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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1420-1428, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924757

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to systematically analyze the antidepressant mechanism of Chaigui granules from the perspective of biological metabolic network by using integrated metabolomics and biological network analysis tools. The model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) depression rat was established, and LC-MS-based plasma metabolomics was used to identify the key metabolites and analyze metabolic pathways underlying the antidepressant effects of Chaigui Granules. The key metabolites regulated by Chaigui granules was integrated with biological network analysis tools to further focus on the key metabolic pathways and explore the potential targets of the antidepressant effect of Chaigui granules. The results showed that there were significant differences in the plasma levels of 20 metabolites in the model group compared with the control group (P < 0.05), Chaigui granules significantly regulated 12 metabolites including docosatrienoic acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, chenodeoxycholic acid, cholic acid, L-glutamine, glycocholic acid, linoleyl carnitine, L-tyrosine, N-acetylvaline, palmitoylcarnitine, arachidonic acid. Further network analysis of the key metabolites regulated by Chaigui granules indicated that plasma arachidonic acid metabolism might be the core pathway for the antidepressant effect of Chaigui granules, with 10 proteins were potential targets for the antidepressant effect of Chaigui granules, including CYP2B6, CYP2E1, CYP2C9, CYP2C8, PLA2G6, PTGS2, ALOX15B, PTGS1, ALOX12 and ALOX5. The animal experimental operations involved in this paper was followed the regulations of the Animal Ethics Committee of Shanxi University and passed the animal experimental ethical review (Approval No. SXULL2020028).

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1352-1360, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924746

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of puerarin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) injured with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). HUVEC were divided into three groups: a control group, a model group (H2O2 400 μmol·L-1) and a puerarin-treated group (3, 10, 30 and 100 μmol·L-1). HUVEC were cultured with varied concentration of puerarin for 2 h and treated with H2O2 for another 24 h. Cell proliferation was detected by a CCK-8 assay. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by a JC-1 fluorescent probe. A transwell chamber assay was adopted to observe cell migration ability. Mitochondrial respiratory function was measured in a two-chamber titration injection respirometer (Oxygraph-2k). The expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-18 (IL-18) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The expression of pyroptosis-mediated proteins, including cleaved-cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-1 (caspase-1), N-gasdermin D (N-GSDMD), NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) and purinergic ligand-gated ion channel 7 receptor (P2X7R) was detected by Western blot. The results show that 400 μmol·L-1 H2O2 treatment for 24 h causes obvious damage to HUVEC. Compared with the model group, puerarin protected against cellular injury in a dose-dependent manner, with the greatest effect at a dose of 30 and 100 μmol·L-1. Puerarin significantly decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and improved mitochondrial function. Puerarin inhibited cell migration induced by H2O2, suppressed the expression of IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α, and down-regulated the pyroptosis-mediated protein. These changes are statistically significant (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate that puerarin has a protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative damage of HUVEC by inhibiting the migration of HUVEC cells. The mechanism may be related to improved mitochondrial respiratory function and inhibition of pyroptosis.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2245-2252, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937046

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with a high clinical heterogeneity. According to its motor symptoms, PD patients are divided into predominant tremor-dominant, postural instability and gait difficulty-dominant/akinetic-rigid and mixed subtypes. Different subtypes show different prognostic characteristics and different sensitivities to drugs. Therefore, the early classification of PD is of great significance for the treatment and prognosis of the disease. This paper reviews the clinical classification methods of different subtypes of PD, summarizes the latest biochemical markers and imaging features, and analyzed the differences in incidence, prognosis and pathological mechanism. The current clinical treatment drugs and methods have been preliminarily targeted for treatment based on PD classification, and there are many animal models of PD subtypes have been studied, providing new methods and strategies for mechanism research and preclinical pharmacodynamics evaluation of PD subtypes.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 568-575, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922892

