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Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(2): 104-109, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132438


ABSTRACT HIV infection may be considered a chronic condition for people living with HIV with access to antiretrovirals and this has effectively increased survival. Moreover, this has also facilitated the emergence of other comorbidities increasing the risk for drug-drug interactions and polypharmacy. The profile of these interactions as well as their consequences for people living with HIV are still not completely elucidated. The objectives of this study were to describe the profile of these interactions, their prevalence and their classification according to the potential for significant or non-significant drug-drug interactions. From June 2015 to July 2016, people living with HIV on follow-up at an Infectious Diseases Referral Center in Belo Horizonte, Brazil have been investigated for the presence of drug-drug interactions. A total of 304 patients were included and the majority (75%) had less than 50 years of age, male (66.4%), and 37.8% self-defined as brown skinned. Approximately 24% were on five or more medications and half of them presented with drug-drug interactions. Patients older than 50 years had a higher frequency of antiretrovirals drug-drug interactions with other drugs compared to younger patients (p = 0.002). No relationship was found between the number of drug-drug interactions and the effectiveness of antiretrovirals. As expected, the higher the number of non-HIV medications used (OR = 1.129; 95%CI 1.004-1.209; p = 0.04) was associated with an increase in drug-drug interactions. The high prevalence of drug-drug interactions found and the data collected should be useful to establish measures of quaternary prevention and to increase the medication security for people living with HIV.

Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(3): 171-176, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974213


ABSTRACT The lipid accumulation product (LAP) index is an emerging cardiovascular risk marker. We aimed to assess the accuracy of this index as a marker of cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients. A cross-sectional study of 133 HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral drugs and 20 non-infected controls was conducted at the outpatient clinic of a referral center of infectious and parasitic diseases. Evaluations included LAP index, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, glucose tolerance test, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Body mass index (BMI) was similar in both groups; however, waist circumference was greater in the HIV-infected patients. Triglyceride levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001) and HDL cholesterol levels were lower in HIV-infected patients (p < 0.001). Plasma glucose (p = 0.01) and insulin (p = 0.005) levels two hours after a glucose load, HOMA-IR index (p < 0.001) and LAP index (p < 0.001) were higher in the HIV-infected patients. A positive and significant correlation was found between HOMA-IR index and LAP (r = 0.615; p < 0.01), BMI (r = 0.334; p < 0.01) and waist circumference (r = 0.452; p < 0.01) in the HIV-infected patients. In male HIV-infected patients and controls, ROC curve analyses revealed that the best cut-off value of LAP to define the presence of insulin resistance was 64.8 (sensitivity 86%, specificity 77% and area under the curve 0.824). These results confirm that insulin resistance is more common in HIV-patients on antiretroviral drugs than in HIV-negative controls. A positive and significant correlation was found between the LAP index and the HOMA index, with LAP ≥ 64.8 constituting an additional risk factor for cardiovascular disease in male HIV patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , Risk Assessment/methods , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Lipid Accumulation Product/physiology , Reference Values , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Biomarkers/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Body Mass Index , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Sex Factors , Cholesterol/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Insulin/blood
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(6): 756-763, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897033


Abstract This meta-analysis, which is based on a previously published systematic review, aims to contribute to the scientific discussion on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in workers who are exposed to domestic and healthcare wastes. Publications were sought which had been made available on the data used by December 2013 and updated to December 2016. The quality of the included studies was assessed according to the guidelines of Loney et al. for the critical appraisal of studies on the prevalence or incidence of a health problem. To verify the presence of heterogeneity between the papers, we used the Chi-squared test based on a Q statistic. A funnel plot was used to test for publication bias. All included studies had across-sectional study design. The association between exposure to waste and positive serology for the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) showed a significant association [odds ratio (OR) 1.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-2.86; p = 0.0019]. The prevalence rates of HBsAg and anti-HBc seropositivity was 0.04 (95% CI 0.03-0.05) and 0.21 (95% CI 0.14-0.28), respectively (p <0.0001). We found no evidence of publication bias. The results of this meta-analysis indicate a statistically significant association between exposure to solid waste, whether healthcare or domestic, and positive HBV infection markers. Therefore, the working conditions of waste collectors should be analyzed more closely. Immunization against HBV is recommended as the chief preventive measure for all solid waste workers.

Humans , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Medical Waste Disposal , Waste Management , Hepatitis B/transmission , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Risk Factors
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 25(2): 218-223, maio-ago. 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041941


Resumo Para documentar dois mandatos à frente da Sociedade Brasileira de Bioética, os autores fazem retrospectiva da disciplina no país, com a criação da entidade associativa, de revistas científicas, eventos nacionais e internacionais, bem como programas acadêmicos para formação em campos multidisciplinares e divulgar a bioética para a sociedade brasileira, latino-americana e lusófona. Ressalta que desde o início dos debates a bioética brasileira teve sua atuação relacionada estreitamente com a defesa dos direitos humanos. No período de gestão os desafios se relacionavam ao envelhecimento populacional, ao impacto de doenças emergentes/reemergentes, ao aumento da urbanização, ao crescimento da tecnologia, às pressões para diminuir os requisitos éticos para pesquisas envolvendo seres humanos, globalização da economia e da comunicação; somados à grave crise econômica e política internacional, que no Brasil culminou com o impeachment da presidente eleita e reformas privatistas que subtraem direitos dos trabalhadores. Isto tudo determina a pauta para o novo mandato.

Abstract In order to document two consecutive terms leading the Sociedade Brasileira de Bioética (the Brazilian Society for Bioethics), the authors provide a retrospect of Brazilian bioethics since the inception of the SBB, including the establishment of dedicated ethical journals, national and international events, and of academic programs aimed at qualifying professionals in multidisciplinary fields and to disseminate this knowledge among Brazilian, Latin-American and Lusophone societies. They emphasize that since the beginning of the bioethical debate in Brazil there has been a clear focus on human rights protection. During the current board's term, challenges have included population aging in Brazil; the impact of emerging/reemerging illnesses; the increase of urbanization; the impact of technological progress; pressures to lower ethical requirements for human research; economic and communication globalization. This has come amid a severe international economic and political crisis, culminating in Brazil with the impeachment of an elected president and with the succeeding government proposing privatizations and reforms that will negatively affect workers' rights. All these points set the agenda for the new term of office.

Resumen Para documentar dos mandatos al frente de la Sociedade Brasileira de Bioética (Sociedad Brasileña de Bioética), los autores ofrecen una retrospectiva de la disciplina en el país, con la creación de la entidad asociativa, de revistas científicas, de eventos nacionales e internacionales, así como de programas académicos para la formación en campos multidisciplinarios y para difundir la bioética en la sociedad brasileña, en Latinoamérica y en los países lusófonos. Se destaca que desde el inicio de los debates, la actuación de la bioética brasileña estuvo estrechamente relacionada con la defensa de los derechos humanos. En el período de gestión, los desafíos se relacionaban con el envejecimiento poblacional, el impacto de las enfermedades emergentes/reemergentes, el aumento de la urbanización, el crecimiento de la tecnología, las presiones para reducir los requisitos éticos para la investigación con seres humanos, la globalización de la economía y de las comunicaciones; sumados a la grave crisis económica y política internacional, que en Brasil culminó con el impeachment de una presidente electa y con reformas privatistas que afectan a los derechos de los trabajadores. En suma, todo esto determina la agenda para el nuevo mandato.

Social Responsibility , Bioethics , Community Participation , Knowledge , Education , Human Rights
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 24(2): 286-291, maio-ago. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-792931


As informações fornecidas sobre prevalência e os motivos da recusa de voluntários a participar em pesquisa científica são escassas. Este artigo objetiva descrever esses dados em coorte voltada a avaliar morbimortalidade de pessoas vivendo com HIV/aids (PVHA) a partir de estudo transversal realizado no Centro de Treinamento e Referência em Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias. Foram obtidas as informações: origem, data de nascimento, idade, sexo e motivo do não consentimento, quando aplicável. Falta de tempo para se dedicar a pesquisa foi o principal motivo alegado para o não consentimento (63%), seguido por medo de falta de sigilo (17%). Não houve diferença estatística entre os que aceitaram ou não participar por sexo, idade ou origem do serviço. Consideraram-se elevados os percentuais de recusa de PVHA (40,7%), bem como de falta de tempo disponível para participação (63%).

The information provided regarding the prevalence and reasons why volunteers refuse to participate in scientific research is sparse. This article aims to describe the prevalence and reasons for refusing to voluntarily participate in the cohort study whose objective is to evaluate morbidity and mortality amongst people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), through a cross-sectional study conducted at the Centro de Treinamento e Referência em Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias (Training and Referral Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases). The following information was obtained: origin, date of birth, age, gender, and reason for not consenting, when applicable. The lack of time to devote to the research was the main reason given (63%), followed by fear of lack of confidentiality (17%). There was no statistical difference among those who accepted or not to participate in terms of gender, age or origin of the service. The percentage of PLWHA who refused to participate in the study (40.7%) and lack of time available for their participation (63%) were considered high.

Las informaciones disponibles respecto a la prevalencia y a los motivos de la negación de voluntarios para participar de investigaciones científicas son escasas. Este artículo tiene como objetivo describir la prevalencia y los motivos de la negación a participar voluntariamente en una cohorte dedicada a evaluar la morbilidad y la mortalidad de personas que viven con VIH/SIDA, a partir de un estudio transversal realizado en el Centro de Capacitación y Referencia en Enfermedades Infecciosas y Parasitarias. Se obtuvieron las siguientes informaciones: origen, fecha de nacimiento, edad, sexo y motivo del no consentimiento, cuando correspondiera. La falta de tiempo para dedicarse a la investigación fue el principal motivo alegado para el no consentimiento (63%), seguido por el temor a la no confidencialidad (17%). No hubo diferencias estadísticas entre los que aceptaron participar o no de acuerdo a sexo, edad u origen del servicio. Se consideraron elevados los porcentajes en la negación de las personas que viven con VIH/SIDA a participar de la investigación (40,7%), así como la falta de tiempo disponible para esta participación (63%).

Humans , Male , Female , Bioethics , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/transmission , Prevalence , Biomedical Research , Therapeutics , Unified Health System , Health-Disease Process , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 21(5): 1553-1564, Mai. 2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-781032


Resumo A resposta brasileira à Aids foi iniciada em 1985, quando o estado brasileiro, a sociedade civil e a academia se associaram com objetivos comuns. Esta se fortaleceu com a criação do SUS em 1988, imprescindível para implementar o programa nacional de Controle das DST/AIDS, baseado nos direitos humanos, visando equidade, inclusão, integralidade e contra o preconceito e a discriminação. O Brasil foi dos primeiros a disponibilizar, já em 1996, na saúde pública, tratamento adequado para todas as PVHA. O artigo descreve os êxitos e os indesculpáveis retrocessos destes 30 primeiros anos e as perspectivas para o controle e eventual eliminação da aids. Pode-se afirmar que há condições para eliminar o preconceito, a discriminação e diminuir a disparidade, pano de fundo para a disseminação da AIDS e de outras epidemias. Estão disponíveis instrumentos para tratar adequadamente as PVHA, para eliminar a transmissão do HIV e proteger os direitos de todos. Entretanto, para que isso aconteça, é necessária a ampliação do acesso à educação, incluindo educação sexual, e cuidados de saúde de qualidade. Necessário ainda o enfrentamento diuturno do conservadorismo e de toda violência e discriminação contra pessoas em risco ou vivendo com HIV. A experiência brasileira nestes 30 anos é inestimável alavanca para alcançar o fim da epidemia.

Abstract The Brazilian response to AIDS started in 1985, with government, civil society and academic community coming together with common goals. This was strengthened with the establishment in 1988 of an universal public health system (SUS), pivotal to a comprehensive and human rights-based national STD/AIDS programme, aiming at achieving equality, integrality, inclusion and fighting prejudice and discrimination. In 1996 Brazil was a pioneer in providing treatment free-of-charge to all PLHA. This article depicts achievements and setbacks that occurred in these 30 years and the perspectives for controlling and eventually eliminating HIV/AIDS. It is fair to affirm that it is possible to defeat prejudice and discrimination and to confront the unacceptable levels of disparity, fertile ground for dissemination of HIV/AIDS and other epidemics. Tools to eliminate transmission, to adequately treat PLHA, to protect their rights, to eliminate discrimination and to end AIDS are already at hand. However, the needed changes for this to happen involve expansion of access to education, including sexual education and to quality public health care to all. It is also necessary to constant confront conservatism and to combat violence and discrimination. Brazil’s track record in the confrontation of AIDS is an invaluable asset to achieve these goals.

Humans , Prejudice/prevention & control , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , National Health Programs/organization & administration , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Public Health , Health Education/methods , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Healthcare Disparities , Social Discrimination/prevention & control , Human Rights
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(6): 775-781, 09/09/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723982


Understanding the social conditions and immunological characteristics that allow some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed patients to remain uninfected represents an on-going challenge. In this study, the socio-demographic and sexual behaviour characteristics and immune activation profiles of uninfected individuals exposed to HIV-infected partners were investigated. A confidential and detailed questionnaire was administered and venous blood was tested using HIV-1/enzyme immunoassays, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels/bDNA and immunophenotyping/flow cytometry to determine the frequencies of CD4 and CD8 T cells expressing activation markers. The data analysis showed significant differences (p < 0.05) for immune parameters in individuals who were uninfected, albeit exposed to HIV-infected partners, compared with unexposed individuals. In particular, the exposed, uninfected individuals had a higher frequency (median, minimum-maximum) of CD4+HLA-DR+ (4.2, 1.8-6.1), CD8+HLA-DR+ (4.6, 0.9-13.7), CD4+CD45RO+ (27.5, 14.2-46.6), CD4+CD45RO+CD62L+ (46.7, 33.9-67.1), CD8+CD45RA+HLA-DR+ (12.1, 3.4-35.8) and CD8+CD45RO+HLA-DR+ (9.0, 3.2-14.8) cells, a decreased percentage of CD8+CD28+ cells (11.7, 4.5-24.0) and a lower cell-surface expression of Fcγ-R/CD16 on monocytes (56.5, 22.0-130.0). The plasma HIV-1 RNA levels demonstrated detectable RNA virus loads in 57% of the HIV-1+ female partners. These findings demonstrate an activation profile in both CD4 and CD8 peripheral T cells from HIV-1 exposed seronegative individuals of serodiscordant couples from a referral centre in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais.

Female , Humans , Male , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Serosorting , HIV Seronegativity/immunology , HIV-1 , Heterosexuality/psychology , Sexual Partners , Brazil , Coitus , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , HIV-1 , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , RNA, Viral/blood , Socioeconomic Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sexual Behavior/classification
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 18(1): 1-7, Jan-Feb/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703060


Background: Darunavir has been proven efficacious for antiretroviral-experienced HIV-1-infected patients in randomized trials. However, effectiveness of darunavir-based salvage therapy is understudied in routine care in Brazil. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of HIV-1-infected patients from three public referral centers in Belo Horizonte, who received a darunavir-based therapy between 2008 and 2010, after virologic failure. Primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with viral load <50 copies/mL at week 48. Change in CD4 cell count was also evaluated. Outcome measures were analyzed on an intent-to-treat basis applied to observational studies. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact of missing data at week 48. Predictors of virologic failure were examined using rare-event, finite sample, bias-corrected logistic regression. Results: Among 108 patients, the median age was 44.2 years, and 72.2% were male. They had long-standing HIV-1 infection (median 11.6 years) and advanced disease (76.9% had an AIDS-defining event). All patients had previously received protease inhibitors and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 75% nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and 4.6% enfuvirtide. The median length of protease inhibitor use was 8.9 years, and 90.8% of patients had prior exposure to unboosted protease inhibitor. Genotypic resistance profile showed a median of three primary protease inhibitor mutations and 10.2% had three or more darunavir resistance-associated mutations. Virologic success at week 48 was achieved by 78.7% (95% CI = 69.7–86%) of patients and mean CD4 cell count increase from baseline was 131.5 cells/μL (95% CI = 103.4–159.6). In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher baseline viral load (RR = 1.04 per 10,000 copies/mL increase; 95% CI = 1.01–1.09) and higher number of darunavir resistance-associated mutations (RR = 1.23 per each; 95% CI = 0.95–1.48) ...

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Salvage Therapy , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Brazil , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Genotype , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1 , Retrospective Studies , Viral Load
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 23(4)out.-dez. 2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-704939


Antes da introdução da terapia antirretroviral de alta potência, as complicações cardiovasculares na população infectada pelo HIV eram relacionadas à imunossupressão. Entretanto, após o advento do uso combinado das drogas antirretrovirais, houve considerável diminuição na morbidade e na mortalidade desses pacientes. Porém, aparentemente,complicações metabólicas como resistência insulínica e dislipidemia passaram a ser mais frequentes nesses indivíduos, sugerindo aumento do risco de doença aterosclerótica. O objetivo deste artigo é rever a literatura e descrever as complicações cardiovasculares da infecção pelo HIV, com ênfase no período pós-terapia antirretroviral combinada. A revisão foi realizada dando destaque aos fatores de risco cardiovasculares e, principalmente, à doença cardíaca aterosclerótica e suas particularidades na população infectada pelo HIV...

Before high-power antiretroviral therapy was introduced, cardiovascular complications in the HIV-infected population were mainly related to immunosuppression. However, after the advent of combined use antiretroviral drugs the morbimortality of these patients decreased considerably. It seems, however, that metabolic complications such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia have become more frequent, suggesting an increased risk of atherosclerotic disease. The purpose of this article is to review the literature and describe the cardiovascular complications related to HIV infection, with an emphasis on the period after combined antiretroviral therapy was introduced. The review was conducted to highlight the cardiovascular risk factors, mainly of atherosclerotic heart disease and its peculiarities among the HIV-infected population...

Humans , Anti-Retroviral Agents/adverse effects , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , HIV Infections/complications , Risk Factors , Dyslipidemias , Biomarkers
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 21(3): 463-476, set.-dez. 2013. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-704225


O presente artigo é fruto de tese cujo objetivo geral foi propor um modelo de diretivas antecipadas de vontade para o Brasil. Para tanto, realizou-se uma revisão de literatura sobre as diretivas antecipadas nas Américas e na Europa, especialmente nos Estados Unidos da América e na Espanha, e entrevistas semi-estruturadas com médicos oncologistas, intensivistas e geriatras de Belo Horizonte-MG. Percebeu-se que o modelo brasileiro deve se distanciar dos padrões de formulários utilizados em muitos estados norte-americanos e províncias espanholas, visando deixar espaço para a subjetividade de cada paciente. Conclui-se, assim, que o modelo proposto tem o condão de auxiliar o cidadão que deseja fazer sua diretiva antecipada, bem como os médicos que desejam apresentar essa possibilidade para seus pacientes, mas deve ser sempre utilizado como guia e não como um modelo fechado às peculiaridades de cada situação concreta.

Este artículo es el resultado de la tesis doctoral, cuyo objetivo general fue proponer un modelo de directivas anticipadas de voluntad para Brasil. Por lo tanto, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre las directivas anticipadas en las Américas y en Europa, especialmente en Estados Unidos y España, y las entrevistas semi-estructuradas con los médicos oncólogos, intensivistas y geriatras de Belo Horizonte-MG. Se ha percibido que un modelo brasileño debe alejarse de los modelos de formularios utilizados en muchos estados norteamericanos y provincias de España, con el fin de dejar espacio para la subjetividad de cada paciente. Se concluye, por tanto, que el modelo propuesto tiene la capacidad de ayudar a los ciudadanos que desean hacer su directiva anticipada, así como los médicos que desean ofrecer esta opción a sus pacientes, pero siempre debe ser utilizado como una guía y no como un modelo cerrado a las peculiaridades de cada situación concreta.

This article is the result of the doctoral thesis, whose general objective was to propose a model of advance directives to Brazil. Therefore, we carried out a literature review on advance directives in America and Europe, especially in the United States and Spain, and semi-structured interviews with medical oncologists, intensivists and geriatricians in Belo Horizonte-MG. It was realized that a Brazilian model should distance themselves from form models used in many American states and provinces in Spain, in order to leave room for the subjectivity of each patient. We conclude, therefore, that the proposed model has the ability to assist citizens who want to advance their policy, as well as doctors who wish to provide this option for their patients, but it should always be used as a guide and not as a closed model to the peculiarities of each situation.

