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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905822

ABSTRACT

Since the pandemic outbreak of the COVID-19, there had been about 121 million confirmed cases and more than 2.6 million deaths, which had significantly affected the economies and health resources in more than 233 countries and regions. Currently, no effective therapeutic option is available for the COVID-19, andimplementation of public health interventions suffers inconvenience. Consequently, the development of COVID-19 vaccines remains crucial. This review updates the current research progression, advantages and disadvantages of inactivated vaccine, live attenuated vaccine, recombinant subunit vaccine, recombinant virus-vectored vaccine, DNA vaccine, and RNA vaccine for the COVID-19. It warrants joint research and development of vaccines on multiple platforms, which would facilitate better control and prevention of the COVID-19 epidemic.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905812

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the incidence and epidemic characteristics of local cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Yangpu District of Shanghai, China, and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Methods:Descriptive epidemiological methods were applied to analyze the epidemic data of all the patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in Yangpu District of Shanghai, China. Results:A total of 9 local cases (7 males and 2 females) were documented in Yangpu District from January 30, 2020 to February 29, 2020. The average age was (48.56±13.85) years old. According to the body mass index, the patients with overweight and obesity accounted for 44.44% of the total cases. All the patients had fever at the onset and radiological findings of pneumonia by CT examination. They were diagnosed during January 24 and February 8, 2020. The median incubation period of the COVID-19 was 9 days and the median course was 22 days. Six cases had travel history in the epidemic areas and the other 3 cases had history of contact with confirmed cases. There were two familial clusters, both of which were husband-wife relationships. One cluster had a clear temporal sequence of onset, while the other one might be co-exposed or mutually infected. No new local case infected with SARS-CoV-2 was evident since February 8, 2020. Conclusion:All the local COVID-19 cases in Yangpu District have clear epidemiological exposure history. It warrants further attention to the family clustering SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Currently, containment of imported cases is crucial for the prevention and control of COVID-19 epidemic.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904484

ABSTRACT

Objective:To characterize the trends in the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer in Jing'an District of Shanghai, thus optimizing the prophylactic options for this malignancy. Methods:Data from Shanghai Cancer Registration and Reporting System were used to analyze the colorectal cancer prevalence in Jing'an District from 1993 to 2017. Joinpoint software was used to analyze the trends in the standardized incidence rate and mortality rate by calculating the annual percentage of change (APC) and the average annual percentage of change (AAPC). Results:A total of 13 580 new cases of colorectal cancer were reported in Jing'an District during 1993 and 2017, with an average crude incidence rate of 52.94/105 and a standardized incidence rate of 24.77/105. The total number of deaths was 7 572, with an average crude mortality rate of 29.52/105 and a standardized mortality rate of 12.20/105. The standardized incidence rate of colorectal cancer in Jing'an District from 1993 to 2017 showed an increasing trend (AAPC=1.64%,P<0.001), and the standardized incidence rate of colorectal cancer in both sexes increased (AAPC: 2.10% in men, 1.04% in women). The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) did not change significantly. The incidence rate of colorectal cancer increased in men in both age groups of 50 to 74 years and 75 years and older, with an AAPC of 2.07% and 3.32%, respectively. However, this was not evident in women of all age groups. The mortality rate of colorectal cancer in men aged 0-49 years, as well as in men and women at 50-74 age groups, decreased significantly, with an AAPC of -7.46%,-1.13%, and -2.72%, respectively. The mortality rate of colorectal cancer in men of 75 years or older showed no significant trend, while that in women of 75 years or older increased (AAPC=2.30%). Conclusion:The overall standardized incidence rate of colorectal cancer in Jing'an District from 1993 to 2017 was increased, and ASMR did not change significantly. Public health prophylactic options are suggested, including improvement of lifestyle/physical activity and eradication of precancerous lesion polypus in males aged ≥50 years to reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer, and enforcement of second-grade prophylaxis in females aged ≥75 years to decrease the mortality of colorectal cancer.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904483

ABSTRACT

Objective:To obtain the temporal and spatial trends on prostate cancer mortality in China from 2004 to 2018. Methods:The data of prostate cancer mortality was collected from 605 national disease surveillance sites and age-standardized according to the demographic structure of China in 2000. The crude mortality rate (CMR) and age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR), and the ratio of ASMRs of rural to urban areas(RR), were calculated to analyze the distributions of the mortality of prostate cancer stratified by age, sex, region (rural/urban areas, eastern/central/western areas) or time. Results:The temporal trend on the CMR of prostate cancer from 2004 to 2018 increased significantly (APC=5.23%,P<0.001), whereas the trend on the ASMR did not change (APC=0.65%,P=0.336). The ASMR of urban areas was higher than that of rural areas(P<0.05). The temporal trend on the ASMR of urban or rural did not change(P>0.05). The same trend was detected for the RR value (P>0.05). The ASMR of eastern urban areas was higher than that of the central or the western urban areas. The ASMR of eastern rural areas was higher than that of central and western areas. In the eastern areas, both the temporal trends for the ASMRs of the urban and the rural increased (The urban: APC=1.6%, P=0.015; the rural: APC=1.02%, P=0.013). However, the RR values for the East, the Center or the West did not change. The ASMR of the people over 60 years old was higher than that of the people under 60 years old. However, the temporal trends on the ASMRs of the group under 60 years old or the group over 60 years did not change (P>0.05). The ASMR of the people under 60 years old in 2018 was significantly lower than that in 2004(P=0.004). Conclusion:A significant correlation exists between the death of prostate cancer and age. The mortality of prostate cancer in urban is higher than that in rural. The current screening strategy for prostate cancer has a limited impact on the prognosis of prostate cancer patients in China. Stratified refinement of prostate cancer screening strategies for people aged over 60 years in urban areas and the causal prophylaxis of prostate cancer are priorities for future prostate cancer prevention and control.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904482

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the trend of mortality from lung cancer in urban and rural areas of Chinese mainland from 2004 to 2018. Methods:Cancer cases from 2004 to 2018 coded as C33-C34 according to the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10) were collected from the Chinese national mortality surveillance system. The crude mortality rate (CMR), age-standardized mortality (ASMR) and annual percentage change (APC) were calculated to analyze the mortality trend of lung cancer in rural and urban areas. Results:From 2004 to 2018, the CMR of lung cancer was 41.11/105, and the ASMR was 27.91/105, with no significant tendency of upward or downward. The CMR of lung cancer in urban areas was 46.03/105, and the ASMR was 30.33/105, with an APC of -0.82%. The CMR of lung cancer in rural areas was 38.54/105, and the ASMR was 26.66/105, with an APC of 1.73%. The difference between urban and rural CMR was significant. The CMR of lung cancer in urban eastern, central and western areas were 50.27/105, 44.59/105 and 40.64/105, respectively. The APC of eastern and central urban areas were -1.05% and -1.08%, respectively. The CMR of lung cancer in rural eastern, central and western areas were 45.82/105, 38.26/105 and 28.90/105, respectively, with an increasing trend. The CMR of lung cancer was significantly different between urban and rural areas of eastern, central and western areas of China. The CMR of lung cancer in urban males and females were 63.17/105 and 28.42/105, respectively. The CMR of lung cancer in rural males and females were 52.83/105 and 23.62/105, respectively. The ASMR of lung cancer in rural men and women increased by 1.18% and 1.09%, respectively. The ASMR of lung cancer in urban men and women decreased by 0.61% and 1.35%, respectively. The CMR of lung cancer between males and females in urban and rural was significantly different. The CMR rate of lung cancer increased with age, with the peak in the age group above 60 years old. The ASMR rate of lung cancer showed a decreasing trend in the group under 60 years old in both urban and rural areas. While in rural areas, the ASMR of lung cancer showed an increasing trend in the group over 60 years old. There were significant variations in lung cancer CMR between rural and urban areas in groups aged 0-19, 40-59, and over 60 years. Conclusion:The CMR of lung cancer in China is different between urban and rural areas from 2004 to 2018, which may be affected by smoking, ageing, industrialization and gender. Identifying high-risk populations, especially those in rural areas and providing early intervention can help to reduce the mortality rate of lung cancer.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904481

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze bladder cancer mortality in China from 2004 to 2018. Methods:The dataset of bladder cancer mortality from 2004 to 2018, based on 605 national surveillance sites and regularly published by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, was collected and age-standardized according to the demographic structure of China in 2000. The crude mortality rate (CMR), the age-standard mortality rate (ASMR), and the ratio of ASMRs of rural to urban areas(RR)were calculated to analyze the distributions of the mortality of bladder cancer stratified by age, sex, region (rural/urban areas, eastern/central/western areas) or time. Results:The CMR of bladder cancer in China from 2004 to 2018 was 1.69/105, and the ASMR was 1.09/105. The temporal trend on the CMR of bladder cancer from 2004 to 2018 increased significantly (APC=2.91%,P<0.001), whereas the trend on the ASMR decreased a little (APC=-1.29,P=0.008). The temporal trend on the CMR of bladder cancer in the males increased (APC=3.29%,P<0.001), whereas the trend on the ASMR did not change. The temporal trend on the CMR of bladder cancer in the female increased (APC=2.12%,P<0.001), whereas the trend on the ASMR decreased (APC=-1.94,P=0.008). Both the CMR and ASMR of urban areas were higher than those of rural areas (P<0.05). However, the temporal trend on the ASMR of bladder cancer in the urban decreased significantly (APC=-2.05%,P=0.002), mainly exhibited in eastern and western urban. The ASMR of eastern urban areas was higher than that of western urban areas. The temporal trend on the ASMR of bladder cancer in the rural did not change (P>0.05), and no differences in the ASMR were detected between eastern, central and western rural areas. The gaps between rural and urban areas in the eastern (P<0.001) or western (P=0.002) region reduced. Although the temporal trend on the ASMR in urban people over 40 years old decreased significantly, the ASMR of urban people over 60 years old was much higher than that of other age groups in the urban or any age groups in rural areas. Conclusion:The age group over 60 years old in the urban is the major target population for bladder cancer prevention and treatment. Screening, diagnosis and treatment for bladder cancer in rural should be strengthened.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904480

ABSTRACT

Objective:To determine the mortality and changing trend of primary liver cancer by using the death data of Chinese mainland from 2004 to 2018. Methods:The death certificate data was collected from China National Mortality Surveillance System from 2004 to 2018. The crude mortality rate(CMR)and age-standardized mortality rate(ASMR)of primary liver cancer in different ages, regions and living environments were calculated by Joinpoint regression model to analyze the basic situation and mortality trend. Results:From 2004 to 2018, there were 556 241 primary liver cancer deaths in China, with a CMR of 25.18/105 and an ASMR of 17.98/105. It suggested that the mortality of primary liver cancer was on a decreasing trend. During the 15 years, the ASMR of primary liver cancer was 15.56/105 in urban areas and 19.29/105 in rural areas. In urban areas, CMR was 32.89/105 in males and 12.14/105 in females, respectively; while in rural areas, CMR was 38.39/105 in males and 14.02/105 in females, respectively. The CMR in eastern, central and western urban regions was 22.25/105, 22.66/105 and 23.50/105, respectively. The CMR in the rural areas of these three regions was 27.82/105, 26.98/105 and 23.85/105, respectively. The patients were divided into four age groups: 0-19 years old, 20-39 years old, 40-59 years old, and more than 60 years old. The CMR of four groups in urban areas was 0.14/105, 2.59/105, 24.51/105 and 91.80/105. In rural areas, the CMR of four groups was 0.17/105, 4.05/105, 32.16/105 and 103.02/105. Conclusion:From 2004 to 2018, the mortality rate of liver cancer in China has a decreasing trend. However, the primary liver cancer death burden is still serious because of the large population base, severe aging population problem, and significant urban-rural and male-female disparities in China.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882217

