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2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0633-2020, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155602

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study, we present two cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in patients with end-stage renal disease, who were treated solely with intramuscular pentamidine. In such cases, treatment implies a fine line between therapeutic efficacy and toxicity. This is suggestive of a knowledge gap; however, findings indicate that this is still the fastest and safest alternative to the treatment with antimonials. Also, it can help avoid the side effects that occur upon using antimonials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/complications , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Pentamidine/therapeutic use , Renal Dialysis
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0480-2020, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155588

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chagas disease (CD), with approximately 10,000 deaths annually, has become a worldwide health problem. Approximately 35% of cases may show cardiac manifestations such as arrhythmias and/or conduction disorders, heart failure, thromboembolic accidents, and sudden death. The Amazon region has long been considered a non-endemic area for CD; however, in the last decades, with an increase in the number of acute and chronic cases, disease evolution has received greater attention. Here, we report the successful implementation of a cardioverter-defibrillator for the prevention of sudden death in a patient with autochthonous Chagas cardiomyopathy in the Brazilian Amazon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/complications , Defibrillators, Implantable , Brazil , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Electrocardiography
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0873-2020, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155567

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Seven lineages have been identified based on different molecular markers, namely TcI, TcII, TcIII, TcIV, TcV, TcVI, and TcBat. Dogs play the role of epidemiological sentinels being domestic reservoirs of T. cruzi. The aim of the current study was to report the first case of CD in a domestic dog in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, infected with T. cruzi DTU TcIV. We hope our report encourages veterinarians and surveillance professionals to a take a deeper look at T. cruzi infection in domestic animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/veterinary , Brazil , Genotype
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e20200012, 2021. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136924

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ramsay Hunt Syndrome (RHS), also known as herpes zoster oticus, is caused by the reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) in the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve. Herein, we report a case of Ramsey Hunt Syndrome in a patient after antimonial treatment for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. The patient presented with microvesicles grouped on an erythematous base, starting in the neck and ascending towards the scalp margin on the right side of the head. The patient also developed grade V peripheral facial palsy the day after initiating the herpes zoster treatment, this outcome corroborated the assumption of Ramsey Hunt Syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Herpes Zoster Oticus/therapy , Herpes Zoster , United States , Herpesvirus 3, Human
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200083, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143876

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazil has a high number of cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in the north and northeast regions. Therefore, continuous surveillance of environmental and socioeconomic factors in endemic areas is needed to develop strategic control measures. This study aimed to describe the clinical and epidemiological profiles of patients with ACL. METHODS: All patients were from the states of Amazonas and Pernambuco, and examinations were carried out between 2015 and 2018. All patients had a clinical and epidemiological history compatible with ACL after positive diagnostic tests. Information obtained from medical records included gender, employment activity, level of education, age, and number and sites of lesions. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients were included, of whom 30.98% were female and 69.02% were male. The main employment activity was agriculture (27.56%). The most common level of education was elementary (62.42%). The average age was approximately 39 years. The majority of the patients presented only with one lesion (54.87%), and legs/feet were the most commonly affected area (48.25%), followed by the arms/hands (44.75%). CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrated that irrespective of the patients' places of origin, interventions need to be focused on men of economically productive age, in view of the high risk of exposure to the vector in this group. Education activities need to be directed to farmers about the importance of protection against ACL vectors during work. Such information must also be directed to employers as a way of implementing and maintaining appropriate working conditions and stepping up vector control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , United States , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Vectors , Educational Status
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(3): 240-246, Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989336

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: In the past two decades, a new epidemiological profile of Chagas' disease (CD) has been registered in the Brazilian Amazon where oral transmission has been indicated as responsible for the increase of acute cases. In the Amazonas state, five outbreaks of acute CD have been registered since 2004. The cardiac manifestations in these cases may be characterized by diffuse myocarditis, with alteration in the electrocardiogram (ECG) and transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE). Objective: To perform a cardiac evaluation in autochthonous patients in the acute phase and at least one year after submitted to treatment for acute CD and evaluate the demographic variables associated with the presence of cardiac alterations. Methods: We evaluated patients diagnosed with acute CD through direct parasitological or serological (IgM) methods from 2007 to 2015. These patients were treated with benznidazole and underwent ECG and TTE before and after treatment. We assumed a confidence interval of 95% (CI 95%, p < 0.05) for all variables analyzed. Results: We observed 63 cases of an acute CD in which oral transmission corresponded to 75%. Cardiac alterations were found in 33% of the cases, with a greater frequency of ventricular repolarization alteration (13%), followed by pericardial effusion (10%) and right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block (2%). The follow-up occurred in 48 patients with ECG and 25 with TTE for a mean period of 15.5 ± 4.1 months after treatment. Of these, 8% presented normalization of the cardiac alterations in ECG, 62.5% remained with the normal exams. All of the patients presented normal results in TTE in the post-treatment period. As for the demographic variables, isolated cases presented more cardiac alterations than outbreaks (p = 0.044) as well as cases from Central Amazonas mesoregion (p = 0.020). Conclusions: Although cardiac alterations have not been frequent in most of the studied population, a continuous evaluation of the clinical-epidemiological dynamics of the disease in the region is necessary in order to establish preventive measures.


Resumo Fundamento: Nas últimas duas décadas, um novo perfil epidemiológico da Doença de Chagas (DC) foi registrado na Amazônia brasileira, onde a transmissão oral foi indicada como responsável pelo aumento dos casos agudos. No estado do Amazonas, foram registrados cinco surtos da doença desde 2004. As manifestações cardíacas nesses casos podem ser caracterizadas por miocardite difusa, com alteração nos resultados eletrocardiograma (ECG) e ecocardiografia transtorácica (ETT). Objetivo: avaliar parâmetros cardíacos em pacientes autóctones com DC na fase aguda e em um ano ou mais após tratamento, e avaliar as variáveis demográficas associadas com a presença de alterações cardíacas. Métodos: Avaliamos os pacientes diagnosticados com DC aguda por método direto parasitológico e exame sorológico (IgM) entre 2007 e 2015. Os pacientes foram tratados com benzonidazol e submetidos à ECG e ETT antes e após tratamento. Assumimos um intervalo de confiança de 95% (p < 0,05) para todas as variáveis analisadas. Resultados: Observamos 63 casos de DC aguda em que a transmissão oral ocorreu em 75% dos casos. Alterações cardíacas foram encontradas em 33% dos casos, com maior frequência de repolarização ventricular (13%), seguida de derrame pericárdico (10%), e bloqueio do ramo direito e bloqueio fascicular anterior esquerdo (2%). O acompanhamento foi realizado com 48 pacientes com ECG e 25 com ETT por um período médio de 15,5±4,1 meses após o tratamento. Desses pacientes, observou-se normalização das alterações eletrocardiográficas em 8% dos pacientes, e 62,5% continuaram com os parâmetros normais. Todos os pacientes apresentaram resultados da ETT normais no período pós-tratamento. Quanto às variáveis demográficas, os casos isolados apresentaram mais alterações cardíacas em comparação aos casos de surtos (p=0,044) e os casos identificados na mesorregião do Amazonas Central (p = 0,020). Conclusões: Apesar de as alterações cardíacas não terem sido frequentes na maioria da população do estudo, é necessária uma avaliação contínua da dinâmica clínica-epidemiológica da doença na região para se estabelecer medidas preventivas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Trypanocidal Agents/therapeutic use , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Nitroimidazoles/therapeutic use , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Echocardiography , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/diagnostic imaging , Follow-Up Studies , Chagas Disease/complications , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Electrocardiography
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(6): 869-872, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977102

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cardiorenal syndrome type 1 (CRS 1) occurs when acute heart failure leads to acute kidney injury. There are several etiologies of CRS 1, including Chagas disease. Here, we present the first case report of CRS 1 in a patient with acute Chagas disease. Electrocardiography, transthoracic echocardiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed signs of acute myocarditis. Laboratory examination revealed severe loss of kidney function, with a creatinine clearance of 30 mL/min, which fully normalized after treatment. Due to emergence of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon, it is important to report unique clinical features in order to improve patients' outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Chagas Disease/complications , Cardio-Renal Syndrome/parasitology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Echocardiography , Acute Disease , Electrocardiography , Cardio-Renal Syndrome/diagnosis
11.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 29(4): 112-117, out.-dez. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-834205

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: Recentemente tem ocorrido aumento do número de casos agudos de doença de Chagas, principalmente causados por transmissão oral. A maioria dos pacientes mostra boa evolução, apresentando sintomatologia compatívelcom processo infeccioso sistêmico, porém sem alterações cardíacas significativas ao exame físico, eletrocardiograma eecocardiograma transtorácico.Objetivo: Avaliar alterações ecocardiográficas com análise do Doppler tecidual em pacientes com doença de Chagas aguda. Métodos: Foram avaliados pacientes com diagnóstico de doença de Chagas aguda confirmada por exame parasitológico direto. Esses pacientes foram submetidos a exame físico, eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma transtorácico, sendocomparados com um grupo controle.Resultados: Foram avaliados 12 casos com doença de Chagas aguda e 15 indivíduos no grupo controle. As variáveis que apresentaram diferenças significativas foram: ondas S’ lateral de VE (DCA = 0,09 ± 0,02 m/seg; GC = 0,11 ± 0,02 m/seg; p = 0,024); E’ lateral (DCA = 0,13 ± 0,03 m/seg; GC = 0,18 ± 0,03 m/seg; p = 0,001); E’ septal do VE (DCA = 0,10± 0,03 m/seg; GC = 0,14 ± 0,03 m/seg; p = 0,008), A’ lateral do VE (DCA = 0,08 ± 0,03 m/seg; GC = 0,12 ± 0,01 m/seg;p = 0,003), onda S’ do VD (DCA = 0,12 ± 0,02 m/seg; GC = 0,17 ± 0,02 m/seg; p < 0,001) e TAPSE (DCA = 1,95 ±0,41 cm; GC = 2,37 ± 0,25 cm; p = 0,006). Conclusões: Em pacientes com doença de Chagas aguda, mesmo quando apresentam evolução benigna, podem ocorrer alterações subclínicas detectadas principalmente ao Doppler tecidual. Essas alterações podem ser importantes na avaliação do tratamento da fase aguda e na sua evolução a longo prazo.


Background: Recently there has been an increased number of cases of acute Chagas disease primarily caused by oral transmission. Most patients have a good outcome, presenting symptoms consistent with systemic infectious process, but no significant cardiac abnormalities on physical examination, electrocardiogram and echocardiogram.Objective: To evaluate echocardiographic changes with tissue Doppler analysis in patients with acute Chagas disease.Methods: We evaluated patients with acute Chagas disease confirmed by cytological examination. These patients underwent a physical examination, eletrocardiogram and transthoracic echocardiography, and compared with a control group. Results: We evaluated 12 patients with acute Chagas disease and 15 subjects in the control group. Variables that showed significant diferences were waves S ‘side of LV (DCA = 0.09 ± 0.02m/sec; CG = 0.11 ± 0.02 m/sec; p = 0.024); and ‘side (DCA = 0.13 ± 0.03 m/sec; CG = 0.18 ±0.03 m/sec; p = 0.001); Septal E ‘LV (DCA = 0.10 ± 0.03 m/sec; CG = 0.14 ± 0.03 m/sec; p = 0.008), A’ lateral LV (DCA = 0.08 ± 0.03 m/sec;CG = 0 12 ± 0.01 m/sec; p = 0,003), S wave ‘RV (DCA = 0.12 ± 0.02 m/sec; CG = 0.17 ± 0.02 m/sec; p < 0.001) and TAPSE (DCA = 1,95cm ± 0.41; CG = 2.37 ± 0.25 cm; p = 0.006). Conclusions: In patients with acute Chagas disease, even when present benign, there may be subclinical alterations detected primarilyby tissue Doppler. These changes may be important in the treatment of acute and its long-term evolution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Acute Disease , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/complications , Chagas Disease/classification , Chagas Disease/complications , Patients , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echocardiography/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Risk Factors , Statistical Analysis , Stroke Volume , Heart Ventricles
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(2): 184-186, Aug. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794565

ABSTRACT

Abstract We describe the recurrence of cardiac abnormalities in a patient treated during the acute phase of Chagas disease after outpatient follow-up of 5 years.


Resumo Descreve-se a recorrência de alterações cardíacas em paciente tratado na fase aguda de doença de Chagas, após seguimento ambulatorial de 5 anos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/drug therapy , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Recurrence , Trypanocidal Agents/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Electrocardiography , Nitroimidazoles/therapeutic use
13.
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(6): 807-813, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769514

ABSTRACT

Abstract: BACKGROUND: There have been few studies on pentamidine in the Americas; and there is no consensus regarding the dose that should be applied. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of pentamidine in a single dose to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS: Clinical trial of phase II pilot study with 20 patients. Pentamidine was used at a dose of 7 mg/kg, in a single dose. Safety and adverse effects were also assessed. Patients were reviewed one, two, and six months after the end of treatments. RESULTS: there was no difference between the treatment groups in relation to gender, age, number or location of the lesions. Pentamidine, applied in a single dose, obtained an effectiveness of 55%. Mild adverse events were reported by 17 (85%) patients, mainly transient pain at the site of applications (85%), while nausea (5%), malaise (5%) and dizziness (5%) were reported in one patient. No patient had sterile abscess after taking medication at a single dose of 7mg/kg. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical studies with larger samples of patients would enable a better clinical response of pent amidine at a single dose of 7mg, allowing the application of more powerful statistical tests, thus providing more evidences of the decrease in the effectiveness of that medication. Hence, it is important to have larger studies with new diagrams and/or new medications.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Benzamidines/administration & dosage , Leishmania guyanensis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Phenyl Ethers/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Benzamidines/adverse effects , Blood Glucose/analysis , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Pilot Projects , Phenyl Ethers/adverse effects , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(5): 555-559, Sept.-Oct. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-763336

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: In the Americas, mucosal leishmaniasis is primarily associated with infection by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. However, Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis is another important cause of this disease in the Brazilian Amazon. In this study, we aimed at detecting Leishmaniadeoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) within paraffin-embedded fragments of mucosal tissues, and characterizing the infecting parasite species.METHODS: We evaluated samples collected from 114 patients treated at a reference center in the Brazilian Amazon by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses.RESULTS: Direct examination of biopsy imprints detected parasites in 10 of the 114 samples, while evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides detected amastigotes in an additional 17 samples. Meanwhile, 31/114 samples (27.2%) were positive for Leishmania spp. kinetoplast deoxyribonucleic acid (kDNA) by PCR analysis. Of these, 17 (54.8%) yielded amplification of the mini-exon PCR target, thereby allowing for PCR-RFLP-based identification. Six of the samples were identified as L. (V.) braziliensis, while the remaining 11 were identified as L. (V.) guyanensis.CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of applying molecular techniques for the diagnosis of human parasites within paraffin-embedded tissues. Moreover, our findings confirm that L. (V.) guyanensisis a relevant causative agent of mucosal leishmaniasis in the Brazilian Amazon.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Leishmania braziliensis/genetics , Leishmania guyanensis/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/parasitology , Mucous Membrane/parasitology , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Leishmania braziliensis/isolation & purification , Leishmania guyanensis/isolation & purification , Paraffin , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Protozoan Proteins/genetics
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(supl.1): 12-19, 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748358

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the occurrence of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, in the last 30 years with emphasis on the last 10 years (2001 to 2010). The disease was predominantly observed in males (76.2%), in the 21- to 30-year-old age group (26.6%) and in extractive workers (43.7%); 3.3% of the cases were the mucosal form. The endemic channel shows the disease seasonality, with a predominance of cases at the beginning and end of each year. The number of cases by municipality in the period of 2001-2010 shows the maintenance of the endemic in the localities where the highest numbers of cases have always been registered, namely, Manaus, Rio Preto da Eva, Itacoatiara and Presidente Figueiredo. The comparison of data from 2001 to 2005 and from 2006 to 2010 showed the emergence of this disease in municipalities that had been previously unaffected. In the last years, there has been a significant increase in the activities of control, diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis in the State of Amazonas. In conclusion, the historical series of ATL analyzed in this study suggests that the transmission foci remain and are even expanding, though without continuous transmission in the intra- or peridomicile settings. Moreover, the disease will persist in the Amazon while the factors associated with infection acquisition relative to forest exploitation continue to have economic appeal. There is a real expectation of wide variations in disease incidence that can be influenced by climate and economic aspects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Gastropoda/genetics , Life Cycle Stages/genetics , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Sex Determination Processes/genetics , Fertilization , Genetic Variation , Genetics, Population , Genotype , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Paternity , Sex Characteristics
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(supl.1): 27-33, 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748359

ABSTRACT

Chagas disease (CD) is a parasitic infection that originated in the Americas and is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. In the last few years, the disease has spread to countries in North America, Asia and Europe due to the migration of Latin Americans. In the Brazilian Amazon, CD has an endemic transmission, especially in the Rio Negro region, where an occupational hazard was described for piaçaveiros (piassaba gatherers). In the State of Amazonas, the first chagasic infection was reported in 1977, and the first acute CD case was recorded in 1980. After initiatives to integrate acute CD diagnostics with the malaria laboratories network, reports of acute CD cases have increased. Most of these cases are associated with oral transmission by the consumption of contaminated food. Chronic cases have also been diagnosed, mostly in the indeterminate form. These cases were detected by serological surveys in cardiologic outpatient clinics and during blood donor screening. Considering that the control mechanisms adopted in Brazil's classic transmission areas are not fully applicable in the Amazon, it is important to understand the disease behavior in this region, both in the acute and chronic cases. Therefore, the pursuit of control measures for the Amazon region should be a priority given that CD represents a challenge to preserving the way of life of the Amazon's inhabitants.


Subject(s)
Animals , Digestion/genetics , Horses/genetics , Pancreatic alpha-Amylases/genetics , Salivary alpha-Amylases/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution , Base Sequence , Biodiversity , Edible Grain/chemistry , Dietary Carbohydrates , Genetic Variation , Genotyping Techniques , Horses/classification , Italy , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, DNA
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(7): 909-913, 1jan. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-955103

ABSTRACT

The serology of human Trypanosoma cruziinfection in the Rio Negro microregion is very complex because of the large numbers of false-positive cases that result from low antibody titres and cross-reactions with other infections. In the present study, we collected 4,880 blood samples on filter paper; of these, indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) was strongly reactive in 221 (4.5%), which were considered to be positive (IIF strongly reactive; high intensity of fluorescence) and weakly reactive in 302 (6.2%), which were considered to be doubtful (IIF weakly reactive; low intensity of fluorescence). The confirmatory test on the serum using at least two of three techniques (IIF, conventional ELISA and recombinant ELISA) on 137 samples that were positive in the screening test only confirmed 33 cases (24.1%). Of the 178 samples that were considered doubtful in the screening test, only 10 (5.6%) were considered to be positive in the confirmatory test. Finally, we recommend that the serological diagnosis of T. cruziinfection in the Amazon region be made using at least two different techniques, for example immunofluorescence and ELISA and confirmed by Western blot analysis when possible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Serology , Trypanosoma cruzi , Amazonian Ecosystem/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(2): 209-214, Mar.-Apr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-625178

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The biological diversity of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi stocks in the Amazon region most likely plays an important role in the peculiar clinic-epidemiological features of Chagas disease in this area. METHODS: Seven stocks of T. cruzi were recently isolated in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from humans, wild mammals, and triatomines. They belonged to the TcI and Z3 genotypes and were biologically characterized in Swiss mice. Parasitological and histopathological parameters were determined. RESULTS: Four stocks did not promote patent parasitemia in mice. Three stocks produced low parasitemia, long pre-patent periods, and a patent period of 1 day or oscillating parasitemia. Maximum parasitemia ranged from 1,400 to 2,800 trypomastigotes/0.1mL blood. Mice inoculated with the T. cruzi stocks studied showed low positivity during fresh blood examinations, ranging from 0% to 28.6%. In hemoculture, positivity ranged from 0% to 100%. Heart tissue parasitism was observed in mice inoculated with stocks AM49 and AM61. Stock AM49 triggered a moderate inflammatory process in heart tissue. A mild inflammatory process was observed in heart tissue for stocks AM28, AM38, AM61, and AM69. An inflammatory process was frequently observed in skeletal muscle. Examinations of brain tissue revealed inflammatory foci and gliosis in mice inoculated with stock AM49. CONCLUSIONS: Biological and histopathological characterization allowed us to demonstrate the low infectivity and virulence of T. cruzi stocks isolated from the State of Amazonas.