Right to Die , Advance Directives , Personal Autonomy
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(4): 441-446, Jul-Aug/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-683329


Introduction This study evaluated the efficacy of retreatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with regard to treatment outcomes and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (ST) profiles. Methods This retrospective cohort study analyzed 144 patients treated at a referral hospital in Brazil. All of them had undergone prior treatment, were smear-positive for TB and received a standardized retreatment regimen. Fisher's 2-tailed exact test and the χ2 test were used; RRs and 95% CIs were calculated using univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression. Results The patients were cured in 84 (58.3%) cases. Failure was associated with relapsed treatment and abandonment (n=34). Culture tests were obtained for 103 (71.5%) cases; 70 (48.6%) had positive results. ST results were available for 67 (46.5%) cases; the prevalence of acquired resistance was 53.7%. There were no significant differences between those who achieved or not therapeutic success (p=0.988), despite being sensitive or resistant to 1 or more drugs. Rifampicin resistance was independently associated with therapeutic failure (OR: 4.4, 95% CI:1.12-17.37, p=0.034). For those cases in which cultures were unavailable, a 2nd model without this information was built. In this, return after abandonment was significantly associated with retreatment failure (OR: 3.59, 95% CI:1.17-11.06, p=0.026). Conclusions In this cohort, the general resistance profile appeared to have no influence on treatment outcome, except in cases of rifampicin resistance. The form of reentry was another independent predictor of failure. The use of bacterial culture identification and ST in TB management must be re-evaluated. The recommendations for different susceptibility profiles must also be improved. .

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retreatment , Retrospective Studies , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(4): 470-475, jun. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-678287


The presence of transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 drug-resistance (TDR) at the time of antiretroviral therapy initiation is associated with failure to achieve viral load (VL) suppression. Here, we report TDR surveillance in a specific population of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. In this study, the rate of TDR was evaluated in 64 HIV-infected individuals from a cohort of MSM between 1996-June 2012. Fifty-four percent had a documented recent HIV infection, with a seroconversion time of less than 12 months. The median CD4+T lymphocyte count and VL were 531 cells/mm3and 17,746 copies/mL, respectively. Considering the surveillance drug resistance mutation criteria, nine (14.1%) patients presented TDR, of which three (4.7%), five (7.8%) and four (6.2%) had protease inhibitors, resistant against nucleos(t)ide transcriptase inhibitors and against non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors mutations, respectively. Two of the patients had multi-drug-resistant HIV-1. The most prevalent viral subtype was B (44, 68.8%), followed by subtype F (11, 17.2%). This study shows that TDR may vary according to the population studied and it may be higher in clusters of MSM.

Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Viral , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1 , Homosexuality, Male , Brazil , Genotype , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Reverse Transcriptase/genetics , HIV-1 , Mutation , Prevalence , RNA, Viral , Viral Load
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 16(6): 552-557, Nov.-Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-658926


OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to learn more about people diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at age 60 and above in Brazil, and to compare them with people diagnosed at a younger age. METHODS: This study was based on the analysis of secondary data from the Brazilian AIDS Program. The study population consisted of people diagnosed with AIDS at age 60 and above. The comparison group was comprised of a 20% random sample of people diagnosed at age 18 to 59, frequency-matched by year of diagnosis. RESULTS: 544,846 cases of AIDS were reported in Brazil from 1980 until June 2009. Over 90% of cases were diagnosed between 18 and 59 years of age, and 13,657 (2.5%) at age 60 and above. The first case of AIDS among the elderly was reported in 1984. The comparison group consisted of 101,528 patients. Gender proportion was similar for both groups, and the proportion of people identified with AIDS after death in the Brazilian Mortality Information System (SIM) was 4% higher among the elderly. Both groups were also similar regarding the region of residence; a markedly higher proportion lived in Southeastern Brazil. Older people were more likely to have lower education and to have contracted AIDS by heterosexual contact, and less likely to be intravenous drug users. Male to female ratio among those diagnosed with AIDS at or above age 60 decreased over the years, in the same way as observed for the whole cohort. Mortality was higher among men in both groups. CD4 category (taken closest to the date of AIDS diagnosis) was very similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: The characteristics of the epidemic among the elderly show similarities to the younger group considering gender distribution and CD4 category, but differ regarding educational level and exposure category. Also, the elderly were more likely not to have their AIDS condition promptly diagnosed.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/mortality , Age Distribution , Age Factors , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/transmission , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Educational Status , Incidence , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(2): 147-150, Mar.-Apr. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-625165


INTRODUCTION: In Brazil there is a large area of overlap of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and HIV infection, which favored a increased incidence of coinfection Leishmania/HIV. METHODS: This study evaluated 65 consecutive patients with VL and their clinical response to treatment in two health care settings in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. RESULTS: At baseline, the clinical picture was similar between both groups, although diarrhea and peripheral lymphadenomegaly were more frequent in HIV-infected subjects. HIV-positive patients had lower median blood lymphocyte counts (686/mm³ versus 948/mm³p = 0.004) and lower values of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (48IU/L versus 75.6IU/L p = 0.016) than HIV-negative patients. HIV-positive status (hazard ratio = 0.423, p = 0.023) and anemia (HR = 0.205, p = 0.002) were independent negative predictors of complete clinical response following antileishmanial treatment initiation. CONCLUSIONS: This study reinforces that all patients with VL should be tested for HIV infection, regardless of their clinical picture. This practice would allow early recognition of coinfection with initiation of antiretroviral therapy and, possibly, reduction in treatment failure.

