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1.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 606-618, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002040

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#The prognostic or safety implication of renin-angiotensinaldosterone system inhibitors (RASi) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are not well established, mainly due to concerns regarding left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction aggravation. We investigated the implications of RASi in a sizable number of HCM patients. @*Methods@#We enrolled 2,104 consecutive patients diagnosed with HCM in 2 tertiary university hospitals and followed up for five years. RASi use was defined as the administration of RASi after diagnostic confirmation of HCM. The primary and secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality and hospitalization for heart failure (HHF). @*Results@#RASi were prescribed to 762 patients (36.2%). During a median follow-up of 48.1months, 112 patients (5.3%) died, and 94 patients (4.5%) experienced HHF. Patients using RASi had less favorable baseline characteristics than those not using RASi, such as older age, more frequent history of comorbidities, and lower ejection fraction. Nonetheless, there was no difference in clinical outcomes between patients with and without RASi use (log-rank p=0.368 for all-cause mortality and log-rank p=0.443 for HHF). In multivariable analysis, patients taking RASi showed a comparable risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43–1.14, p=0.150) and HHF (HR, 1.03, 95% CI, 0.63–1.70, p=0.900). In the subgroup analysis, there was no significant interaction of RASi use between subgroups stratified by LVOT obstruction, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, or maximal LV wall thickness. @*Conclusions@#RASi use was not associated with worse clinical outcomes. It might be safely administered in patients with HCM if clinically indicated.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e47-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892195

ABSTRACT

Background@#There is an incomplete understanding of the natural course of mild to moderate aortic stenosis (AS). We aimed to evaluate the natural course of patients with mild to moderate AS and its association with coronary artery disease (CAD). @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 787 patients diagnosed with mild to moderate AS using echocardiography between 2004 and 2010. Cardiac death and aortic valve replacement (AVR) for AS were assessed. @*Results@#A median follow-up period was 92 months. Compared to the general population, patients with mild to moderate AS had a higher risk of cardiac death (hazard ratio [HR], 17.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 13.65–21.59; P < 0.001). Established CAD was detected in 22.4% and associated with a significantly higher risk of cardiac mortality (adjusted HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.04–2.53; P = 0.033). The risk of cardiac death was lower when patients were taking statin (adjusted HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.41–0.98; P = 0.041), which was clear only after 7 years. Both patients with CAD and on statin tended to undergo more AVR, but the difference was not statistically significant (the presence of established CAD; adjusted HR, 1.63; 95% CI, 0.51–3.51; P = 0.214 and the use of statin; adjusted HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 0.76–4.58; P = 0.177). @*Conclusion@#Mild to moderate AS does not have a benign course. The presence of CAD and statin use may affect the long-term prognosis of patients with mild to moderate AS.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e47-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899899

ABSTRACT

Background@#There is an incomplete understanding of the natural course of mild to moderate aortic stenosis (AS). We aimed to evaluate the natural course of patients with mild to moderate AS and its association with coronary artery disease (CAD). @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 787 patients diagnosed with mild to moderate AS using echocardiography between 2004 and 2010. Cardiac death and aortic valve replacement (AVR) for AS were assessed. @*Results@#A median follow-up period was 92 months. Compared to the general population, patients with mild to moderate AS had a higher risk of cardiac death (hazard ratio [HR], 17.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 13.65–21.59; P < 0.001). Established CAD was detected in 22.4% and associated with a significantly higher risk of cardiac mortality (adjusted HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.04–2.53; P = 0.033). The risk of cardiac death was lower when patients were taking statin (adjusted HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.41–0.98; P = 0.041), which was clear only after 7 years. Both patients with CAD and on statin tended to undergo more AVR, but the difference was not statistically significant (the presence of established CAD; adjusted HR, 1.63; 95% CI, 0.51–3.51; P = 0.214 and the use of statin; adjusted HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 0.76–4.58; P = 0.177). @*Conclusion@#Mild to moderate AS does not have a benign course. The presence of CAD and statin use may affect the long-term prognosis of patients with mild to moderate AS.

4.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 448-457, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring in the asymptomatic population can improve cardiovascular risk prediction. We aimed to assess CAC progression and the impact of coronary risk factors on the CAC progression rate in asymptomatic Korean individuals with a baseline CAC score of zero.@*METHODS@#The study population was derived from the Korea Initiatives on Coronary Artery Calcification (KOICA) registry: a retrospective, single ethnicity, multicenter registry of asymptomatic individuals who underwent CAC scoring as a part of a health checkup. Individuals with at least two CAC scores and an initial score of zero were included. CAC progression was defined as [√CAC score (follow-up) −√CAC score (baseline)] ≥2.5. The 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk was calculated.@*RESULTS@#Among 6,268 participants (mean age, 48.0±7.1 years; male, 80.5%), 719 (11.5%) experienced CAC progression during follow-up (median, 109 months; interquartile range, 78–208 months). The CAC progression rate was 0.3%, 1.9%, 4.3%, 8.6%, and 16.7% in years 1–5, respectively. The chance of CAC progression at 5 years was 13.1%, 22.0%, and 27.9% for individuals with a 10-year ASCVD risk of <5%, ≥5% but <7.5%, and ≥7.5%, respectively. A multivariable analysis revealed age, male sex, waist circumference, diabetes, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level as independently associated with annualized CAC progression (p<0.001, p=0.017, p=0.025, p=0.032, and p=0.003, respectively).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The probability of CAC progression is very low in Korean individuals with a CAC score of zero. However, the risk of CAC progression increases nonlinearly over time, and increases as the 10-year ASCVD risk increases.

5.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 448-457, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring in the asymptomatic population can improve cardiovascular risk prediction. We aimed to assess CAC progression and the impact of coronary risk factors on the CAC progression rate in asymptomatic Korean individuals with a baseline CAC score of zero. METHODS: The study population was derived from the Korea Initiatives on Coronary Artery Calcification (KOICA) registry: a retrospective, single ethnicity, multicenter registry of asymptomatic individuals who underwent CAC scoring as a part of a health checkup. Individuals with at least two CAC scores and an initial score of zero were included. CAC progression was defined as [√CAC score (follow-up) − √CAC score (baseline)] ≥2.5. The 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk was calculated. RESULTS: Among 6,268 participants (mean age, 48.0±7.1 years; male, 80.5%), 719 (11.5%) experienced CAC progression during follow-up (median, 109 months; interquartile range, 78–208 months). The CAC progression rate was 0.3%, 1.9%, 4.3%, 8.6%, and 16.7% in years 1–5, respectively. The chance of CAC progression at 5 years was 13.1%, 22.0%, and 27.9% for individuals with a 10-year ASCVD risk of <5%, ≥5% but <7.5%, and ≥7.5%, respectively. A multivariable analysis revealed age, male sex, waist circumference, diabetes, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level as independently associated with annualized CAC progression (p<0.001, p=0.017, p=0.025, p=0.032, and p=0.003, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The probability of CAC progression is very low in Korean individuals with a CAC score of zero. However, the risk of CAC progression increases nonlinearly over time, and increases as the 10-year ASCVD risk increases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Calcium , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol , Coronary Vessels , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Lipoproteins , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Waist Circumference
6.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 113-120, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Currently, office blood pressure (OBP) is the most widely used method of measuring blood pressure (BP) in daily clinical practice. However, data on the diagnostic accuracy of OBP in reference to ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) are scarce in Korea.@*METHODS@#In retrospective and prospective cohorts, manual OBP and ABP measurements were compared among ambulatory hypertensive patients. Hypertension was defined as systolic OBP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic OBP ≥ 90 mmHg, and systolic ABP ≥ 130 mmHg and/or diastolic ABP ≥ 80 mmHg.@*RESULTS@#In the retrospective cohort (n = 903), the mean OBP1 (before ABP measurement) was higher than ABP in both systolic (138 ± 17 mmHg vs. 123 ± 13 mmHg, p < 0.001) and diastolic (84 ± 12 mmHg vs. 78 ± 11 mmHg, p < 0.001) measurements. Interestingly, there was only a weak correlation between OBP and ABP (r² = 0.038, p < 0.001). The overall discordance rate of OBP compared to ABP, which is the reference method for measuring BP, was 43.9%. The prospective cohort (n = 57) showed similar results. In a subgroup analysis, male patients had higher false negative results (masked or under-treated hypertension) than did female patients (26.1% vs. 17.8%, p = 0.003), whereas female patients had a higher false positive rate (white-coat or over-treated hypertension) than did male patients (28.7% vs. 15.2%, p < 0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The diagnostic accuracy of manual OBP is low in reference to ABP. Men and women have different patterns of discordance. These findings indicate that management of hypertensive patients with manual OBP measurements may be suboptimal and encourages the use of ABP in ambulatory hypertensive patients.