INTRODUÇÃO: A diversidade biológica dos estoques Trypanosoma cruzi circulantes na Região Amazônica pode desempenhar importante papel nas características clínico-epidemiológicas peculiares da doença de Chagas nesta área. MÉTODOS: Sete isolados de T. cruzi do Estado do Amazonas provenientes de humanos, mamíferos silvestres e triatomíneos, pertencentes aos genótipos TcI e Z3, foram biologicamente caracterizados em camundongos Swiss. Foram avaliados parâmetros parasitológicos e histopatológicos. RESULTADOS: Quatro isolados não produziram parasitemia patente em camundongos. Três isolados promoveram baixa parasitemia com longos períodos pré-patentes, período patente de um dia ou parasitemia oscilante. A parasitemia máxima variou de 1.400 a 2.800 tripomastigotas/0,1mL de sangue. Os camundongos inoculados com os isolados estudados mostraram baixa positividade no exame a fresco, variando de 0 a 28,6%. Para a hemocultura, a positividade variou de 0 a 100%. Parasitismo cardíaco foi observado em camundongos inoculados com os isolados AM49 e AM61. O isolado AM49 produziu inflamação moderada no tecido cardíaco. Processo inflamatório discreto foi observado no tecido cardíaco de camundongos inoculados com os isolados AM28, AM38, AM61 e AM69. Processo inflamatório em músculo esquelético foi muito frequente. O exame do tecido cerebral revelou focos inflamatórios e gliose em camundongos inoculados com o isolado AM49. CONCLUSÕES: A caracterização biológica e histopatológica demonstrou baixa infecciosidade e virulência dos estoques de T. cruzi isolados no Estado do Amazonas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Parasitemia/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , Brazil , Chagas Disease/pathology , Genotype , Marsupialia/parasitology , Triatominae/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(6): 697-702, Nov.-Dec. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-611751

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Deforestation, uncontrolled forest, human population migration from endemic areas, and the large number of reservoirs and wild vectors naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi promote the endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon region. METHODS: We conducted an initial serological survey (ELISA) in a sample of 1,263 persons; 1,095 (86.7 percent) were natives of the State of Amazonas, 666 (52.7 percent) were male, and 948 (75.1 percent) were over 20 years old. Serum samples that were found to be reactive, indeterminate, or inconclusive by indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) or positive with low titer by IFA were tested by Western blot (WB). Serologically confirmed patients (WB) were evaluated in terms of epidemiological, clinical, ECG, and echocardiography characteristics. RESULTS: Fifteen patients had serologically confirmed T. cruzi infection, and 12 of them were autochthonous to the state of Amazonas, for an overall seroprevalence of 1.2 percent and 0.9 percent for the state of Amazonas. Five of the 15 cases were males, and the average age was 47 years old; most were farmers with low education. One patient who was not autochthonous, having originated from Alagoas, showed right bundle branch block, bundle branch block, and anterosuperior left ventricular systolic dysfunction with an ejection fraction of 54 percent. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study ratify the importance of monitoring CD cases in Amazonia, particularly in the state of Amazonas.


INTRODUÇÃO: Na Amazônia, o desmatamento desordenado da floresta, as migrações populacionais humanas de áreas endêmicas e o grande número de reservatórios e vetores silvestres naturalmente infectados por Trypanosoma cruzi, favorece a endemicidade da doença de Chagas nessa região. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um inquérito sorológico inicial por ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA), em uma amostra de 1.263 pessoas, 1.095 (86,7 por cento ) as quais eram autóctones do Estado do Amazonas, 666 (52,7 por cento) do sexo masculino, 948 (75,1 por cento) com idade superior a 20 anos. As amostras de soro reativas, indeterminadas ou inconclusivas por imunofluorescência indireta (IFI) positivas ou com baixo título na IFI foram submetidas ao Western blot (WB). Os pacientes com sorologia confirmada (WB) foram avaliados do ponto de vista epidemiológico, clínico, eletro e ecocardiográfico. RESULTADOS: Quinze pacientes tiveram sorologia confirmada para infecção por T. cruzi, 12 dos quais autóctones do Estado do Amazonas, com uma prevalência sorológica geral de 1,2 por cento e de 0,9 por cento para o Estado do Amazonas. Entre os 15 casos com sorologia positiva, cinco eram do sexo masculino, média de idade de 47 anos, baixa escolaridade e a maioria agricultores. Um paciente não autoctone, procedente de Alagoas, apresentou bloqueio de ramo direito, bloqueio divisional ântero-superior e disfunção sistólica ventricular esquerda com fração de ejeção de 54 por cento. CONCLUSÕES: O resultado deste estudo reforça a importância do monitoramento de casos da doença de Chagas na Amazônia, em especial no Amazonas.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Blotting, Western , Brazil/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Insect Vectors/classification , Prevalence , Rural Population , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Socioeconomic Factors
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