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1.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 39(1): 16-23, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115445

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: El reemplazo protésico de la válvula tricúspide es un procedimiento infrecuente, con elevada mortalidad y morbilidad operatoria, independientemente de la etiología de la insuficiencia tricuspídea. Persiste aún una discusión respecto al tipo de prótesis a utilizar, mecánica o biológica. OBJETIVO: Analizar nuestros resultados perioperatorios y alejados en el reemplazo valvular tricuspídeo, comparando ambos tipos de prótesis. MÉTODO: Revisión de la Base de Datos de nuestro Servicio de Cirugía Cardiovascular para el periodo enero 1991 - diciembre 2017. Identificados los pacientes con reemplazo valvular tricuspídeo (RVT); se revisaron los protocolos operatorios y los ecocardiogramas. La supervivencia se certificó a través del Registro Civil e Identificación de Chile. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 83 pacientes con RVT (76% mujeres), los que representaron el 0,7% del total de las cirugías con circulación extracorpórea y el 2,1% de las cirugías valvulares para el periodo en estudio. La edad promedio fue 49±16,5 años. Cuarenta y nueve casos (59%) correspondieron a reoperaciones y otros 49 tuvieron un procedimiento asociado. En 40 pacientes (48%) se utilizó una prótesis mecánica y en 43 (52%) una biológica. La mortalidad operatoria global fue 9,6% (8 pacientes, 4 con una prótesis mecánica y 4 con una biológica). El seguimiento se completó en el 100%, con un promedio de 7,1 años. Veintiocho pacientes fallecieron durante el seguimiento; la principal causa fue insuficiencia cardiaca. Así, la supervivencia a 5 años fue 70,3 ± 5,3% y a 10 años 58 ± 6,3%, sin diferencia significativa entre ambos tipos de prótesis. Siete pacientes se reoperaron durante el seguimiento (5 casos con prótesis biológica y 2 mecánica). CONCLUSIÓN: El RVT continúa siendo un procedimiento infrecuente, con mayor incidencia en mujeres, en la quinta década de la vida. La mayoría de los pacientes presentaba comorbilidad y había tenido cirugía cardiovascular previa. La mitad de estos recibió una prótesis mecánica y la otra, biológica. No hubo diferencias significativas entre ambos tipos de prótesis en cuanto a mortalidad operatoria, supervivencia alejada o reoperación.


BACKGROUND: Tricuspid valve replacement (TVR) is an uncommon surgical procedure, associated with high mortality and morbidity. The use of biological or mechanical prostheses in TVR has advantages and disadvantages and, therefore, there persists a debate regarding the choice of one or other type of prostheses. AIM: To analyze our operative and long-term surgical results, comparing both types of prosthetic valves. METHODS: The Data Base of the Cardiovascular Surgery Service was reviewed for the period between January 1991 and December 2017. 83 patients with TVR were identified, the operative notes and echocardiogram reports were analyzed. Survival was obtained from the Chilean Civil Identification Service. RESULTS: 83 patients (76% women) had TVR. They represented 0.7% of the total cases operated on with extracorporeal circulation and 2.1% of all valve disease cases, for the study period. Mean age was 49±16.5 years. 49 cases (59%) were reoperations and another 49 had an associated procedure. In 40 patients (48%) a mechanical prosthesis was used and in 43 (52%) a biological one was implanted. Operative mortality rate was 9.6% (8 patients, had a mechanical valve and the other 8, a biological one). Follow-up was 100% completed, with an average of 7.1 years. 28 patients died during follow-up; the main cause of death was heart failure. Five-year survival rate was 70.3 ± 5.3% and at 10 years it was 58 ± 6.3%, without significant difference the type of prostheses. Seven patients were re-operated during follow-up (5 cases corresponded to a biological prostheses and 2 to a mechanical one). CONCLUSION: TVR is still an infrequent surgical procedure, more commonly performed in women, on the fifth decade of life. Most patients presented comorbidities and had a previous cardiovascular surgical operation. Half of them received a mechanical prosthesis and half a biological one. There was no significant difference between both types of prostheses related to surgical mortality, long-term survival or reoperation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Tricuspid Valve/surgery , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Extracorporeal Circulation , Reoperation , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/etiology , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/mortality , Bioprosthesis , Comorbidity , Survival Analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/statistics & numerical data
2.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 35(1): 11-22, ene.-mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894334

ABSTRACT

Resumen El embolismo de líquido amniótico es una complicación seria y potencialmente mortal del embarazo, la cual es considerada imprevenible e impredecible. La mayoría de los casos ocurren durante la labor de parto, sin embargo hasta un tercio ocurren en el postparto inmediato. Su presentación es abrupta y se cree se debe a una respuesta anormal ante el paso de tejido fetal a la circulación materna, a través del sitio de inserción de la placenta. Ante la ausencia de criterios diagnósticos establecidos o pruebas de laboratorio específicas, los signos y síntomas clásicos como hipoxia, hipotensión y coagulopatía, en ausencia de otra explicación, conforman el diagnóstico clínico. Estos deben ser rápidamente identificados y tratados por parte de un equipo multidisciplinario, con el fin de reducir la morbilidad y mortalidad materna.