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes is a hypermetabolic disease characterized with disorders of glucose/lipid metabolism, absolute or relative lack of insulin, and can induce skeletal muscle atrophy. Hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and abnormal release of inflammatory factors can lead to abnormal signal transduction in skeletal muscle, thus make protein synthesis and degradation imbalance and eventually causing muscle atrophy. Under normal conditions, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/insulin can activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT). AKT not only increases protein synthesis through mammalian target protein of rapamycin (mTOR), but also phosphorylates forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factor and then inhibits the transcription of several ubiquitin ligases (such as MAFbx/atrogin-1 and MuRF1), or autophagy related genes. The weakened IGF-1/PI3K/AKT pathway in type 2 diabetes is an important factor leading to skeletal muscle atrophy. Studies have shown that the commonly used anti-type 2 diabetic drugs have different effects in regulating the synthesis and degradation of skeletal muscle protein. Studies reported that drugs with effect of anti-diabetic muscle atrophy include thiazolidinediones, glucagon-like peptide analogs, glucose-sodium cotransporter 2 inhibitors, etc.; drugs that are still in controversial or even promote skeletal muscle atrophy include metformin, and some sulfonylurea or non-sulfonylurea insulin secretagogues. This article overviewed and analyzed the currently commonly used drugs for type 2 diabetes and summarized the related mechanisms, with the aim to provide references for the rational applications of drugs for type 2 diabetes.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1621-1629, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929457

ABSTRACT

Cystine/glutamate antiporter [system Xc(-)] is a sodium independent amino acid transporter, which is a heterodimer composed of light chain subunit xCT and heavy chain subunit 4F2hc (CD98) through covalent disulfide bond. System Xc(-) typically mediates cystine uptake and glutamate output, helps to maintain the balance of glutamate, cystine and cysteine inside and outside the cell, regulates the level of glutamate inside and outside the membrane and the synthesis of intracellular glutathione, thus affecting oxidative stress and glutamate neurotoxicity. This review expounds the structure and function of system Xc(-), analyzes the role of the transporter in physiology and pathology, discusses the role and mechanism in different diseases, and discusses the specific research progress of system Xc(-) as a drug target. This review summarizes the research status of system Xc(-) and provides theoretical guidance for further research on system Xc(-) and drug discovery.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929265

ABSTRACT

Cancer is a complex disease associated with multiple gene mutations and malignant phenotypes, and multi-target drugs provide a promising therapy idea for the treatment of cancer. Natural products with abundant chemical structure types and rich pharmacological characteristics could be ideal sources for screening multi-target antineoplastic drugs. In this paper, 50 tumor-related targets were collected by searching the Therapeutic Target Database and Thomson Reuters Integrity database, and a multi-target anti-cancer prediction system based on mt-QSAR models was constructed by using naïve Bayesian and recursive partitioning algorithm for the first time. Through the multi-target anti-cancer prediction system, some dominant fragments that act on multiple tumor-related targets were analyzed, which could be helpful in designing multi-target anti-cancer drugs. Anti-cancer traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and its natural products were collected to form a TCM formula-based natural products library, and the potential targets of the natural products in the library were predicted by multi-target anti-cancer prediction system. As a result, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were predicted to act on multiple tumor-related targets. The predicted targets of some representative compounds were verified according to literature review and most of the selected natural compounds were found to exert certain anti-cancer activity in vitro biological experiments. In conclusion, the multi-target anti-cancer prediction system is very effective and reliable, and it could be further used for elucidating the functional mechanism of anti-cancer TCM formula and screening for multi-target anti-cancer drugs. The anti-cancer natural compounds found in this paper will lay important information for further study.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Bayes Theorem , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Neoplasms/drug therapy
7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3484-3492, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906828

ABSTRACT

Compound reserpine and triamterene tablets (CRTT), a compound antihypertensive drug developed by Chinese scientists, is still widely used in clinical practice. However, the mechanisms by which CRTT treats hypertension remain to be fully understood. This study used network pharmacology to analyze CRTT's antihypertensive mechanisms with in vitro experiments. The targets of the four chemical components of CRTT were collected from the Swiss Target Prediction database; 1 828 protein targets related to hypertension were collected from the Therapeutic Target Database (TTD) and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. The CRTT-hypertension network model was constructed using a search tool for recurring instances of neighbouring genes (STRING). Gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis of targets of interest was conducted with the Metascape database. In the in vitro study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were treated with 1 μmol·L-1 angiotensin Ⅱ (AngⅡ) and CRTT was administered at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 μmol·L-1. Changes in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein serine threonine kinase/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (PI3K/Akt/eNOS) pathway in HUVEC and the cyclic guanosine monophosphate/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGMP/PKG) pathway in VSMC were determined by Western blot. Network pharmacological analysis revealed that the antihypertensive effect of CRTT is closely associated with biological pathways such as vascular tone regulation, adrenergic receptor activation, protein kinase activity and signaling pathways such as the cGMP/PKG signaling pathway, vascular smooth muscle contraction, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes and calcium signaling pathways. The in vitro study confirmed that CRTT increased the levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (p-PI3K), phosphorylated protein serine threonine kinase (p-Akt), phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS) in HUVEC and the levels of eNOS, phosphorylated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (p-VASP), and PKG in VSMC through multiple targets and pathways. These results suggest that the activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway and endothelial-dependent NO/cGMP signaling may be involved in the CRTT-mediated hypotensive effect.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 661-668, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876529

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria play a key role in cell metabolism. In addition to synthesizing ATP, they also participate in many physiological and pathological processes, including apoptosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, neuronal disease, tumor development, and aging. Most gene transcription of mitochondrial proteins occurs in the nucleus, so the biogenesis of mitochondria and the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis mainly depend on the expression of nuclear genes (nDNA) and mitochondria-nucleus interactions. Conversely, mitochondria can affect the expression of nuclear genes through nuclear transcription factors, a process called mitochondrial retrograde signaling. This review summarizes the research progress on mitochondria-nucleus retrograde signaling and its regulation, including the ways by which mitochondria regulate nuclear genes and affect biological processes, and discusses new strategies for the treatment of diseases that involve mitochondrial retrograde signaling in disease pathology.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 368-373, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873770

ABSTRACT

Salvianolic acids are the main water-soluble active compounds of Salvia miltiorrhiza and have been widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Based on the latest studies in China and abroad, we summarize the pharmacological effects and mechanism of salvianolic acids on ischemic heart disease by describing how salvianolic acid A and salvianolic acid B protect the vascular endothelium, relax coronary arteries, promote angiogenesis and anti-platelet aggregation, inhibit the inflammatory response, anti-cell apoptosis, and scavenge free radicals. This review provides a theoretical basis for further research on the effects of salvianolic acids on ischemic heart disease and their potential for drug development.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 208-216, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872601

ABSTRACT

In the treatment of hypertensive crisis, the novel Rho kinase inhibitor DL0805-2 can rapidly lower systematic blood pressure, reduce pulmonary artery pressure, and has a significant protective effect on lung injury. This experiment intends to evaluate the efficacy of DL0805-2 against pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and preliminarily reveals its underlying mechanism. Animal welfare and experimental procedures are in accordance with the provision of the Animal Ethics Committee of the Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into DL0805-2 low, medium, and high dose groups (1, 3, and 10 mg·kg-1), bosentan positive control group, model group, and blank control group. The drug was administered daily on the 7th day after model establishment by monocrotaline injection. On the 25th day of the experiment, relevant indicators were examined to observe the therapeutic effect of DL0805-2 on pulmonary hypertension. DL0805-2 significantly relieved the abnormal changes in the physiological parameters related to PAH induced by monocrotaline, including reducing right ventricular systolic pressure, alleviating cardiac damage caused by pressure overload, and reducing the levels of endothelin-1 and inflammatory factors in lung tissues. DL0805-2 also attenuated pulmonary arteries remodeling. It was preliminarily discovered that DL0805-2 exerts preventive and therapeutic effect on PAH through Rho-kinase pathway. Our results suggested that DL0805-2 had good therapeutic effects on monocrotaline-induced PAH rat model. It intervened early in the disease process, effectively prevented the development of the disease, and reduced the mortality of the diseased animals. The mechanism is related to Rho-kinase pathway.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1-8, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872594

ABSTRACT

The α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a ligand-gated ion channel that is distributed throughout the nervous system. It is involved in the regulation of various neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, dopamine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and norepinephrine. α4β2-nAChR plays an important role in learning, memory, cognition, attention, inflammation, and pain. A large number of studies have shown that α4β2-nAChR is an important therapeutic target for neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, depression, nicotine dependence, pain, etc. It is an important target in the early diagnosis and curative effect detection of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. This review summarizes the role, mechanisms and related drug research advances on α4β2-nAChR ligand drugs in neurological diseases, as well as providing a theoretical basis for identifying and developing more suitable α4β2-nAChR-related compounds.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887973

ABSTRACT

Circadian rhythm disorder is a common society issue caused by jet lag,shift work,sleep disruption and changes in food consumption. Light is the major factor affecting the circadian rhythm system. Disruption of the circadian rhythm system can cause damage to the body,leading to some diseases. Maintaining a normal circadian system is of great importance for good health. Ideal therapeutic effect can not only alleviate symptoms of the diseases,but also recovery the disturbed circadian rhythm to normal. The paper summarizes the modeling methods of animal circadian rhythm disorder,diseases of circadian rhythm abnormality,regulation of circadian clock genes and medicine which are related to circadian rhythm to diseases of circadian rhythm disorder.


Subject(s)
Animals , Circadian Rhythm/genetics , Humans , Jet Lag Syndrome/genetics , Sleep , Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm
13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1343-1351, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887089

ABSTRACT

This study was to investigate the protective effects of puerarin on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury and the underlying mechanism. The MI/R-model was established by ligating the left anterior descending artery (LAD) for 60 min followed by 24 h reperfusion, puerarin (10, 30, and 100 mg·kg-1) was orally administered 20 min before reperfusion. Cardiac function, myocardial infarct index, cardiac damage markers, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis index were measured to evaluate the protective effects of puerarin on MI/R injury. The activation of Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (Myd88)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway were determined by Western blot. All animal experimental procedures were approved by the ethics committee of the Institute of Materia Medica, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. The results showed that puerarin could significantly improve cardiac function, reduce myocardial infarct size, decease the levels of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and suppress cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Meanwhile, puerarin could notably decrease the levels of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Western blot analysis revealed that puerarin could downregulate the expression of TLR4, Myd88, NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), cleaved-caspase 1, cleaved-gasdermin-D (GSDMD), IL-1β, and IL-18, as well as the phosphorylation levels of inhibitor of NF-κB α (IκBα), IκB kinase β (IKKβ), and NF-κB. These findings demonstrated that puerarin could alleviate MI/R injury by suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation, possibly via TLR4/Myd88/NF-κB pathway.

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2136-2145, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887033

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence technology is being widely applied in drug screening. This paper introduces the characteristics of artificial intelligence, and summarizes the application and progress of artificial intelligence technology especially deep learning in drug screening, from ligand-based and receptor structure-based aspects. This paper also introduces how to apply artificial intelligence to drug design from these two aspects. Finally, we discuss the main limitations, challenges, and prospects of artificial intelligence technology in the field of drug screening.

15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1872-1879, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887012

ABSTRACT

Ischemic heart disease (IHD), which has been considered to be exclusively caused by stenosis or occlusion of coronary artery, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction is the main pathological basis of ischemic heart disease and reperfusion injury, and moderate mitochondrial autophagy can selectively remove damage proteins and organelles to maintain intracellular homeostasis, so mitochondrial autophagy is important for maintaining the homeostasis of cardiomyocytes. Natural drugs from plants are widely used in ischemic heart disease. In recent years, more and more natural drugs have been proven to alleviate myocardial cell damage after ischemia/reperfusion through mitochondrial autophagy. This paper reviews the research progress of natural drugs from plants medicines regulating mitochondrial autophagy in the treatment of ischemia heart disease.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2464-2471, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886942

ABSTRACT

Depression was a complex and difficult to regulate disease, which was closely related to purinergic system and purine metabolism disorder. Although there had been studies to improve depression by regulating purinergic system, the mechanism of action was complex and needed to be sorted out. Recently, a large number of studies had found that the addition of exogenous purine metabolites adenosine, inosine and guanosine had a significant antidepressant effect, indicating that regulating the level of purine substances in purine metabolism could also improve depression, which was of great significance to the further study of the pathogenesis and treatment of depression. In view of this, this study reviewed the relationship between purinergic system or purine metabolism and depression, in order to provide a reference for the further study of the pathogenesis of depression.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2811-2817, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862294

ABSTRACT

Wound healing is a complex and highly regulated process to maintaining the skin barrier function. Wounds of diabetic patients are hard or even not healing. Non-healing diabetic foot ulcers can lead to lower-extremity amputations. Diabetic wound healing problem is the main complication that leads to high disability rate of diabetes and can threaten the lives in severe cases. The healing of skin wounds requires the synergy of multiple factors to restore the injured skin to its barrier function. The mechanisms that cause it difficult to heal diabetic wounds are complex, including oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, decreased neovascularization, peripheral neuropathy, and imbalance of extracellular matrix accumulation and remodeling. This review classifies mechanisms of diabetic wound healing and provides a reference for its further research.

18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2306-2313, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829383

ABSTRACT

Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. A large number of preclinical studies have demonstrated that exogenous cell-based therapies such as mesenchymal stem cell transplantation can promote brain function recovery in the subacute phase of stroke. Emerging data indicate that mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes play a key role in mediating tissue repair by participating in intercellular signal transduction and transferring biological information especially microRNA to recipient cells, which affects endo-genous recovery in ischemic brain tissue after injury. In this review we briefly describe the characteristics and biological functions of exosomes and exosomal microRNA, and discuss the therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes on ischemic stroke from different perspectives. Finally, we outline the potential clinical value of exosomes and challenges of translating these therapies into clinical trials.

19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2264-2272, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829373

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. It is currently believed that PD is related to factors such as age, gender, family inheritance, gene mutation and environment. The pathogenesis of PD is complex and is related to dysfunction and loss of dopaminergic neurons, involving accumulation of α-synuclein, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive accumulation of neuromelanin. In many ways, various factors act both independently and through cross-promotion, resulting in an ongoing pattern of brain tissue damage and progressing PD pathology. This article reviews the recent research on the pathogenic factors and pathogenesis of PD and explores new ideas and potential targets for PD treatment and drug development.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828072

ABSTRACT

UPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS/MS and ICP-MS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis was employed to explore the differences in chemical compositions of Guilingji(GLJ) before and after alchemy.The changes in organic chemical compositions and inorganic elements were observed and 39 differential organic compositions were found in GLJ after alchemy, 24 compounds of which were identified. The differential compositions of GLJ included violet ketones, chalcones, amides, and fatty acids whose contents were increased after alchemy, as well as flavones, isoflavones, dihydroflavones, flavonoid glycosides, and coumarins whose content were decreased after alchemy. This study showed 6 inorganic elements filtered out as markers for distinguishing GLJ before and after alchemy, including B, Si, Mg, K, Cr, and Ni.The contents of Mg, K, Cr and Ni were increased while the contents of B and Si were decreased after alchemy.The difference of the contents after alchemy changed the cold and hot properties of the compound, showing the decrease of dryness, and the hot property was changed to warm and neutral properties; in addition, the membrane permeability and absorption of the compound compositions were improved. In this study, we preliminarily investigated the changes of chemical compositions in GLJ before and after alchemy as well as the effects of alchemy on physical and chemical properties and cold-heat nature of GLJ, laying a foundation for further clarifying the scientific connotation of alchemy process.


Subject(s)
Alchemy , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycosides , Multivariate Analysis , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
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