INTRODUÇÃO: No Brasil, há uma grande área de sobreposição de leishmaniose visceral (LV) e infecção pelo HIV, o que favoreceu o aumento da incidência de co-infecção Leishmania/HIV. MÉTODOS: Este estudo avaliou a resposta clínica ao tratamento de 65 pacientes em dois centros de referência de saúde em Belo Horizonte, Brasil. RESULTADOS: O quadro clínico inicial foi semelhante entre os dois grupos, exceto pela maior frequência de diarréia e linfadenomegalia periférica em indivíduos infectados pelo HIV. Pacientes HIV-positivos apresentaram menor contagem de linfócitos no sangue (686/mm³versus 948/mm³p = 0,004) e menores valores de alanina aminotransferase (ALT) (48UI/L versus75,6UI/Lp = 0,016) do que pacientes HIV-negativos. Infecção pelo HIV-1 (hazard ratio-HR= 0,423, p = 0,023) e anemia (HR = 0,205, p = 0,002) foram preditores independentes de resposta clínica incompleta após o início do tratamento leishmanicida. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo reforça a indicação de testagem para HIV em todos os pacientes diagnosticados com LV. O procedimento permitiria o reconhecimento precoce da co-infecção, levando à adequação do manejo clínico e o início da terapia antirretroviral, aumentando as chances de sucesso terapêutico.

Adult , Humans , Male , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Coinfection/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 16(1): 27-33, Jan.-Feb. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614546


Finding a better first antiretroviral regimen is one of the strategies used to improve span and quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients. 891 patients were followed during 24 months or until interruption/abandonment of treatment, changing regimen or death. At the end of 6 months, 69 percent of the patients were still being treated with the first regimen, 54 percent at 12 months, 48 percent at 18 months and 39 percent at 24 months. AZT-3TC-EFV was the most prescribed regimen and with the lesser discontinuation. NNRTI regimens showed high effectiveness and durability compared to PI regimens. Irregular medication dispensation was the only risk factor for failure/interruption of treatment in multivariate analyses. Intolerance/adverse effects were mainly responsible for first regimen discontinuation, followed by abandonment/non-adherence and virologic failure. Results showed significant difference between causes of interruption of first HAART with higher percentage of intolerance/adverse effects with PI regimens and higher immunologic failure with NNRTI regimens. Even with the availability of more potent and tolerable drugs, lack of adherence to HAART and high level of adverse effects are still the most important barriers to prolonged success of treatment. This study adds relevant information about durability and effectiveness of HAART in the first decade of its use in Brazil.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , Brazil , Cohort Studies , Drug Administration Schedule , Follow-Up Studies , Time Factors
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 53(4): 193-196, July.-Aug. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-598598


The question of whether HIV-1 RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is derived from viral replication in the central nervous system or simply reflects the transit of infected lymphocytes from the blood compartment has long been a matter of debate. Some studies found no correlation between CSF and plasma viral load, whereas others did. The lack of a correlation between the two compartments suggests that the presence of HIV-1 RNA is not simply due to the passive passage of the virus from blood to CSF but rather due to intrathecal replication. To evaluate the correlation between plasma and CSF HIV-1 RNA levels and to identify situations in which there is no correlation between the two compartments, seventy patients were prospectively studied. The association between CSF and plasma viral load was evaluated in the total population and in subgroups of patients with similar characteristics. A correlation between the CSF and plasma compartments was observed for patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), those with a CD4 T lymphocyte count lower than 200 cells/mm³, and those with increased CSF protein content. On the other hand, no correlation was observed for patients without adequate virological control, who had a CD4 count higher than 200 cells/mm³ and who did not use HAART. The correlation between the two compartments observed in some patients suggests that CSF HIV-1 RNA levels may reflect plasma levels in these subjects. In contrast, the lack of a correlation between the two compartments in patients who were not on HAART and who had normal CSF proteins and a poor virological control possibly indicates compartmentalization of the virus in CSF and, consequently, plasma-independent intrathecal viral replication.

