control: the interruption of transmission and reduction of incidence. It is necessary to emphasize to health managers the need of keeping Hansen's disease control activities to better develop control programmes in the future. The recent international proposal to interrupt the transmission of leprosy by the year 2020 seems to unrealistic and it is discussed in this paper. The possibility of epidemiological impact related to the human immunodeficiency virus/Hansen's disease coinfection is also considered.

Humans , Leprosy/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/prevention & control , Incidence , Leprostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Leprosy/drug therapy , Leprosy/prevention & control , Prevalence
An. bras. dermatol ; 87(3): 491-492, May-June 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-638548


An 80-year-old Caucasian male patient was referred for evaluation of a rapidly growing, asymptomatic, erythematous nodule measuring 2 cm in diameter on his left cheek. The lesion had been present for four months. Dermoscopy revealed a homogeneous pink background with polymorphous telangiectatic vessels. Histopathology showed tumors in the deep dermis and subcutis composed of round cells with scant cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for CK20 confirming the diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma.

Paciente de 80 anos, branco, sexo masculino, encaminhado para avaliação de nódulo eritematoso de 2 cm, assintomático, de crescimento rápido, localizado na região malar esquerda, com quatro meses de evolução. À dermatoscopia visualizou-se fundo homogêneo róseo com telangiectasias polimorfas. O exame anatomopatológico revelou massas tumorais atingindo a derme profunda e o subcutâneo, compostas por células arredondadas, de citoplasma escasso. A imunohistoquímica foi positiva para CK20, confirmando o diagnóstico de carcinoma de células de Merkel.

Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Carcinoma, Merkel Cell/pathology , Facial Neoplasms/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Cheek , /analysis , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis