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1.
J. med. virol ; 92(10): 1-6, Aug. 2, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-RS | ID: biblio-1120884

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viral infection can cause severe disease and hospitalization, especially among children, the elderly, and patients with comorbidities. In Brazil, the official surveillance system of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) investigates influenza A (IAV) and B (IBV) viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus (HAdV), and parainfluenza viruses (hPIV 1­3). In Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, many fatalities associated with SARI between 2013 and 2017 occurred among patients without underlying diseases and for whom the causative agent had not been identified using official protocols. This cross­sectional study analyzed the presence of coronaviruses (HCoV), bocavirus (HBoV), metapneumovirus (hMPV), and rhinovirus in patients who died of SARI despite not having comorbidities, and that were negative for IAV, IBV, RSV, HAdV, and hPIV. Nasopharyngeal aspirates/swabs from patients were used for nucleic acid extraction. The presence of HCoVs OC43, HKU1, NL63, and 229E; HBoV; hMPV; and rhinovirus was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription­polymerase chain reaction. Clinical data were also analyzed. Between 2013 and 2017, 16 225 cases of SARI were reported in RS; 9.8% of the patients died; 20% of all fatal cases were patients without comorbidities and for whom no pathogen was detected using standard protocols. Analysis of 271 of these cases identified HCoV in nine cases; HBoV, hMPV, and rhinovirus were detected in 3, 3, and 10 cases, respectively. Of note, patients infected with HCoV were adults. Results reinforce the importance of including coronaviruses in diagnostic panels used by official surveillance systems because besides their pandemic potential, endemic HCoVs are associated to severe disease in healthy adults.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Respiratory System , Coronavirus , Epidemiological Monitoring , Infections , Patients , Rhinovirus , Viruses , Virus Diseases , Adenoviridae , Disease , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Influenza, Human , Bocavirus
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 50(3): 677-684, July 2019. ilus., tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-RS | ID: biblio-1121770

ABSTRACT

Human mastadenovirus (HAdV) genus is related to several diseases, among them upper and lower respiratory tract illness. HAdV species B, C, D, and E are mainly associated with respiratory infections. The goal of this work was to identify the HAdV species associated with respiratory infections in hospitalized patients from southern Brazil. Samples were collected from 1996 to 2004 and 2011 to 2017. During this period, 28,524 samples were collected, and 9983 were positive for respiratory viruses, being 435 for HAdV. From these 435 samples, 57 were selected for characterization of HAdV species. For screening the presence of HAdV, a partial sequence of the DNA polymerase gene (DNApol gene) was amplified by nested PCR. Partial nucleotide sequencing was performed in positive samples, and HAdV (DNApol gene) was detected in 53 samples: species B (28;49.1%), C (16;8.0%), D (2; 3.5%), E (5; 8.7%), and untyped (2; 3.5%). Specie D was found only in 2017 and specie E in 2011 and 2012. The age of the patients ranged from < 1 to 81 years old, and 62.3%were male. No relationship between gender orage and identified HAdV species were observed. In addition, in the period of 2013­2017, 18 samples from patients who died were analyzed: 11 were related to species B, 4 to C, and 2 to D and 1 remained untyped. Circulation of HAdV species D and Evaried over the years, but species B and C were present throughout the evaluated period. In addition, respiratory infections by HAdVaffect elderly and children mainly. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Mastadenovirus/pathogenicity , Nucleic Acids , Morbidity
3.
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 36(2): 55-60, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-RS | ID: biblio-1121303

ABSTRACT

Background: The number of fungal infections has increased in recent years in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil. Epidemiological studies are important for proper control of infections. Aims: To evaluate the etiology of fungal infections in patients in RS, from 2003 to 2015. Methods: This is a retrospective and longitudinal study carried out at Mycology Department of Central Laboratory of RS; 13,707 samples were evaluated. The variables sex, age, site of infection, and etiologic agent were analyzed. Susceptibility of Candida to fluconazole was tested in samples collected in 2015from 51 outpatients. Results: Of the 13,707 samples, 840 cases (6.12%) of fungal infections were found and included in the analyses; female gender accounted for the 55.9% of the cases. The main fungus was Candida albicans (450 cases, 53.38%; p < 0.001). Onychomycosis was the most frequent infection in superficial mycoses. Systemic mycoses accounted for 54.05% of the cases, from which 68.8% occurred in males, mainly HIVpositive (33.11%), and the main etiologic agent in these cases was Cryptococcus neoformans (73.13%). Among 51 samples tested for susceptibility to fluconazole, 78.43% of Candida isolates were susceptible; 5.88% were susceptible in a dose-dependent manner, and 15.69% were resistant. Conclusions: C. albicans is a common cause of fungal infections in RS, accounting for half of the cases;resistance to antifungals was found in non-hospitalized patients. In addition, women seem to be moresusceptible to fungal infections than men, however men show more systemic mycoses than women. Thenails are the most common site of infection. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Fungi/classification , Mycoses/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fungi/drug effects
4.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 49(2): e20180451, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045283

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Samples of 168 maté trees (Ilex paraguariensis) from four natural populations of different states of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul) were analyzed for their variability in storage proteins seed, which were used to estimate the degree of differentiation among and within species, because are relatively stable during evolution. Data on band presence/absence from 80 different polypeptides were used to perform similarity coefficient of Jaccard. A high level of genetic variability was reported within sampled populations (SJ intra=0.374). Lower levels of diversity were observed between populations (SJ inter=0.308). Total genetic diversity of maté was Hsp=0.264 estimated by Shannon measure. Partition of that value disclosed that 95 % of the total diversity is within-population, and only 5% to between-populations. The phenogram based on King's distances indicates a certain degree of geographic differentiation. This represents the first study on storage protein variability in I. paraguariensis and guides the choice of the specimens to increment germoplasm banks and genetic improvement programs.


RESUMO: A variabilidade de proteínas de reserva das sementes foi analisada em 168 árvores de quatro populações naturais de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) dos estados brasileiros Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná e Mato Grosso do Sul. Estes marcadores foram utilizados para estimar o grau de diferenciação entre e dentro da espécie porque são relativamente estáveis ao longo da evolução. Dados sobre presença e ausência de bandas de 80 diferentes polipeptídios foram utilizados para calcular o coeficiente de similaridade de Jaccard. Encontramos alto grau de variabilidade genética dentro de cada uma das quatro populações de árvores (SJ intra=0.374). Menores níveis de diversidade foram observados entre as populações (SJ inter=0.308). A diversidade total da espécie Ilex foi Hsp=0,264, estimada pela medida de Shannon. A partição deste valor revelou que 95% da diversidade total é intrapopulacional, enquanto somente 5% é entre populações. O fenograma, baseado nas distâncias de King, indica certo grau de diferenciação geográfica. Este trabalho representa o primeiro estudo de variabilidade em proteínas de reserva de I. paraguariensis e pode ser utilizado para orientar a escolha de espécimes para compor bancos de germoplasma e programas de melhoramento genético da espécie.

5.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(3): 462-464, May-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038269

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The number of new cases of emerging fungal infections has increased considerably in recent years, mainly due to the large number of immunocompromised individuals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of emerging fungi to fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B by disk diffusion method. In 2015, 82 emerging fungi were evaluated in IPB-LACEN/RS and 13 (15.8%) were resistant: 10/52 were from superficial mycoses and 3/30 from systemic mycoses. The data from the study point to the need for permanent vigilance regarding the careful evaluation in the prescription and clinical and laboratory follow-up of patients affected by fungal infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fungi/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/complications , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Fungi/isolation & purification , Mycoses/microbiology , Mycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(1): 30-38, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-RS | ID: biblio-897050

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION Infections caused by respiratory viruses are important problems worldwide, especially in children. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a respiratory pathogen and causes severe infections with nonspecific symptoms. This study reports the hMPV occurrence and dissemination in southern Brazil and compares the frequency of occurrence of this virus and the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) in the epidemiological weeks in a three-year period (2009-2011). METHODS: In total, 545 nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens from individuals with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) who were negative for other seven respiratory viruses were analyzed for the presence of hMPV. Human metapneumovirus was detected by direct immunofluorescence and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: hMPV was detected in 109 patients from the main geographic regions of the southernmost state of Brazil, presenting similar overall prevalence in males (46.8%) and females (53.2%). Among children who were less than six years old, hMPV was detected in 99 samples of all age groups, with a higher frequency in infants who were less than one year old (45.7%) compared to all other age groups until six years. hMPV and hRSV infection occurred in almost the same epidemiological weeks (EWs) of each year, with peaks of incidence between EW 31/37 and EW 26/38 for the years 2009 and 2011, respectively. hMPV was further detected in several cases of SARS and it was the only virus detected in three deaths. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicate that hMPV is in circulation in southern Brazil and highlight the importance of diagnosing hMPV for influenza-like illness in the population. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Metapneumovirus/pathogenicity , Epidemiological Monitoring , Adenoviruses, Human , Pneumovirinae/classification , Paramyxoviridae Infections/virology , Coronavirus , Enterovirus , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Influenza, Human , Human bocavirus
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(4): 255-259, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Porto Alegre is the Brazilian state capital with second highest incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and the highest proportion of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among patients with TB. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increases the risk of anti-TB drug-induced hepatotoxicity, which may result in discontinuation of the therapy. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was (i) to estimate prevalence of HCV and HIV in a group of patients newly diagnosed with active TB in a public reference hospital in Porto Alegre and (ii) to compare demographic, behavioural, and clinical characteristics of patients in relation to their HCV infection status. METHODS One hundred and thirty-eight patients with TB were tested for anti-HCV antibody, HCV RNA, and anti-HIV1/2 antibody markers. HCV RNA from real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive samples was submitted to reverse transcription and PCR amplification. The 5′ non-coding region of the HCV genome was sequenced, and genotypes of HCV isolates were determined. FINDINGS Anti-HCV antibody, HCV RNA, and anti-HIV antibodies were detected in 27 [20%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 13-26%], 17 (12%; 95% CI, 7-18%), and 34 (25%; 95% CI, 17-32%) patients, respectively. HCV isolates belonged to genotypes 1 (n = 12) and 3 (n = 4). Some characteristics were significantly more frequent in patients infected with HCV. Among them, non-white individuals, alcoholics, users of illicit drugs, imprisoned individuals, and those with history of previous TB episode were more commonly infected with HCV (p < 0.05). MAIN CONCLUSIONS HCV screening, including detection of anti-HCV antibody and HCV RNA, will be important to improving the management of co-infected patients, given their increased risk of developing TB treatment-related hepatotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , HIV Antibodies/blood , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/blood , Polymerase Chain Reaction
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 101-105, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS | ID: lil-741611

ABSTRACT

The 2009 pandemic influenza A virus outbreak led to the systematic use of the neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor oseltamivir (OST). Consequently, OST-resistant strains, carrying the mutation H275Y, emerged in the years after the pandemics, with a prevalence of 1-2%. Currently, OST-resistant strains have been found in community settings, in untreated individuals. To spread in community settings, H275Y mutants must contain additional mutations, collectively called permissive mutations. We display the permissive mutations in NA of OST-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 virus found in Brazilian community settings. The NAs from 2013 are phylogenetically distinct from those of 2012, indicating a tendency of positive selection of NAs with better fitness. Some previously predicted permissive mutations, such as V241I and N369K, found in different countries, were also detected in Brazil. Importantly, the change D344N, also predicted to compensate loss of fitness imposed by H275Y mutation, was found in Brazil, but not in other countries in 2013. Our results reinforce the notion that OST-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 strains with compensatory mutations may arise in an independent fashion, with samples being identified in different states of Brazil and in different countries. Systematic circulation of these viral strains may jeopardise the use of the first line of anti-influenza drugs in the future. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Influenza A virus , Drug Resistance, Viral , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , Mutation/drug effects
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(3): 345-351, 06/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-711738

ABSTRACT

Certain host single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affect the likelihood of a sustained virological response (SVR) to treatment in subjects infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). SNPs in the promoters of interleukin (IL)-10 (-1082 A/G, rs1800896), myxovirus resistance protein 1 (-123 C/A, rs17000900 and -88 G/T, rs2071430) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) (-308 G/A, rs1800629 and -238 G/A, rs361525) genes and the outcome of PEGylated α-interferon plus ribavirin therapy were investigated. This analysis was performed in 114 Brazilian, HCV genotype 1-infected patients who had a SVR and in 85 non-responders and 64 relapsers. A significantly increased risk of having a null virological response was observed in patients carrying at least one A allele at positions -308 [odds ratios (OR) = 2.58, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.44-4.63, p = 0.001] or -238 (OR = 7.33, 95% CI = 3.59-14.93, p < 0.001) in the TNF promoter. The risk of relapsing was also elevated (-308: OR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.51-5.44, p = 0.001; -238: OR = 4.20, 95% CI = 1.93-9.10, p < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression of TNF diplotypes showed that patients with at least two copies of the A allele had an even higher risk of having a null virological response (OR = 16.43, 95% CI = 5.70-47.34, p < 0.001) or relapsing (OR = 6.71, 95% CI = 2.18-20.66, p = 0.001). No statistically significant association was found between the other SNPs under study and anti-HCV therapy response.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Interferon-alpha/administration & dosage , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Ribavirin/administration & dosage , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Genotype , Hepatitis C, Chronic/genetics , /genetics , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Treatment Failure , Viral Load
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(3): 392-394, maio 2013.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676978

ABSTRACT

The neuraminidase (NA) genes of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus isolates from 306 infected patients were analysed. The circulation of oseltamivir-resistant viruses in Brazil has not been reported previously. Clinical samples were collected in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) from 2009-2011 and two NA inhibitor-resistant mutants were identified, one in 2009 (H275Y) and the other in 2011 (S247N). This study revealed a low prevalence of resistant viruses (0.8%) with no spread of the resistant mutants throughout RS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Mutation , Neuraminidase/genetics , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , Brazil , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/enzymology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/genetics
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