Tem sido objeto de debate a questão se o RNA do HIV-1 no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) é derivado da replicação viral no sistema nervoso central ou simplesmente reflete o tráfego de linfócitos infectados do compartimento sanguíneo. Alguns estudos não mostraram correlação entre a carga viral do plasma e LCR, mas outros sim. A falta de correlação entre os dois compartimentos sugere que a presença de RNA do HIV-1 não é simplesmente devido à passagem do vírus do plasma para o LCR, mas sim a uma replicação intratecal. Para avaliar a correlação entre os níveis de RNA do HIV-1 no plasma e no LCR e tentar identificar situações, na qual, não existe a correlação entre os dois compartimentos avaliaram-se setenta pacientes prospectivamente. A associação entre a carga viral do LCR e plasma foi avaliada na população total e em subgrupos de pacientes com características similares. A correlação entre os dois compartimentos foi observada em pacientes que estavam em uso da terapia antiretroviral (HAART), naqueles que tinham contagem de linfócitos CD4 menor que 200 céls/mm³ e naqueles com aumento da concentração de proteínas no LCR. Por outro lado, não houve correlação para os pacientes que não tinham um controle virológico adequado, os que tinham contagem de CD4 maior que 200 céls/mm³ e aqueles que não estavam usando HAART. A correlação entre os dois compartimentos observada em alguns pacientes sugere que os níveis de RNA do HIV-1 no LCR podem refletir os níveis plasmáticos nestes pacientes. E a falta de correlação ente os dois compartimentos em pacientes que não usavam HAART, nos que tinham uma concentração de proteínas no LCR normal, e nos que não apresentavam bom controle virológico, indica provavelmente a compartimentalização do vírus no LCR e consequentemente replicação viral intratecal independente da do plasma.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/virology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/virology , HIV-1 , RNA, Viral/blood , RNA, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/blood , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/cerebrospinal fluid , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/blood , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , HIV-1 , Prospective Studies , Viral Load , Virus Replication
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 41(1): 65-69, jan.-fev. 2008. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-478897


Ototoxicidade e terapia anti-retroviral parecem estar associadas. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar essa possível correlação. Foram avaliados 779 prontuários médicos de pacientes infectados pelo HIV e regularmente acompanhados, sendo 162 tratados com terapia anti-retroviral e 122 não tratados (controle). Pacientes em tratamento eram mais velhos (média 42 anos), com maior tempo de confirmação sorológica (80 meses) e com menor carga viral (p=0,00). CD4+ foi semelhante entre os grupos (P=0,60). No grupo tratado, três (1,8 por cento) casos de perda auditiva idiopática e dois (1,3 por cento) de perda auditiva relacionada a otosclerose foram observadas e ambas iniciadas após terapia anti-retroviral. Nenhuma diferença estatística relacionada à perda auditiva idiopática foi encontrada entre os grupos. Enquanto estudos descritivos consideram possível ototoxidade associada à terapia anti-retroviral, esse possível efeito adverso não foi relacionado à terapia anti-retroviral neste estudo. Contrariamente, otosclerose poderia estar correlacionada à terapia anti-retroviral. Este assunto merece ser estudado.

Ototoxicity and antiretroviral therapy seem to be associated. The aim of this study was to evaluate this possible correlation. Evaluations were carried out on 779 medical records from HIV-infected patients who were being regularly followed up, of whom 162 were being treated with antiretroviral therapy and 122 were untreated (controls). The patients undergoing treatment were older (mean: 42 years), had had serological confirmation for longer times (80 months) and had smaller viral loads (P = 0.00). CD4+ was similar between the groups (P = 0.60). In the treated group, three cases (1.8 percent) of idiopathic hearing loss and two (1.3 percent) of otosclerosis-related hearing loss were observed, which both started after antiretroviral therapy. No statistical difference relating to idiopathic hearing loss was found between the groups. While descriptive studies consider possible ototoxicity associated with antiretroviral therapy, this possible adverse effect was not related to the antiretroviral therapy in this study. Conversely, otosclerosis might have been correlated with antiretroviral therapy. This issue deserves to be studied.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Dizziness/chemically induced , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hearing Loss/chemically induced , Tinnitus/chemically induced , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , /virology , Viral Load
Rev. bras. otorrinolaringol ; 73(5): 671-674, ago.-out. 2007. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-470449


Perda auditiva sensório-neural (PASN) relacionada a otite média crônica supurativa (OMCS) foi estudada para esclarecer a participação do colesteatoma nesse contexto. OBJETIVO: Avaliar ocorrência de PASN na OMCS, correlacionando com colesteatoma, duração da doença e idade. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 115 pacientes com OMCS com e sem colesteatoma submetidos à cirurgia. Incluíram-se pacientes com doença unilateral, orelha contralateral normal e idade inferior a 60 anos. RESULTADOS: Idade média foi de 26 anos, sendo 58 homens e 57 mulheres. Tempo médio de duração da doença otológica de 12,4 anos. Limiar auditivo médio foi de 40 dB na orelha com OMCS e 22dB na orelha normal (P=0,002). Observou-se colesteatoma em 78 dos 115 casos. Na orelha com OMCS, ocorreram 15 (13 por cento) casos de PASN, sendo 7 associadas à colesteatoma e 8 não associadas. Seis casos de PASN foram severa/profunda, correlacionando-se com idade ajustada (P=0,003), ausência de colesteatoma (P=0,01), mas não com duração da doença (P=0,458). CONCLUSÃO: PASN ocorreu em 13 por cento dos pacientes com OMCS, correlacionando-se com o aumento da idade, mas não com a presença de colesteatoma ou com maior duração da doença otológica.

Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) related to chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) was studied to clarify the involvement of cholesteatomas in this context. AIM: to evaluate SNHL related to CSOM and its association with cholesteatomas, disease duration and patients’ ages. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 115 patients with CSOM with and without cholesteatoma submitted to surgical treatment. Inclusion criteria were active unilateral disease, normal contralateral ear and age below 60 years. RESULTS: The average age was 26.3 years, 58 males and 57 females. The duration of ear disease was, in average, 12.4 years. The average threshold of hearing was 40 dB in CSOM ear and 22 dB in the normal contralateral ear (P=0.002). CSOM with cholesteatoma occurred in 78 of 115 cases. In the abnormal ear, SNHL was seen in 15 cases, being 6 cases of profound loss, that correlated with adjusted-age (P=0.003) and absence of cholesteatoma (P=0.01), but not with disease duration (P=0.458). CONCLUSION: SNHL occurred in 13 percent of the patients with CSOM, and was correlated with older age, but not with the presence of cholesteatoma or longer duration of ear disease.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear/complications , Otitis Media, Suppurative/complications , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/etiology , Audiometry , Auditory Threshold , Chronic Disease , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 51(1): 42-51, fev. 2007. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-448362


Os objetivos foram avaliar dados antropométricos e perfis lipídico e glicêmico de pacientes infectados pelo HIV usuários e não usuários de anti-retrovirais (ARV), e verificar a associação entre ARV e alterações da gordura corporal, distúrbios lipídicos e da homeostase da glicose. Foram incluídos 176 pacientes (133 usuários e 43 não usuários de ARV). Os pacientes foram submetidos a avaliação clínica, exames laboratoriais, ultrassonografia, biompedanciometria e medida de pregas cutâneas. Pacientes usuários de ARV apresentaram maior relação cintura/quadril (p= 0,0002), maior espessura da gordura intra-abdominal medida pela ultrassonografia (p= 0,003) e menores pregas de gordura bicipital (p= 0,01) e tricipital (p= 0,0002). Estes pacientes tiveram níveis mais elevados de triglicérides (p= 0,0002), colesterol total (p= 0,00007) e colesterol HDL (p= 0,009). Eles também apresentaram maiores níveis de glicose aos 60 (p= 0,01) e 120 minutos (p= 0,001) após dextrosol, maiores níveis de insulina de jejum (p= 0,03) e maiores valores do índice HOMA (p= 0,02). As drogas anti-retrovirais estão associadas a acúmulo central e perda periférica de gordura. Além disso, estas drogas estão associadas a alterações lipídicas e a aumento da resistência insulínica, conhecidos fatores de risco cardiovascular.

The aims of this study were to describe anthropometric data and glycemic and lipidic profiles of HIV-infected patients treated or not with antiretrovirals (ARV) drugs, and to assess association between these drugs and body composition changes, lipid and glucose homeostasis disturbances. There were 176 patients included (133 ARV-treated patients and 43 ARV-naïve). The patients were submitted to clinical evaluation, laboratorial analysis, ultrasonographic measurements, bioelectrical impedance analysis and skin folds thickness measurements. The ARV-treated group showed higher waist-to-hip ratio (p= 0.0002), higher intra-abdominal fat thickness measured by ultrasonography (p= 0.003) and lower bicipital (p= 0.01) and tricipital (p= 0.0002) skin folds. This group also showed higher triglyceride (p= 0.0002), total cholesterol (p= 0.00007), HDL cholesterol (p= 0.009), glucose measurements one hour (p= 0.01) and two hours (p= 0.001) after dextrose load, higher levels of fasting insulin (p= 0.03) and higher HOMAR index (p= 0.02). The antiretroviral drugs are associated with increased visceral fat and decreased peripheral fat pads. Beside that, these drugs are associated with atherogenic lipid profile and insulin resistance, two independent risk predictors of cardiovascular disease.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Body Fat Distribution , Blood Glucose/drug effects , HIV Infections/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome/chemically induced , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome/metabolism , Intra-Abdominal Fat/drug effects , Metabolic Syndrome/chemically induced , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Statistics, Nonparametric , Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal/drug effects
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 39(2): 146-151, mar.-abr. 2006. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-426905


Com o objetivo de estudar as doencas neurológicas em pacientes HIV/AIDS e sua relacão com a terapia anti-retroviral altamente ativa, foi realizado estudo transversal em hospital público de doencas infecciosas de Belo Horizonte, Brasil, no período de fevereiro de 1999 a marco de 2000. Doenca neurológica foi observada em 194 (46,5%) dos 417 indivíduos incluídos e um novo episódio de doenca neurológica definidora de AIDS ocorreu em 23,7% pacientes. Toxoplasmose (42,3%), criptococose (12,9%) e tuberculose (10,8%) foram as principais causas de complicacões neurológicas. A maioria dos pacientes estava em uso de terapia anti-retroviral altamente ativa (79,3%) e esses indivíduos apresentaram maiores contagens de linfócitos CD4 (p = 0,014) e maior freqüência de doenca neurológica clinicamente estável, embora não tenha havido diferenca no perfil etiológico das complicacões neurológicas. As doencas neurológicas continuam sendo causas freqüentes de complicacões da infeccão pelo HIV/AIdS no Brasil, e a despeito da terapia anti-retroviral altamente ativa, as infeccões são ainda a principal etiologia das doencas do sistema nervoso.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , AIDS Dementia Complex/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Central Nervous System Infections/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies