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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 569-576, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904245

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) has been performed to reduce locoregional failure (LRF) following radical cystectomy for locally advanced bladder cancer; however, its efficacy has not been well established. We analyzed the locoregional recurrence patterns of post-radical cystectomy to identify patients who could benefit from adjuvant RT and determine the optimal target volume. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed 160 patients with stage ≥ pT3 bladder cancer who were treated with radical cystectomy between January 2006 and December 2015. The impact of pathologic findings, including the stage, lympho-vascular invasion, perineural invasion, margin status, nodal involvement, and the number of nodes removed on failure patterns, was assessed. @*Results@#Median follow-up period was 27.7 months. LRF was observed in 55 patients (34.3%), 12 of whom presented with synchronous local and regional failures as the first failure. The most common failure pattern was distant metastasis (40%). Among LRFs, the most common recurrence site was the cystectomy bed (15.6%). Patients with positive resection margins had a significantly higher recurrence rate compared to those without (28% vs. 10%, p=0.004). The pelvic nodal recurrence rate was < 5% in pN0 patients; the rate of recurrence in the external and common iliac nodes was 12.5% in pN+ patients. The rate of recurrence in the common iliac nodes was significantly higher in pN2–3 patients than in pN0–1 patients (15.2% vs. 4.4%, p=0.04). @*Conclusion@#Pelvic RT could be beneficial especially for those with positive resection margins or nodal involvement after radical cystectomy. Radiation fields should be optimized based on the patient-specific risk factors.

2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 569-576, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896541

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) has been performed to reduce locoregional failure (LRF) following radical cystectomy for locally advanced bladder cancer; however, its efficacy has not been well established. We analyzed the locoregional recurrence patterns of post-radical cystectomy to identify patients who could benefit from adjuvant RT and determine the optimal target volume. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed 160 patients with stage ≥ pT3 bladder cancer who were treated with radical cystectomy between January 2006 and December 2015. The impact of pathologic findings, including the stage, lympho-vascular invasion, perineural invasion, margin status, nodal involvement, and the number of nodes removed on failure patterns, was assessed. @*Results@#Median follow-up period was 27.7 months. LRF was observed in 55 patients (34.3%), 12 of whom presented with synchronous local and regional failures as the first failure. The most common failure pattern was distant metastasis (40%). Among LRFs, the most common recurrence site was the cystectomy bed (15.6%). Patients with positive resection margins had a significantly higher recurrence rate compared to those without (28% vs. 10%, p=0.004). The pelvic nodal recurrence rate was < 5% in pN0 patients; the rate of recurrence in the external and common iliac nodes was 12.5% in pN+ patients. The rate of recurrence in the common iliac nodes was significantly higher in pN2–3 patients than in pN0–1 patients (15.2% vs. 4.4%, p=0.04). @*Conclusion@#Pelvic RT could be beneficial especially for those with positive resection margins or nodal involvement after radical cystectomy. Radiation fields should be optimized based on the patient-specific risk factors.

3.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 236-243, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903249

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The details of breast reconstruction and radiation therapy (RT) vary between institutions; therefore, we sought to investigate the practice patterns of radiation oncologists who specialize in breast cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We identified the practice patterns and inter-hospital variations from a multi-center cohort of women with breast cancer who underwent post-mastectomy RT (PMRT) to the reconstructed breast at 16 institutions between 2015 and 2016. The institutions were requested to contour the target volume and produce RT plans for one representative case with five different clinical scenarios and answer questionnaires which elicited infrastructural information. We assessed the inter-institutional variations in RT in terms of the target, normal organ delineation, and dose-volume histograms. @*Results@#Three hundred fourteen patients were included; 99% of them underwent immediate reconstruction. The most irradiated material was tissue expander (36.9%) followed by transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap (23.9%) and silicone implant (12.1%). In prosthetic-based reconstruction with tissue expander, most patients received PMRT following partial deflation. Conventional fractionation and hypofractionation RT were used in 66.6% and 33.4% patients, respectively (commonest: 40.05 Gy in 15 fractions [17.5%]). Furthermore, 15.6% of the patients received boost RT and 53.5% were treated with bolus. Overall, 15 physicians responded to the questionnaires and six submitted their contours and RT plans. There was a significant variability in target delineations and RT plans between physicians, and between clinical scenarios. @*Conclusion@#Adjuvant RT following post-mastectomy reconstruction has become a common practice in Korea. The details vary significantly between institutions, which highlights an urgent need for standard protocol in this clinical setting.

4.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 236-243, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895545

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The details of breast reconstruction and radiation therapy (RT) vary between institutions; therefore, we sought to investigate the practice patterns of radiation oncologists who specialize in breast cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We identified the practice patterns and inter-hospital variations from a multi-center cohort of women with breast cancer who underwent post-mastectomy RT (PMRT) to the reconstructed breast at 16 institutions between 2015 and 2016. The institutions were requested to contour the target volume and produce RT plans for one representative case with five different clinical scenarios and answer questionnaires which elicited infrastructural information. We assessed the inter-institutional variations in RT in terms of the target, normal organ delineation, and dose-volume histograms. @*Results@#Three hundred fourteen patients were included; 99% of them underwent immediate reconstruction. The most irradiated material was tissue expander (36.9%) followed by transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap (23.9%) and silicone implant (12.1%). In prosthetic-based reconstruction with tissue expander, most patients received PMRT following partial deflation. Conventional fractionation and hypofractionation RT were used in 66.6% and 33.4% patients, respectively (commonest: 40.05 Gy in 15 fractions [17.5%]). Furthermore, 15.6% of the patients received boost RT and 53.5% were treated with bolus. Overall, 15 physicians responded to the questionnaires and six submitted their contours and RT plans. There was a significant variability in target delineations and RT plans between physicians, and between clinical scenarios. @*Conclusion@#Adjuvant RT following post-mastectomy reconstruction has become a common practice in Korea. The details vary significantly between institutions, which highlights an urgent need for standard protocol in this clinical setting.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761002

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Internal mammary lymph node (IMN) involvement is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. This study investigated the treatment outcomes of initial clinically IMN-positive breast cancer patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy (RT), including IMN irradiation, following primary breast surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data of 95 breast cancer patients with clinically detected IMNs at diagnosis treated with surgery and RT between June 2009 and December 2015. Patients received adjuvant RT to the whole breast/chest wall and regional lymph node (axillary, internal mammary, and supraclavicular) areas. Twelve patients received an additional boost to the IMN area. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 43.2 months (range, 4.5 to 100.5 months). Among 77 patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 52 (67.5%) showed IMN normalization and 19 (24.6%) showed a partial response to IMN. There were 3 and 24 cases of IMN failure and any recurrence, respectively. The 5-year IMN failure-free survival, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were 96%, 70%, and 84%, respectively. IMN failure-free survival was significantly affected by resection margin status (97.7% if negative, 87.5% for close or positive margins; p = 0.009). All three patients with IMN failure had initial IMN size ≥1 cm and did not receive IMN boost irradiation. The median age of the three patients was 31 years, and all had hormone receptor-negative tumors. CONCLUSION: RT provides excellent IMN control without the support of IMN surgery. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy, including IMN boost for breast cancer patients, is a safe and effective technique for regional lymph node irradiation.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
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