7.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 48-58, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Clinical data for Korean patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) that underwent aortic valve (AV) surgery are currently limited.@*METHODS@#Data for 1,160 consecutive adult BAV patients who underwent AV surgery from 2000 to 2014 in 4 tertiary referral centers were retrospectively analyzed. A standard case report form was used for clinical and echocardiographic parameters.@*RESULTS@#Mean age at the time of AV surgery was 59±13 years. The most common cause of AV surgery was aortic stenosis (AS, 892 [77%]), followed by aortic regurgitation (AR, 199 [17%]), and infective endocarditis (69 [6%]). AS showed a skewed peak in the aged population and was the predominant cause of AV surgery (87%) in patients ≥50 years of age, whereas AR (46%) and active infective endocarditis (19%) were more common in younger patients (p < 0.001). Echocardiographic determination of the BAV phenotype revealed that fusion of the right coronary cusp (RCC) and left coronary cusp (LCC) was most common (622 [53%]), followed by fusion of RCC and non-coronary cusp (NCC) (313 [27%]), and fusion of LCC and NCC (42 [4%]); the BAV phenotype could not be determined in the remaining 183 patients (16%). Fusion of RCC and LCC was more commonly observed in patients with AR than in those with AS (74% vs. 49%; p < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#BAV patients were characterized by distinct surgical indications according to their age. Possible associations between BAV phenotypes and surgical indications with potential impacts of ethnicity need to be tested in further studies.

8.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 48-58, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738643

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Clinical data for Korean patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) that underwent aortic valve (AV) surgery are currently limited. METHODS: Data for 1,160 consecutive adult BAV patients who underwent AV surgery from 2000 to 2014 in 4 tertiary referral centers were retrospectively analyzed. A standard case report form was used for clinical and echocardiographic parameters. RESULTS: Mean age at the time of AV surgery was 59±13 years. The most common cause of AV surgery was aortic stenosis (AS, 892 [77%]), followed by aortic regurgitation (AR, 199 [17%]), and infective endocarditis (69 [6%]). AS showed a skewed peak in the aged population and was the predominant cause of AV surgery (87%) in patients ≥50 years of age, whereas AR (46%) and active infective endocarditis (19%) were more common in younger patients (p < 0.001). Echocardiographic determination of the BAV phenotype revealed that fusion of the right coronary cusp (RCC) and left coronary cusp (LCC) was most common (622 [53%]), followed by fusion of RCC and non-coronary cusp (NCC) (313 [27%]), and fusion of LCC and NCC (42 [4%]); the BAV phenotype could not be determined in the remaining 183 patients (16%). Fusion of RCC and LCC was more commonly observed in patients with AR than in those with AS (74% vs. 49%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: BAV patients were characterized by distinct surgical indications according to their age. Possible associations between BAV phenotypes and surgical indications with potential impacts of ethnicity need to be tested in further studies.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Aortic Valve Insufficiency , Aortic Valve Stenosis , Aortic Valve , Bicuspid , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Echocardiography , Endocarditis , Heart Valve Diseases , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
9.
Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound ; : 91-97, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226327

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Because conventional echocardiographic parameters have several limitations, strain echocardiography has often been introduced in clinical practice. However, there are also obstacles in using it in clinical practice. Therefore, we wanted to find the current status of awareness on using strain echocardiography in Korea. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide survey to evaluate current use and awareness of strain echocardiography from the members of the Korean Society of Echocardiography. RESULTS: We gathered total 321 questionnaires from 25 cardiology centers in Korea. All participants were able to perform or interpret echocardiographic examinations. All participating institutions performed strain echocardiography. Most of our study participants (97%) were aware of speckle tracking echocardiography and 185 (58%) performed it for clinical and research purposes. Two-dimensional strain echocardiography was the most commonly used modality and left ventricle (LV) was the most commonly used cardiac chamber (99%) for clinical purposes. Most of the participants (89%) did not think LV strain can replace LV ejection fraction (LVEF) in their clinical practice. The common reasons for not performing routine use of strain echocardiography was diversity of strain measurements and lack of normal reference value. Many participants had a favorable view of the future of strain echocardiography. CONCLUSION: Most of our study participants were aware of strain echocardiography, and all institutions performed strain echocardiography for clinical and research purposes. However, they did not think the LV strain values could replace LVEF. The diversity of strain measurements and lack of normal reference values were common reasons for not using strain echocardiography in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Cardiology , Echocardiography , Heart Ventricles , Korea , Reference Values
10.
Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound ; : 285-293, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is important to understand the distribution of 2-dimensional strain values in normal population. We performed a multicenter trial to measure normal echocardiographic values in the Korean population. METHODS: This was a substudy of the Normal echOcardiogRaphic Measurements in KoreAn popuLation (NORMAL) study. Echocardiographic specialists measured frequently used echocardiographic indices in healthy people according to a standardized method at 23 different university hospitals. The strain values were analyzed from digitally stored images. RESULTS: Of a total of 1003 healthy participants in NORMAL study, 2-dimensional strain values were measured in 501 subjects (265 females, mean age 47 ± 15 years old) with echocardiographic images only by GE echocardiographic machines. Interventricular septal thickness, left ventricular (LV) posterior wall thickness, systolic and diastolic LV dimensions, and LV ejection fraction were 7.5 ± 1.0 mm, 7.4 ± 1.0 mm, 29.9 ± 2.8 mm, 48.9 ± 3.6 mm, and 62 ± 4%, respectively. LV longitudinal systolic strain (LS) values of apical 4-chamber (A4C) view, apical 3-chamber (A3C) view, apical 2-chamber (A2C) view, and LV global LS (LVGLS) were −20.1 ± 2.3, −19.9 ± 2.7, −21.2 ± 2.6, and −20.4 ± 2.2%, respectively. LV longitudinal systolic strain rate (LVLSR) values of the A4C view, A3C view, A2C view, and LV global LSR (LVGLSR) were −1.18 ± 0.18, −1.20 ± 0.21, −1.25 ± 0.21, and −1.21 ± 0.21(−s), respectively. Females had lower LVGLS (−21.2 ± 2.2% vs. −19.5 ± 1.9%, p < 0.001) and LVGLSR (−1.25 ± 0.18(−s) vs. −1.17 ± 0.15(−s), p < 0.001) values than males. CONCLUSION: We measured LV longitudinal strain and strain rate values in the normal Korean population. Since considerable gender differences were observed, normal echocardiographic cutoff values should be differentially applied based on sex.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Echocardiography , Healthy Volunteers , Heart Ventricles , Hospitals, University , Methods , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Reference Values , Specialization
11.
Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound ; : 128-134, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-11229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to assess echocardiographic predictors of left ventricular (LV) adverse remodeling after successfully reperfused acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). LV remodeling is commonly found in STEMI patients and it may suggest adverse outcome in acute myocardial infarction. We sought to identify whether 2D strain and torsion be independent parameters for prediction of LV adverse remodeling. METHODS: We investigated 208 patients with low-risk STEMI patients who had follow up echocardiography at 6 or more months. After clinical assessments, all patients received revascularization according to current guideline. LV remodeling was defined as > 20% increase in end-diastolic volume (EDV) at follow up. RESULTS: During the follow-up (11.9 ± 5.3 months), 53 patients (25.5%) showed LV remodeling. In univariate analysis, EDV, end-systolic volume, deceleration time (DT), CK-MB, and global longitudinal strain (GLS) were associated with LV remodeling. In multivariate analysis, EDV [hazard ratio (HR): 0.922, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.897-0.948, p< 0.001], GLS (HR: 0.842, 95% CI: 0.728-0.974, p = 0.020), DT (HR: 0.989, 95% CI: 0.980-0.998, p = 0.023) and CK-MB (HR: 1.003, 95% CI: 1.000-1.005, p = 0.033) independently predicted LV remodeling. However, global circumferential strain, net twist, and twist or untwist rate were not associated with remodeling. CONCLUSION: Of various parameters of speckle strain, only GLS predicted adverse remodeling in STEMI patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Deceleration , Echocardiography , Follow-Up Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Myocardial Infarction , Ventricular Remodeling
12.
Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound ; : 144-152, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-11227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hemodynamic and functional evaluation with Doppler and tissue Doppler study as a part of comprehensive echocardiography is essential but normal reference values have never been reported from Korean normal population especially according to age and sex. METHODS: Using Normal echOcaRdiographic Measurements in a KoreAn popuLation study subjects, we obtained normal reference values for Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiography including tricuspid annular velocities according to current guidelines and compared values according to gender and age groups. RESULTS: Mitral early diastolic (E) and late diastolic (A) velocity as well as E/A ratio were significantly higher in women compared to those in men. Conversely, mitral peak systolic and late diastolic annular velocity in both septal and lateral mitral annulus were significantly lower in women compared to those in men. However, there were no significant differences in both septal and lateral mitral early diastolic annular (e') velocity between men and women. In both men and women, mitral E velocity and its deceleration time as well as both E/A and E/e' ratio considerably increased with age. There were no significant differences in tricuspid inflow velocities and tricuspid lateral annular velocities between men and women except e' velocity, which was significantly higher in women compared to that in men. However, changes in both tricuspid inflow and lateral annular velocities according to age were similar to those in mitral velocities. CONCLUSION: Since there were significant differences in Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiographic variables between men and women and changes according to age were even more considerable in both gender groups, normal Doppler echocardiographic values should be differentially applied based on age and sex.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Deceleration , Echocardiography , Echocardiography, Doppler , Hemodynamics , Reference Values
13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 44-53, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166134

ABSTRACT

Echocardiographic parameters can predict cardiovascular events in several clinical settings. However, which echocardiographic parameter is most predictive of each cardiovascular or non-cardiovascular event in patients starting hemodialysis remains unresolved. Echocardiography was used in 189 patients at the time of starting hemodialysis. We established primary outcomes as follows: cardiovascular events (ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, and acute heart failure), fatal non-cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, and all combined events. The most predictable echocardiographic parameter was determined in the Cox hazard ratio model with a backward selection after the adjustment of multiple covariates. Among several echocardiographic parameters, the E/e' ratio and the left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) were the strongest predictors of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular events, respectively. After the adjustment of clinical and biochemical covariates, the predictability of E/e' remained consistent, but LVEDV did not. When clinical events were further analyzed, the significant echocardiographic parameters were as follows: s' for ischemic heart disease and peripheral artery disease, LVEDV and E/e' for acute heart failure, and E/e' for all-cause mortality and all combined events. However, no echocardiographic parameter independently predicted cerebrovascular disease or non-cardiovascular events. In conclusion, E/e', s', and LVEDV have independent predictive values for several cardiovascular and mortality events.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Echocardiography , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Renal Dialysis , Risk Factors , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1273-1278, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53695

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine clinical parameters predicting future major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients without significant stenosis on coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). A total of 625 patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent CCTA that revealed insignificant ( 90 days after CCTA) revascularization were assessed. During the mean follow-up period of 819 +/- 529 days (median 837 days), there were 28 cases of MACEs (4.5%). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, independent predictors for MACEs were male sex (hazard ratio [HR], 2.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-5.69; P = 0.046) and low estimated creatinine clearance (eCCr) (< 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) (HR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.22-7.74; P = 0.017). Low eCCr was the only independent predictor for hard events including cardiac death and MI (HR, 17.6, 95% CI, 1.44-215.7; P = 0.025). In conclusion, renal function is an independent predictor for cardiovascular events among patients without significant CAD by CCTA. Careful monitoring and preventive strategy are warranted in patients with impaired renal function even without significant CAD.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Coronary Angiography/statistics & numerical data , Coronary Stenosis/mortality , Incidence , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , Reproducibility of Results , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Sensitivity and Specificity , Survival Rate , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data
15.
Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound ; : 158-172, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Measurement of the cardiac chamber is essential, and current guidelines recommend measuring and reporting values for both sides of the cardiac chamber during echocardiographic evaluation. Normal echocardiographic reference values have been suggested previously, but detailed information about right-sided chambers and values according to gender was not included. METHODS: This is a prospective multicenter (23 centers) study evaluating normal Korean adult subjects using comprehensive echocardiography. We included normal adult subjects (age; 20-79 years old) who had no significant cardiac disorders or illnesses, such as hypertension or diabetes, which could affect cardiac structure and function. We measured the cardiac chamber including both right and left ventricles as well as atria according to current echocardiography guidelines and compared values according to gender and age groups. RESULTS: A total of 1003 subjects were evaluated and the mean age was 48 +/- 16 years. Left ventricular (LV) dimensions increased, but LV volume decreased in older subjects. Right ventricular (RV) area decreased in women and older subjects, and the RV long-axis dimension showed a similar trend. Left atrial (LA) volume increased in men but there were no differences in LA volume index between men and women. The dimension of great arteries increased in men and older subjects. CONCLUSION: Since there were considerable differences between men and women and in the different age groups, and the trends differed significantly between different echo variables, normal echocardiographic cutoff values should be differentially applied based on age and gender.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Arteries , Echocardiography , Heart Ventricles , Hypertension , Prospective Studies , Reference Values
16.
Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound ; : 233-243, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anti-atherosclerotic effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors has been suggested from previous studies, and yet, its association with cardiovascular outcome has not been demonstrated. We aimed to evaluate the effect of DPP-4 inhibitors in reducing mortality and coronary revascularization, in association with baseline coronary computed tomography (CT). METHODS: The current study was performed as a multi-center, retrospective observational cohort study. All subjects with diabetes mellitus who had diagnostic CT during 2007-2011 were included, and 1866 DPP-4 inhibitor users and 5179 non-users were compared for outcome. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and secondary outcome included any coronary revascularization therapy after 90 days of CT in addition to all-cause mortality. RESULTS: DPP-4 inhibitors users had significantly less adverse events [0.8% vs. 4.4% in users vs. non-users, adjusted hazard ratios (HR) 0.220, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.102-0.474, p = 0.0001 for primary outcome, 4.1% vs. 7.6% in users vs. non-users, HR 0.517, 95% CI 0.363-0.735, p = 0.0002 for secondary outcome, adjusted variables were age, sex, presence of hypertension, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, glycated hemoglobin, statin use, coronary artery calcium score and degree of stenosis]. Interestingly, DPP-4 inhibitor seemed to be beneficial only in subjects without significant stenosis (adjusted HR 0.148, p = 0.0013 and adjusted HR 0.525, p = 0.0081 for primary and secondary outcome). CONCLUSION: DPP-4 inhibitor is associated with reduced all-cause mortality and coronary revascularization in diabetic patients. Such beneficial effect was significant only in those without significant coronary stenosis, which implies that DPP-4 inhibitor may have beneficial effect in earlier stage of atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atherosclerosis , C-Reactive Protein , Calcium , Cohort Studies , Constriction, Pathologic , Coronary Stenosis , Coronary Vessels , Diabetes Mellitus , Glycated Hemoglobin , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hypertension , Mortality , Retrospective Studies
17.
Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound ; : 36-39, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7637

ABSTRACT

Congenital absence of the pericardium is a rare cardiac malformation and is most often asymptomatic. It is usually discovered as an incidental finding. Physical examination, chest radiography, and electrocardiogram are often unremarkable. Echocardiography provides valuable information, and sometimes computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is needed for subsequent confirmation.


Subject(s)
Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Incidental Findings , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pericardium , Physical Examination , Radiography , Thorax
18.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 22-24, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108748
19.
Journal of the Korean Society of Hypertension ; : 81-89, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a compensatory process to pressure overload, there are gender differences in left ventricular function and vascular stiffness in hypertension. We evaluated that inappropriate LVH was related with Framingham risk score (FRS) and vascular stiffness in hypertensive women. METHODS: Total 226 hypertensive women consecutively underwent carotid ultrasound and echocardiography, from which LV mass (LVM), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and beta-stiffness were measured. Inappropriate LVH was calculated by the ratio of observed LVM to the value predicted for sex, height and stroke work at rest and defined as > 128% of predicted. FRS was obtained using by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. RESULTS: Of 226 subjects, 59 subjects (26%) had inappropriate LVH. As compared with appropriate LVH, subject with inappropriate LVH showed older age, higher FRS, and IMT. Although LV ejection fraction was not different, diastolic parameters of E/A ratio and left atrial volume were significantly worse in inappropriate LVH group. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of inappropriate LVH in hypertensive women was strongly associated with higher FRS, decreased diastolic function and increased IMT, which might influence future cardiovascular events.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Echocardiography , Hypertension , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular , Ultrasonography , Vascular Stiffness , Ventricular Function, Left
20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1749-1755, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180663

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to evaluate the effects of diabetes on short- and mid-term clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Between October 2005 and December 2009, a total of 22,347 patients with AMI from a nationwide registry was analyzed. At the time point of the day 30 after AMI onset, landmark analyses were performed for the development of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including death, re-infarction and revascularization. In this cohort, 6,131 patients (27.4%) had diabetes. Short-term MACEs, which occurred within 30 days of AMI onset, were observed in 1,364 patients (6.1%). Among the 30-day survivors (n = 21,604), mid-term MACEs, which occurred between 31 and 365 days after AMI onset, were observed in 1,181 patients (5.4%). After adjustment for potential confounders, diabetes was an independent predictor of mid-term MACEs (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.08-1.45; P = 0.002), but not of short-term MACEs (HR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.93-1.44; P = 0.167). Diabetes is a poor prognostic factor for mid-term clinical outcomes but not for short-term outcomes in AMI patients. Careful monitoring and intensive care should be considered in diabetic patients, especially following the acute stage of AMI.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acute Disease , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Incidence , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Registries , Survival Analysis , Time Factors
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