Abstract Amniotic fluid embolism is a serious and life-threatening complication of pregnancy, it is considered unpreventable and unpredictable, most cases occur during labor, however up to a third occur in immediate postpartum, its presentation is abrupt and is believed to be due to an abnormal response to the passage of fetal tissue to maternal circulation through the insertion site of the placenta. Due to the lack of established diagnostic criteria or specific laboratory tests, classic signs and symptoms such as hypoxia, hypotension and coagulopathy, in the absence of another explanation, make up the clinical diagnosis, these must be quickly identified and treated by a multidisciplinary team, in order to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy , Maternal Mortality , Embolism , Embolism, Amniotic Fluid , Heart Arrest , Amniotic Fluid , Hypoxia
3.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 35(1): 23-29, ene.-mar. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894335

ABSTRACT

Resumen La endometriosis es una enfermedad inflamatoria benigna, dependiente de estrógeno, que se caracteriza por la presencia de glándulas y estroma endometrial en un sitio distinto a la cavidad uterina. Las principales teorías sobre su patogénesis involucran la menstruación retrograda, La metaplasia del epitelio germinal, y la diseminación metastásica. Las lesiones típicamente se localizan en la pelvis; en ovarios, ligamentos uterosacros y saco de Douglas, sin embargo también pueden encontrarse fuera de esta. La enfermedad ocasiona un cuadro clínico variado que involucra dismenorrea, dispareunia, dolor pélvico e infertilidad. Su diagnóstico definitivo ES quirúrgico. El tratamiento médico es solo sintomático y no curativo, mientras que el quirúrgico pese a ser curativo, presenta variables tasas de recurrencia. Las técnicas de reproducción asistida mejoran significativamente las tasas de nacimientos en caso de infertilidad asociada a la enfermedad.


Abstract Endometriosis is a benign, estrogen dependent, inflammatory disease, which is characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma in a site different from the uterine cavity. The main theories about it's pathogenesis involve retrograde menstruation, metaplasia of the germinal epithelium, and metastatic spread. The lesions are typically located in the pelvis; in ovaries, utero sacral ligaments and Douglas pouch, but can also have an extra pelvic location. This disease has a variable clinical presentation that involves dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, pelvic pain and infertility. It's definitive diagnosis is surgical. Medical treatment is only symptomatic and non-curative, while the surgical treatment despite being curative has important recurrence rates. Assisted reproduction techniques are very useful to improve birth rates in case of infertility associated with the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pelvic Pain , Aromatase Inhibitors , Dysmenorrhea , Dyspareunia , Endometriosis/diagnosis , Endometriosis/pathology , Endometriosis/epidemiology
4.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 35(1): 30-43, ene.-mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894336

ABSTRACT

Resumen La enfermedad trofoblástica gestacional engloba un conjunto de patologías con potencial maligno y neoplásicas propiamente, las cuales pueden ser adquiridas tras la gestación. Aunque estos tumores abarcan menos del 1% de los tumores ginecológicos, representan una amenaza para la vida de las mujeres en edad reproductiva. Es importante que los médicos comprendan su etiología, evolución natural y manejo, debido a su alto potencial de curación con la posibilidad de preservar la función reproductiva si se diagnostica a tiempo y se trata adecuadamente según sus criterios de riesgo y pronóstico.


Abstract The gestational trophoblastic disease englobes a set of neoplastic pathologies and pathologies with malignant potential, which can be acquired after gestation. Even though these tumors include less than 1% of gynecological tumors, they represent a threat to the life of women in reproductive age. It is important that physicians understand its etiology, natural evolution and control. If it is diagnosed on time and treated appropriately according to its risk and prognosis criteria, there's a high healing potential including the ability of preserving reproductive function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Trophoblasts , Choriocarcinoma , Hydatidiform Mole , Hydatidiform Mole, Invasive , Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
5.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 35(1): 65-74, ene.-mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894339

ABSTRACT

Resumen El síndrome de muerte súbita del lactante es la principal causa de muerte infantil post neonatal en los países desarrollados. El mismo se caracteriza por una muerte repentina e inexplicable de un infante menor a un año. La compleja interacción de múltiples factores en su patogénesis se ilustra con la teoría del triple riesgo, la cual involucra un infante vulnerable en un periodo crítico de su desarrollo ante un factor de riesgo externo. Por medio de educación a los cuidadores y padres se ha documentado una disminución importante en su incidencia, aunque la misma continúa siendo muy alta.


Abstract Sudden infant death syndrome is the leading cause of post neonatal infant death in the developed countries. It is characterized for the sudden and unexplained death of an infant younger than one year old. The interaction of multiple factors in its pathogenesis is illustrated by the triple risk theory, which involves a vulnerable infant at a critical moment of its development facing an external risk factor. Through education to caregivers and parents a drop in incidence has been documented, although it is still very high.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Sudden Infant Death , Infant, Newborn , Cause of Death , Infant Death
6.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 88(3): 367-376, jun. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899989

ABSTRACT

El trasplante cardiaco pediátrico es una terapia efectiva para tratar la insuficiencia cardiaca avanzada. Objetivos: Analizar los resultados inmediatos y a mediano plazo de niños enlistados para trasplante cardiaco. Pacientes y Método: Se analizó el registro de pacientes enlistados para trasplante, entre octubre de 2001 y julio de 2016, analizando datos demográficos, diagnósticos, status de enlistamiento, tiempo de espera, datos de donantes, uso de asistencia ventricular, complicaciones y mortalidad. Resultados: La serie abarca 30 pacientes con edad promedio de 9,4 años (1 mes a 15 años). El diagnóstico principal fue miocardiopatía dilatada en 24 pacientes (80%). El status de ingreso fue I (urgencia) en 19 casos y II (no urgencia) en 11. Fallecieron 10 en la lista de espera (33,3%) en un promedio de 52 días (13 a 139 días). Catorce pacientes fueron trasplantados (46.7%), con un tiempo de espera de 199,6 días (4 a 586 días). Requirieron asistencia ventricular 9 pacientes (30%). Todos recibieron inmunosupresión tri asociada. Un paciente falleció a los 16 días por falla primaria del injerto (7,1%). El seguimiento promedio fue de 43 meses (0,5 a 159 meses). Dos pacientes fallecieron alejadamente (55 y 82 meses) por rechazo secundario al abandono de tratamiento inmunosupresor. La supervivencia a 1 y 5 años fue 93% y 74%, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Nuestro programa ha trasplantado al 50% de los pacientes enlistados con buena supervivencia a mediano plazo. Una proporción significativa de pacientes se enlistó con carácter de urgencia y un 34.5% de los pacientes fallecieron en la lista de espera.


Pediatric heart transplantation is an effective therapy to treat advanced heart failure in children. Objectives: To analyze the immediate and mid-term results of pediatric patients listed for heart transplantation. Patients and Methods: Registration of patients admitted to our transplant protocol between October 2001 and July 2016 were reviewed, analyzing demographic data, diagnosis, status at the time of listing, waiting time until transplantation, donor data, use of ventricular assist device, hemodynamic data, complications and global mortality. Results: Thirthy patients where included with a mean age of 9.4 years (1 month to 15 years). The most frequent diagnosis was dilated cardiomyopathy in 24 patients (80%). The status was I (urgency) in 19 cases and II in 11 cases. Ten patients died on the waiting list (33.3%) at an average of 52 days (13-139 days). Fourteen were transplanted (46.7%), with a waiting time of 199.6 days (4-586 days). Nine patients required mechanical support (30%). All patients received triple association of immunosuppression. One patient died 16 days post transplant due to primary graft failure (7.1%). The average follow-up was 43 months (0.5-159 months). Two patients died later on (82 and 55 months), both due to secondary rejection because of voluntary cessation of immunosuppressive therapy. Survival at 1 and 5 years was 93% and 74%, respectively. Conclusions: Our program has successfully transplanted 50% of patients enrolled, with good medium-term survival. A significant proportion of patients were listed as a medical emergency and 34.5% died on the waiting list.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Heart Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Heart Failure/surgery , Chile , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Waiting Lists/mortality , Heart Transplantation/mortality , Treatment Outcome , Heart Failure/mortality
7.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(12): 1617-1620, dic. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845494

ABSTRACT

We report a 23-year-old woman, with three recent exertional syncopes. Transthoracic (TTE) and transesophageal (TEE) echocardiography found a large heterogeneous mass (38 x 35 mm) arising from the posterior mitral annulus, protruding in systole through the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT). Heart MRI confirmed the echocardiography findings, suggesting a cardiac myxoma. Cardiac surgery accomplished the complete resection of the lesion, confirming a mass arising from the posterior mitral annulus and preserving mitral anatomy and function. Pathology was positive for a myxoma. Uneventful evolution allowed the discharge of the patient at the fifth postoperative day. Control TTE discarded any complication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Syncope/etiology , Heart Neoplasms/complications , Mitral Valve , Myxoma/complications , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Diagnosis, Differential , Heart Neoplasms/diagnosis , Heart Neoplasms/pathology , Myxoma/diagnosis , Myxoma/pathology
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(5): 495-500, oct. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844398

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Surgical site infections (SSI) are an important cause of morbidity in pediatric cardiac surgery. Risk factors in patients requiring delayed sternal closure (DSC) are unknown. Aim: To report the rate of SSI in children undergoing cardiac surgery with DSC and determine the risk factors. Methodology: A retrospective case-control study, in patients younger than 15 years old undergoing cardiac surgery with DSC in our center between 2009 and 2010. SSI was diagnosed according to the criteria of the nosocomial infections committee of our institution, based on international recommendations. Univariate and multivariate analysis of variables was performed. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: 58 patients were included; the average age was 9.5 days. The most frequent diagnosis were transposition of the great arteries (36%) and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (27%). 13 patients had SSI (22%); 11 incisional and 2 mediastinitis. It was independently associated to SSI by-pass (BP) time longer than 200 min (OR adjusted = 9,53; IC 95% 1,37-66,35) and mechanical ventilation (MV) more than 5 days (OR adjusted = 8,98; IC 95% 1,16-69,40). Conclusion: The duration of BP and MV are risk factors of SSI in children undergoing cardiac surgery with DSC.


Introducción: Las infecciones del sitio quirúrgico (ISQ) son importante causa de morbilidad en cirugía cardíaca pediátrica. Los factores de riesgo en pacientes que requieren cierre esternal diferido (CED) se desconocen. Objetivos: Reportar la tasa de ISQ en niños sometidos a cirugía cardíaca con CED y determinar factores de riesgo de ISQ. Metodología: Estudio retrospectivo de casos y controles en pacientes bajo 15 años de edad, sometidos a cirugía cardíaca con CED, en los años 2009 y 2010. Se consideró casos aquellos con ISQ diagnosticada según criterios del comité de IAAS local. Se realizó análisis uni y multivariado de las variables. Se consideró significativo un p < 0,05. Resultados: Se incluyeron 58 pacientes; la mediana de edad fue 9,5 días. Diagnósticos más frecuentes fueron transposición de grandes arterias (36%) e hipoplasia de ventrículo izquierdo (27%). Trece pacientes presentaron ISQ (22%); 11 incisionales y 2 me-diastinitis. Se asociaron de manera independiente a ISQ: circulación extracorpórea (CEC) mayor a 200 min (OR ajustado = 9,53; IC 95% 1,37-66,35) y ventilación mecánica invasora (VMI) más de 5 días (OR ajustado = 8,98; IC 95% 1,16-69,40). Conclusión: La duración de CEC y VMI son factores de riesgo de ISQ en niños sometidos a cirugía cardíaca con CED.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Sternotomy/adverse effects , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods
9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(8): 1020-1028, ago. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-830607

ABSTRACT

Background: Stillbirth is the mayor contributor to perinatal mortality. Aim: To report a system for classification of fetal deaths. Material and Methods: Retrospective cohort study of 29,916 births with 258 fetal deaths that occurred in a public hospital. Data were obtained from audit reports of stillbirths. The method for classification “obstetric condition relevant to the death” was applied, based on obstetric and placental pathological findings analyzed exclusively by a single obstetrician and a single pathologist. Results: Ninety two percent of obstetric conditions causing fetal death were identified. The most commonly reported were ascending bacterial infection in 26%, congenital anomalies in 19%, arterial hypertension in 12% and placental pathology in 12%. Fetal growth restriction was identified in 50% of stillbirths. Ninety percent were secondary to a primary obstetric condition and 10% had an unexplained cause. Placental abruption as the final cause of fetal death was identified in 60% of cases with arterial hypertension, 43% of cases with placental pathology and 37% of ascending infections. Fetal deaths occurred during pregnancy in 82% of cases and during labor in 17%. Intrapartum asphyxia occurred in 0.8% of stillbirths and presented in term pregnancies. Conclusions: The “obstetric condition relevant to the death” method for classification of fetal death is effective to identify the originating obstetric cause of stillbirth and reduces the impact of fetal growth restriction and intrapartum asphyxia as the leading causes of death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Fetal Mortality , Fetal Death , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data , Placenta Diseases/classification , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Congenital Abnormalities/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Maternal Age , Live Birth , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology
10.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 87(2): 121-128, abr. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-783494

ABSTRACT

Resumen El síndrome de hipoplasia de corazón izquierdo (SHCI) es una cardiopatía congénita con letalidad superior al 95%. La etapificación quirúrgica es la principal vía de tratamiento, y se inicia con la operación de Norwood; la sobrevida a largo plazo de los pacientes tratados es desconocida en nuestro medio. Objetivos 1) Revisar nuestra experiencia en el manejo de todos los pacientes con SHCI evaluados entre enero 2000 y junio 2010. 2) Identificar factores de riesgo de mortalidad quirúrgica. Pacientes y método Estudio retrospectivo de una única institución con una cohorte de pacientes con SHCI. Se revisan antecedentes clínicos, quirúrgicos, y registros de seguimiento. Resultados Se evaluaron 76 pacientes con SHCI; 9/76 tenían comunicación interauricular (CIA) restrictiva, y 8/76, aorta ascendente de < 2 mm; 65/76 fueron tratados: 77% tuvieron operación de Norwood con conducto entre ventrículo derecho y ramas pulmonares como fuente de flujo pulmonar, 17% Norwood con shunt de Blalock-Taussig, y 6% otra cirugía. La mortalidad en la primera etapa quirúrgica fue del 23%, y en operación de Norwood, del 21,3%. En el período 2000-2005 la mortalidad en la primera etapa quirúrgica fue del 36%, y entre 2005-2010, del 15% (p = 0,05). La sobrevida global fue del 64% a un año y del 57% a 5 años. Por análisis multivariado fueron factores de riesgo para mortalidad la presencia de aorta ascendente diminuta y CIA restrictiva. Conclusiones Nuestros resultados inmediatos y a largo plazo en la etapificación quirúrgica de SHCI son similares a la experiencia de grandes centros. Hay una mejoría en mortalidad operatoria en la segunda mitad de la serie. Se identifican factores de riesgo de mortalidad.


Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a lethal congenital heart disease in 95% of non-treated patients. Surgical staging is the main form of treatment, consisting of a 3-stage approach, beginning with the Norwood operation. Long term survival of treated patients is unknown in our country. Objectives 1) To review our experience in the management of all patients seen with HLHS between January 2000 and June 2012. 2) Identify risk factors for mortality. Patients and method Retrospective analysis of a single institution experience with a cohort of patients with HLHS. Clinical, surgical, and follow-up records were reviewed. Results Of the 76 patients with HLHS, 9 had a restrictive atrial septal defect (ASD), and 8 had an ascending aorta ≤ 2 mm. Of the 65 out of 76 patients that were treated, 77% had a Norwood operation with pulmonary blood flow supplied by a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit, 17% had a Norwood with a Blalock-Taussig shunt, and 6% other surgical procedure. Surgical mortality at the first stage was 23%, and for Norwood operation 21.3%. For the period between 2000-2005, surgical mortality at the first stage was 36%, and between 2005-2010, 15% (P = .05). Actuarial survival was 64% at one year, and 57% at 5 years. Using a multivariate analysis, a restrictive ASD and a diminutive aorta were high risk factors for mortality. Conclusions Our immediate and long term outcome for staged surgical management of HLHS is similar to that reported by large centres. There is an improvement in surgical mortality in the second half of our experience. Risk factors for mortality are also identified.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome/surgery , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial/surgery , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Aorta/abnormalities , Time Factors , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome/physiopathology , Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome/mortality , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial/physiopathology , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial/mortality
12.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 86(5): 361-365, oct. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-771651

ABSTRACT

Los aneurismas aórticos en la población pediátrica son poco frecuentes. El uso de catéteres de arteria umbilical en neonatos se ha asociado a infección y en algunas oportunidades a formación de aneurismas aórticos. La reparación quirúrgica de estos aneurismas es una forma de terapia; sin embargo, la intervención percutánea con stents pudiese proveer una vía alternativa de tratamiento con menores complicaciones. El objetivo de este reporte es dar a conocer el alcance terapéutico de un procedimiento híbrido, en el que el desarrollo de la técnica quirúrgica y percutánea en conjunto ofrece otra alternativa terapéutica menos invasiva que la cirugía vascular abierta, para la reparación de aneurismas aórticos o de sus ramas principales. Caso clínico: Recién nacido de pretérmino, 30 semanas, peso 1.335 g. Se instaló catéter en arteria umbilicar que se retiró a los 14 días por infección. Evolucionó con sepsis a Staphylococcus aureus. Ecocardiograma y angiotac confirman AAT, se manejó mediante procedimiento híbrido, cirugía e instalación endovascular de 2 stents recubiertos (Atrium V12 XR Medical Corp, Hudson, NH). Los controles clínicos post procedimiento como la ecotomografía abdominal confirmaron el éxito del tratamiento. Conclusión: El procedimiento endovascular de reparación de aneurisma de la aorta en recién nacidos prematuros puede ser considerado en el momento de decir la terapéutica de esta enfermedad y podría evitar los riesgos asociados a cirugía abierta. Sin embargo, obliga a un seguimiento y control durante el crecimiento del paciente por la eventual necesidad de redilatar los stents implantados. Se desconoce cómo será la evolución de los procedimientos endovasculares neonatales en el futuro.


Aortic aneurysms (AA) in the paediatric population are uncommon. The use of umbilical catheters in neonates has been associated with infections and, on some occasions, the formation of aortic aneurysms. The surgical repair of these aneurysms is one type of treatment; however, percutaneous intervention with stents could provide an alternative treatment route, with fewer complications. The aim of this report is to present the therapeutic scope of a hybrid procedure, in which the combined surgical and percutaneous technique offers a less invasive alternative to open surgery for the repair of aortic aneurysms or their main branches. Clinical case: The case concerns a pre-term newborn of 30 weeks weighing 1,335 g. An umbilical catheter was introduced, which was withdrawn at 14 days due to an infection. It developed as Staphylococcus aureus with sepsis. The echocardiogram and Angio-CT confirmed AA, which were managed using a hybrid procedure of surgery and the endovascular implantation of 2 coated stents (Atrium V12 XR Medical Corp, Hudson, NH). The post-procedure clinical follow-ups, including abdominal echo-tomography, confirmed the success of the treatment. Conclusion: The endovascular aortic aneurysm repair procedure in premature newborns may be considered when deciding treatment of this disease, and could avoid the risks associated with open surgery. However, follow-up and monitoring is required while the patient grows up, due to the possibility that the implanted stents require re-dilating. The outcomes of neonatal endovascular procedures in the future are unknown.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/surgery , Catheter-Related Infections/complications , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Staphylococcal Infections/etiology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Umbilical Arteries , Infant, Premature , Stents , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology
13.
Dent. press implantol ; 9(3): 70-77, July-Sept.2015. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-796652

ABSTRACT

Há muitos anos os implantes estão sendo utilizados para reabilitar pacientes edêntulos. Atualmente, há uma grande exigência estética envolvida nessas reabilitações. O objetivo do presente artigo é descrever, por meio do relato de um caso clínico, o tratamento realizado para solucionar a queixa estética de uma paciente que apresentava um implante mal posicionado na região anterior da maxila. A paciente, com 39 anos de idade, compareceu à clínica de Implantodontia do Instituto Latino Americano de Pesquisa e Ensino Odontológico (ILAPEO) relatando insatisfação com o implante da região do elemento 22, que “aparecia ao sorrir”. Após avaliação, verificou-se que o implante estava vestibularizado, com perda óssea, comprometimento dos tecidos moles e com a coroa clínica maior que a do elemento 12. Para a resolução do caso, foi realizada, no primeiro procedimento cirúrgico, a remoção do implante, seguida de enxerto ósseo autógeno na região. Após cinco meses de cicatrização, um novo implante foi instalado e feito enxerto ósseo com GenOx Inorgânico (Baumer - São Paulo, Brasil) na vestibular, para melhorar o contorno. A reabertura foi realizada com técnica de manipulação de tecidos moles, o intermediário foi instalado e a coroa provisória, confeccionada. A paciente foi encaminhada para a clínica de prótese para finalização do caso. Diante das características do caso, a forma de tratamento realizada se mostrou eficaz, uma vez que solucionou a queixa estética da paciente, com previsibilidade e funcionalidade...


For many years the implants are being used to rehabilitate edentulous patients. Currently, there is a great aesthetic requirements involved in these rehabilitations. The purpose of this article is to describe, through the report of a case, the treatment performed to solve the aesthetic complaint from a patient with a poorly positioned implant in the anterior maxilla. The patient, 39 years old, attended the clinic Implantology of the Latin American Institute of Research and Dental Education (ILAPEO) reporting dissatisfaction with the implant of the element 22 region, which "appeared to smile." After evaluation, it was found that the implant was buccally with bone loss, breakdown of soft tissue and the greater the clinical crown element 12. For the resolution of the case, was carried out, the first surgical procedure, removal of the implant followed by autogenous bone graft in the region. After five months of healing, a new implant was installed and made bone graft with GenOx Inorganic (Baumer - São Paulo, Brazil) in the entrance exam to improve the contour. The reopening was performed with soft tissue manipulation technique has been installed intermediate and provisional crown made. The patient was referred to the clinic prosthesis for completion of the case. Before the case characteristics, the form of treatment performed was effective, since resolved the aesthetic complaint of patient, predictability and functionality...