ABSTRACT

At present, there is little research on the new teaching mode for the practice course of epidemiology. Based on the situation, this paper mainly discussed how the MOOC (Massive Open Online Course)-based multi-teaching mode was applied to the practice course of Epidemiology. The structure of this multi- teaching mode consisted of case base construction, class preparation, class presentation and learning evaluation. Thus, MOOC, flipped Class Mode and other new teaching modes were integrated into traditional face-to-face teaching. In addition, this paper also demonstrated the implementation of the multi-teaching mode in the teaching of preventive medicine. It is worth exploring how to integrate MOOC into the teaching of the practice course of epidemiology in the future.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882020

ABSTRACT

The severe acute syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2)is responsible for the global pandemic of 2019 novel coronavirus disease(COVID-19). Understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 is of great significance to the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemic. The spike(S)protein of SARS-CoV-2 is a major target of protective immunity. The mutations of S protein impact the transmission and pathogenic capacity of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2(ACE2)is the receptor of SARS-CoV-2 S protein and mediates viral entry into target cells. The genetic polymorphisms of the ACE2 gene may lead to the difference of incidence of COVID-19 among different populations. Protease can promote the infection of SARS-Cov-2 by activating the S protein. This review summarized the current understanding of the function and genetic variants of S protein, ACE2, and the related proteases. The synergistic effect of these three molecules on the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection was further discussed.

10.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 115-119, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787698

ABSTRACT

To retrospectively analyze the application trend of cohort study in the field of liver cancer in past 27 years and to look forward to the future development trend. Chinese and English papers reporting the cohort studies of liver cancer conducted in the mainland of China since 1991 were included. The literature management software was used to analyze the publication time, institution, type and objective of the studies and the follow-up performance. Statistical analysis was carried out by using SPSS 21.0. The number and quality of the papers reporting liver cancer-related cohort studies increased significantly in past 27 years and a core English journal group of this field has formed. The average annual growth rates of Chinese and English papers published were 20.4 and 35.2 respectively. About 52.3 of the Chinese papers and 73.5 of the English papers were published in past five years and the quality of these papers was high. The Chinese papers published on Chinese core journals accounted for 49.2, and the English papers published on SCI periodicals (IF>3) accounted for 47.3. For the study objective, those published on the domestic journals mainly focused on the pathogenesis of hepatoma (41.5), studies with large sample size was the common form. The SCI studies mainly focused on the prognosis of liver cancer (40.7). High-quality SCI papers are more interested in the studies of prognosis, and survival analysis was the common form. The application of cohort study in the field of liver cancer gradually increased in China. Large-scale study and prognosis analysis were conducted commonly. However, it is necessary to further improve the researchers' understanding of cohort study, improve the follow-up quality, and increase the application of scientific evaluation methods, such as survival analysis, for the better solving of clinical problems.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862466

ABSTRACT

Living with internationalization, it becomes increasingly important to develop the ability of acquiring knowledge from and publishing professional articles international medical journals.However, current English teaching in colleges is predominantly by cramming method and without clear aims.As a result, students make little learning progress.Production-oriented Approach, proposed by Professor Qiufang Wen, is an important theory to reform the modern English Teaching.Based on this theory, we designed and performed the course of Medical English Writing and Literature Reading for graduate students.For the aim of literature writing, we matched the teaching content with the pertinent language ability to achieve the goal.The process of teaching was initiated with output, followed by input, then tested by another output.As a result, students′ writing was improved effectively in correctness and in awareness of the rules.In addition, their ability to comprehend difficult and long sentences was also found to be improved.We believe Production-oriented Approach conforms to the requirements of English Teaching in college and can contribute to the teaching goal.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788956

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the epidemical characteristics and analyze the incidence trend of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China. Methods The daily new confirmed cases of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China from January 25 to February 8,2020 were collected for epidemiological descriptive analysis. Results During the period from January 25 to February 8, 2020, the number of daily new confirmed cases fell for five consecutive days, from 890 cases on February 3 to 509 cases on February 8. Conclusion The incidence of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) slowed down in 30 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) except Hubei and Xinjiang production and construction corps , but the overall situation is still not optimistic. It is imperative to pay close attention to the origin and destination of migrant workers and the incidence of disease in various areas, and take targeted measures to strengthen prevention and control of the disease.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876387

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the level of measles antibody in physical examination population in Jinshan District, and provide evidence for measles immunization prevention and control in different populations. Methods The sera of physical examination population aged 15 years and older in Jinshan was collected.The titer of IgG antibody against measles was measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Statistical methods were used to compare and analyze the data. Results The overall positive rate of measles antibody in physical examination population aged 15 and older in Jinshan was 70.74%, and the antibody protection rate was 17.56%.There was no significant difference in the distribution of measles antibody between different genders, or local population and migrant population (P>0.05).There was no significant difference in the positive rate of measles antibodies between different age groups (P>0.05), but the protection rate was statistically significant(χ2=44.53, P < 0.05).There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of antibody levels between residents and migrants in all age groups.The rate of measles antibody protection in the 15-24 age group was the lowest, only 9.60%, and the antibody protection rate increased with age.The rate of measles antibody protection in the 65-95 age group was the highest, 25.62%. Conclusion The immunization level of measles antibody in physical examination population in Jinshan District is at a low level, and there is a potential risk of measles outbreak.In particular, it is imperative to focus on strengthening the measles immunization work in 15-24 age population.It is recommended to promote adult measles immunization program.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876302

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the epidemical characteristics and analyze the incidence trend of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China. Methods The daily new confirmed cases of 2019 COVID-19 in China from January 25 to February 8, 2020 were collected for epidemiological descriptive analysis. Results During the period from January 25 to February 8, 2020, the number of daily new confirmed cases fell for five consecutive days, from 890 cases on February 3 to 509 cases on February 8. Conclusion The incidence of COVID-19 slows down in 30 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) except Hubei and Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, but the overall situation is still not optimistic.It is imperative to pay close attention to the origin and destination of migrant workers and the incidence of disease in various areas, and to take targeted measures to strengthen prevention and control of the disease.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876284

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the epidemical characteristics and analyze the incidence trend of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China. Methods The daily new confirmed cases of 2019 COVID-19 in China from January 25 to February 8, 2020 were collected for epidemiological descriptive analysis. Results During the period from January 25 to February 8, 2020, the number of daily new confirmed cases fell for five consecutive days, from 890 cases on February 3 to 509 cases on February 8. Conclusion The incidence of COVID-19 slows down in 30 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) except Hubei and Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, but the overall situation is still not optimistic.It is imperative to pay close attention to the origin and destination of migrant workers and the incidence of disease in various areas, and to take targeted measures to strengthen prevention and control of the disease.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876202

ABSTRACT

Objective In order to strengthen health supervision and management of public places and prevent occurrence of sudden public health events, we explored the effect of quantified and graded management of public places health supervision in Pudong New Area, Shanghai, and drew relevant research results, improving the efficiency of supervision and management in public places. Methods In 2018 from Zhuqiao Town of Pudong New Area Zhuqiao, 200 public places were randomly selected for quantified and graded management of health supervision and quantitative grading including public regulations, tobacco control and appliances, cleaning and disinfection procedures, and according to the score of evaluation results, public health levels A, B, C were rated for those public places.Single factor and multi factor conditional logistic regression model were used for comprehensive analysis to identify related factors affecting the quantitative and graded effect of public health supervision. Results With regard to quantitative and graded health supervision, the relevant knowledge in the 200 public places was updated.By univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis of multiple factors were ultimately selected 3 factors for public health supervision and quantitative grading management:with or without a health certificate valid (OR=1.121, P=0.026), with or without ashtrays placed in public places (OR=1.012, P=0.032), with or without health inspection report (OR=1.412, P=0.012). Conclusion The influencing factors of quantifying hygienic supervision in public places are mainly effective health certificates, ashtrays in public places and health inspection reports.In future, health supervision of public places should be enhanced in this regard.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876176

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is in the pandemic.SARS-CoV-2 is believed to originate from natural evolution.This RNA virus keeps evolving, even during spillover into humans via intermediate hosts.The evolutionary trend of SARS-CoV-2 in humans is characterized as an increased human-to-human transmission.The current major countermeasures against COVID-19 pandemic remain to be public health interventions, specifically targeting to the transmission pathway.In addition, the key point for the prophylaxis is to screen and isolate asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers, which may be a crucial source of infection.The efficiency of active immunization using vaccine to protect susceptible population needs to be extensively evaluated in population of large scale.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777967

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of family support service intervention on improving the rehabilitation of patients with severe mental disorders in community and the mental health status and family burden of family members. Methods Using multi-stage random sampling method, 100 patients who met the diagnostic criteria of severe mental disorders were randomly selected from two communities, and then 100 patients who met the diagnostic criteria of severe mental disorders were randomly matched according to gender, age and diagnosis in other communities into the control group. The control group and intervention group were set up strictly according to the inclusion criteria of patients and their families. Results The average age of the 200 groups was (48.27±12.67) years, and the average age of the family members was (63.61±13.19) years. After intervention, the activity dailyliving scale (ADL) scores of the control group were higher than those of the intervention group at all time points (all P0.05). After intervention, the SCL-90(self-reporting inventory) scores of the mental health of the family members in the control group were higher than those in the intervention group at all times (all P<0.05). After intervention, the family burden scale of diseases (FBS) scores of the control group were higher than those of the intervention group at all time points (all P<0.05). Conclusions The intervention measures did improve the rehabilitation effect of severe mental disorder patients in community and the psychological and family burden of family members. A professional family support service team should be established.

19.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 360-364, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816826

ABSTRACT

The prevention and control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is important for public health. Sexual contact transmission has replaced blood transmission as a major route of HIV transmission in China. The incidence of HIV infection increased significantly among young men who have sex with men (MSM). Online social software instead of traditional venues has become a main means of seeking sexual partners. The application of online social software may contribute to an increased incidence of HIV among young MSMs by promoting such risky behaviors as having occasional or multiple sexual partners and drug abuse. Compared with the MSMs enrolled from traditional venues, those recruited online showed significant differences in the educational level, sexual behaviors, and HIV knowledge. Online social software is a promising way to improve the prevention and control of HIV as well as HIV-related epidemic surveys.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-789431

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) in Yangpu District of Shanghai from 2006 to 2015,and to explore the current epidemic situation of HFMD so as to master the trend thereof.Methods The descriptive epidemiological method was applied in analyzing and statistics for the monitored data of HFMD in Yangpu District of Shanghai from 2006 to 2015.Results A total of 11 239 cases of HFMD were reported in Yangpu District from 2006 to 2015, which peaked from April to July.Among the 11 communities of Yangpu District, Jiangpu community and Yinhang community were the ones with more cases.The main patients were kindergarten kids below five years of age as well as children living separately in this area.The relevant results of etiological detection from 2010 to 2015 showed that the rate of patients infected by enteroviruses other than enterovirus EV71 and enterovirus CA16 rose constantly and exceeded the rate of EV71-and CA16-infected patients.Conclusion The HFMD in Yangpu District had distinct seasonal features as well as features of resident crowds.It is recommended that relevant monitoring and preventive work should be done for susceptible children during peak onsets thereof.

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