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Alveolar Bone Loss , Bone Transplantation , Crowns , Dental Implantation, Endosseous , Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported , Dental Implantation/adverse effects , Esthetics, Dental , Free Tissue Flaps , Patient Care Planning
14.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 34(3): 196-201, 2015. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-775488

ABSTRACT

Reportes internacionales han descrito el mayor uso de recursos de salud por parte de los pacientes adultos con cardiopatía congénita (CC). Objetivo: Describir el uso de recursos de salud por parte de esta población en términos de frecuencia de controles médicos, consultas a servicio de urgencia, hospitalizaciones y procedimientos realizados. También se buscó explorar la frecuencia de control odontológico y la indicación de profilaxis de endocarditis como una medida de calidad de atención. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo de corte transversal, analítico e individual en pacientes controlados en el Instituto Nacional del Tórax, durante el período 2014-2015. Los pacientes respondieron una encuesta en forma autónoma. Se realizó análisis por grupos según sexo y tipo de CC según el consenso de Bethesda (simple, moderada o compleja). El análisis estadístico se realizó a través del programa SPSS. Resultados: Se recolectaron 363 encuestas válidas que correspondieron a 180 hombres (49,6%) y con una edad promedio de 29,2±13,3 años. Según el tipo de CC: simple 78 pacientes (21,5%), moderada 161 (44,4%) y compleja 124 (34,2%). 296 pacientes (84,6%) tuvieron el último control médico hace menos de un año. 151 pacientes (41,6%) han consultado una o más veces al servicio de urgencia. 76 pacientes (20,9%) han sido hospitalizados una o más veces y 54 pacientes (14,9%) se han realizado uno o más procedimientos en el último año. En el análisis por tipo de CC no se encontraron diferencias significativas en ninguno de los parámetros evaluados. En el análisis según sexo, se observó que las mujeres consultan más al servicio de urgencia que los hombres (48,1% vs 35%, p<0,05). En cuanto a salud oral, 122 pacientes (33,6%) no ha realizado un control odontológico hace más de 1 año y de aquellos pacientes que asistieron al dentista, 165 de ellos (45,5%) no recibió profilaxis antibiótica para endocarditis en su última atención. Conclusiones: Los adultos con CC reportan una demanda de recursos de salud expresada en controles médicos, consultas de urgencia, hospitalizaciones y procedimientos, que aparentemente no es sólo por factores relacionados a sus patologías. Es necesario elaborar estrategias de atención en salud para responder a las necesidades de esta creciente población y que permitan un uso razonable de recursos. Es perentorio estimular el control periódico dental y la profilaxis de endocarditis.


A greater use of health resources by adults with congenital heart disease has been reported in international studies. Aim: to describe the use of health resources by adults with CHD in Chile including frequency of medical controls, emergency consultations, hospitalization and medical procedures. Dental consultations and prophylaxis for infective endocarditis were also evaluated Methods: a cross sectional analytic study was per-formed on patients with CHD followed in the Instituto Nacional del Tórax, Santiago, Chile, during 2014 and 2015. Patients were asked to answer a questionnaire and data was analyzed according to gender, and type of CHD (Bethesda classification). Statistics were computed using SPSS. Results: Valid answers were obtained from 363 sub-jects, 180 males (49.6%). Mean age was 20.2 ± 13.3 years. 78 patients (21.5%) had simple, 161 (44.4%) moderate and 124 (34.2%) severe CHD. 296 (84.6%) patients had a medical control within the last year. 151 (41.6%) had attended a medical emergency service > 1 occasion, 76 (20.9% had >= 1 hospitalizations and 54 (14.9%) had been subjected to a medical procedure related to their CHD. Women had more medical controls than males (48,1% vs 35%, p<0,05). 122 (33.6%) had no dental control in the last year and 45% of those attending had no prophylaxis for IE Conclusión: Adults with CHD use health resources including medical visits, hospitalizations and procedures, apparently not all of them related to their CHD. Strategies to optimize use of health resources should be designed. Emphasis on dental controls and prophylaxis for infective endocarditis is needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Health Services Needs and Demand/statistics & numerical data , Heart Defects, Congenital/therapy , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Dental Care , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Age and Sex Distribution , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization
15.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 142(2): 246-249, feb. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-710994

ABSTRACT

Acute primary tricuspid regurgitation (TR) secondary to papillary muscle rupture is an extremely rare clinical situation. We report a 42-year-old male with pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) secondary to HIV infection, who presented with an acute TR due to spontaneous papillary muscle rupture. He remained in cardiogenic shock despite therapy with inotropic drugs and pulmonary vasodilator therapy. He was subjected to a tricuspid valve replacement. In the postoperative period the patient had severe PAH, which was successfully controlled with inhaled nitric oxide. Tricuspid valve replacement and adjunctive use of pulmonary vasodilator therapy can be a life saving and useful approach in this condition.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , HIV Infections/complications , Heart Valve Diseases/etiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Papillary Muscles , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Tricuspid Valve , Rupture, Spontaneous/etiology
16.
ImplantNews ; 11(4): 444-450, 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-730888

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: determinar se a quantidade da pré-carga influencia a resistência ao destorque do parafuso e pilar de duas peças com junção cone-morse indexada. Material e métodos: foram utilizados 60 análogos de implantes conexão tipo cone-morse de 11,5° com indexador hexagonal e 60 munhões universal cone-morse parafuso passante (4,5 mm de diâmetro, 2,5 mm de altura cinta de transmucoso e 4 mm de altura, não indexados), divididos em três grupos segundo o torque aplicado: 15 Ncm (G1); 20 Ncm (G2) e 25 Ncm (G3). A análise de variância fator único (Anova) e o teste LSD foram usados para as comparações entre os grupos (nível de significância 5%). Imagens em MEV foram realizadas na cabeça do parafuso e na chave de aplicação de torque. Resultados: os valores médios para os destorques dos parafusos foram: G1=17,48 Ncm, G2=21,16 Ncm e G3=26,42 Ncm, com diferencas estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,001) entre todos os grupos. Os valores médios para os destorques nos pilares foram: G1=15,17 Ncm, G2=19,58 Ncm e G3=21,64 Ncm, sendo (G1 e G2) e (G1 e G3) (p < 0,001); e G2 e G3 (p=0,02). Conclusão: 1) o aumento do torque no parafuso gerou valor médio aumentado do destorque em todos os grupos; 2) o aumento do torque gerou valor médio de destorque equivalente ao torque inicial dado para o G1 e G2, sendo este aumento menor no G3; 3) torques maiores do que os indicados pelo fabricante foram capazes de promover a deformação plástica na cabeça do parafuso após apertos repetidos


Objectives: to determine whether the applied preload influences on detorque resistance of abutment and abutment screw of a two-piece, indexed cone-morse taper connection. Material and methods: Sixty implant analogs (cone-morse taper=11,5 degrees) with internal hexagonal indexing and sixty cone morse universal abutments (4.5 mm diameter, 2.5 mm collar height, and 4 mm in height, non-indexed), were divided into three groups according to applied torques: 15 Ncm (G1); 20 Ncm (G2), and 25 Ncm (G3). The one-way Anova and LSD tests were used for comparisons among groups (at 5% level). Representative SEM images were obtained from screw heads and key drivers. Results: mean detorque abutment screw values were as follows: G1=17.48 Ncm, G2=21.16 Ncm, and G3=26.42 Ncm, with statistically significant differences (p < 0,001) among all tested groups. Also, the mean detorque abutment levels were: G1=15.17 Ncm, G2=19.58 Ncm, and G3=21.64 Ncm, being (G1 and G2); (G1 and G3) (p < 0.001); and G2 and G3 (p=0.02). Conclusion: 1) an increase on abutment screw torque level also increases detorque values for all groups; 2) an increase on abutment torque level provided detorque values proportional to that found in G1 and G2, being this lower for G3; 3) torque values higher than those preconized by the manufacturer lead to plastic deformation at screw heads after repeated tightening sequences


Subject(s)
Bone Screws , Dental Implantation
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 141(7): 861-869, jul. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-695767

ABSTRACT

Background: There is no consensus regarding which risk factors influence the outcome of mitral valve replacement. Aim: To study the effects ofthe referring health care system and other factors on the results of mitral replacement. Patients and Methods: We included 632 patients operated between 1990 and 2010 receiving the St Jude prosthesis. Patients were divided into three groups, group 1 composed by 180 patients coming from the Public System, group 2 composed by 182 patients coming from the University System and group 3 composed by 270 patients coming from the Private System. Results: Overall operative mortality was 4.3%. There was no difference between groups in mortality. Factors responsible for operative mortality were: emergency operation (Odds Patio (OR): 5.6 P < 0.01) and left ventricular function (according to ejection fraction) grade III to IV (OR: 2.5 p = 0.048). Actuarial survival rates at 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 years were 95%, 87%, 76%, 61% and 41%, respectively. Risk factors for long-term mortality were diabetes (OR: 3.3 p < 0.01), left ventricular function grades III-IV (OR: 2.6 p < 0.01), New York Heart Association functional class III to PV (OR: 2.1 p < 0.005) and male sex (OR: 1.5 p < 0.032). Conclusions: Referring health care system and type of surgery do not constitute a risk factor for mitral replacement. Risk factors were: emergency surgery, ventricular function grades III-IV, diabetes, functional capacity class III-IV and male sex. Integration of public and private health care systems in a university hospital setting achieves excellent outcomes for complex pathology.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hospital Mortality , Heart Valve Diseases/surgery , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Hospitals, Private/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Heart Valve Diseases/mortality , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
18.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(1): 136-142, jan-mar/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-671597

ABSTRACT

Horn fly resistance to pyrethroid insecticides occurs throughout Brazil, but knowledge about the involved mechanisms is still in an incipient stage. This survey was aimed to identify the mechanisms of horn fly resistance to cypermethrin in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Impregnated filter paper bioassays using cypermethrin, synergized or not with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP), were conducted from March 2004 to June 2005 in horn fly populations (n = 33) from all over the state. All populations were highly resistant to cypermethrin, with resistance factors (RF) ranging from 89.4 to 1,020.6. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to detect the knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation also were performed in 16 samples. The kdr mutation was found in 75% of the tested populations, mostly with relatively low frequencies (<20%), and was absent in some highly resistant populations. Addition of TPP did not significantly reduce the LC50 in any population. However, PBO reduced LC50s above 40-fold in all tested populations, resulting in RFs ≤ 10 in most cases. Horn fly resistance to cypermethrin is widespread in the state, being primarily caused by an enhanced activity of P450 mono-oxygenases and secondarily by reduced target site sensitivity.


Resistência da mosca-dos-chifres a inseticidas piretróides ocorre em todo o país, entretanto, o conhecimento sobre os mecanismos envolvidos é ainda incipiente. Este estudo objetivou identificar os mecanismos de resistência desta mosca à cipermetrina em Mato Grosso do Sul. Bioensaios utilizando papéis impregnados com cipermetrina, isoladamente ou sinergizada por butóxido de piperonila (PBO) ou trifenil fosfato (TPP), foram realizados de março∕2004 a junho∕2005 em 33 populações. Todas as populações apresentaram elevada resistência à cipermetrina, com fatores de resistência (FR) variando de 89,4 a 1.020,6. Ensaios de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) visando a detecção de kdr (“knockdown resistance”) foram realizados em 16 amostras. A mutação kdr foi detectada em 75% das populações, geralmente em baixas frequências (<20%) e ausente em algumas populações resistentes. A adição de TPP não reduziu significativamente a CL50 em nenhuma população. Entretanto, o PBO reduziu em mais de 40 vezes a CL50 de todas as populações testadas, resultando em FR ≤ 10 na maioria dos casos. Resistência da mosca-dos-chifres à cipermetrina encontra-se disseminada no estado, sendo causada primariamente por um aumento da atividade de P450 mono-oxigenases e secundariamente pela redução da sensibilidade do sítio de ação do inseticida.


Subject(s)
Animals , Insecticides/pharmacology , Muscidae/drug effects , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Brazil , Insecticide Resistance
19.
Rev. Kairós ; 16(15.n.esp): 141-154, fev. 2013.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768712

ABSTRACT

This work presents a brief overview of some of the most important issues related to sexuality during old age. First, it presents the state of the current situation, in order to later explore some of the elements that have been considered key factors in experiencing sexuality, specifically in this stage of life, while exploring certain needs and difficulties. Similarly, some of the differences between men and women, within this context, are presented. Finally, future proposals aimed at better understanding this topic in old age are presented, with suggestions on how to improve wellbeing and care in regard to sexuality among the aging population.


Este trabalho apresenta uma breve descrição de algumas das questões mais importantes relacionadas com a sexualidade durante a velhice. Primeiro, apresenta-se o estado da situação atual, para depois explorar alguns dos elementos que foram considerados fatores-chave na vivência da sexualidade, especificamente nesta fase da vida, ao explorar certas necessidades e dificuldades. Do mesmo modo, algumas das diferenças entre homens e mulheres, neste contexto, são apresentadas. Finalmente, as propostas futuras que visam a uma melhor compreensão deste tema na terceira idade são expostas, com sugestões sobre como melhorar o bem-estar e cuidados em relação à sexualidade da população idosa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged , Sexuality
20.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 32(3): 204-213, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-705223

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Comunicar los resultados de la operación de switch arterial en pacientes portadores de dextro Transposición de Grandes Arterias (D-TGA) y evaluar su evolución en el tiempo. Pacientes y Método: Estudio retrospectivo de pacientes sometidos a switch arterial entre mayo de 1992 y noviembre de 2012. Se comparó período 1 (1992 a 2002) con período 2 (2003 a 2012). Se definió D-TGA simple aquella sin lesiones asociadas y D-TGA compleja aquella con asociación de comunicación interventricular o coartación aórtica. Resultados: Un total de 108 pacientes componen la serie, 44 en el período 1 y 64 en el período 2, sin diferencias demográficas y anatómicas entre ambos períodos. Setenta tenían D-TGA simple y 38 D-TGA compleja. La mortalidad operatoria en el período 1 fue 33% versus 8,4 por ciento en el período 2 (p< 0.025); hubo tendencia a mayor mortalidad en pacientes con anatomía coronaria compleja. Se observó una disminución del riesgo relativo de mortalidad de 68,7 por ciento en el período 2. El 28,7 por ciento presentaron complicaciones postoperatorias, sin diferencias entre ambos períodos. Un paciente falleció en forma alejada. La mediana de seguimiento fue de 60 meses y la supervivencia de 84,25 por ciento a 10 y 20 años. Se realizaron 16 re intervenciones, principalmente plastías percutáneas de ramas pulmonares. La mayoría de los pacientes se mantenían asintomáticos. La mortalidad operatoria de los últimos 5 años fue 2,6 por ciento. Conclusiones: La mortalidad operatoria ha disminuido significativamente a lo largo de 20 años; persiste un mayor riesgo en ciertos patrones de anatomía coronaria. La supervivencia alejada y libre de reintervenciones es muy favorable.


Aim: to report the results of the arterial Switch operation in patients with D-transposition of the great vessels (D-TGA) and to evaluate their late course. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of the clinical data on patients consecutively operated on for D-TGA using the switch procedure. Results obtained in patients operated on between 1992 and 2002 (Period 1) were compared to those obtained in patients undergoing their operation between 2013 and 2012. Patients with D-TGA and no complications were compared to those who had interventricular septal defect or aortic coarctation associated their TGA. Results: 44 patients belonged in Period 1 and 64 in Period 2 (total 108). Demographic and anatomical characteristics were similar in both periods. Simple D-TGA was present in 70 patients and complex D-TGA in 38. Operative mortality was higher in Period 1 compared to Period 2 (33 per cent vs. 8.4 percent, p<0.025). A higher, albeit not statiscally significant mortality was observed in patients with complex as opposed to simple D-TGA. A 68.7 per cent relative reduction mortality risk was observed in Period 2. Complications developed in 28.7 per cent of patients, with no difference between periods. Only 1 patient died during late follow up. Median follow up was 60 months and survival rate was 84.3 percent at 10 y 20 years. Sixteen patients required re-intervention, mainly to perform percutaneous plastic procedures on pulmonary artery branches. Most patients had an asymptomatic course during follow up. Surgical mortality for the last 5 years was 2.6 percent. Conclusion: surgical mortality for the arterial switch operation in patients with D-TGA has significantly decreased along a 20 year period. An increased surgical risk persists for patients with certain forms of coronary artery anomalies. Late survival free of re-intervention was the rule in these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Transposition of Great Vessels/surgery
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