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1.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 12(4): 459-466, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732465

ABSTRACT

Objective To propose the inclusion of a gynecological investigation during the evaluation of athletes before competitions, using a specific instrument called the Pre-participation Gynecological Examination (PPGE). Methods The study assessed 148 athletes, mean age of 15.4±2.0 years, who engaged in eight different sports modalities, and who responded to a questionnaire named Pre-Participation Gynecological Examination (PPGE), to the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form (for urinary loss), and to the Eating Attitudes Test (for eating disorders). Results Fifty percent of the participants reported irregular menstrual intervals, 23.0% did not know about sexually transmitted diseases, and 72.4% denied having, at least, an annual gynecological appointment. The study identified 18.2% who had urinary loss, and 15% presented with an increased risk of eating disorders. Moreover, 89.9% were not familiar with the occurrence of urinary incontinence in athletes and did not know that they were susceptible to the female athlete triad. A total of 87.1% of them stated that would not mention these issues to their coaches even if this would improve their health or performance. Conclusion The Pre-Participation Gynecological Examination can be considered an easy-to-apply instrument that allowed the diagnosis of alterations often underestimated by the athletes themselves. After its application, the alterations were identified, and determined the athletes’ referral to appropriate evaluation and treatment. .


Objetivo Propor a inclusão da investigação ginecológica durante a avaliação pré-participação de mulheres praticantes de exercício físico, por meio de um instrumento específico, denominado Pre-Participation Gynecological Examination (PPGE). Métodos Foram avaliadas 148 atletas com média de idade de 15,4±2,0 anos, participantes de oito diferentes modalidades esportivas, que responderam ao Pre-Participation Gynecological Examination, ao International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form (para avaliar perda urinária) e ao Eating Attitudes Test (para avaliar alterações alimentares). Resultados Cinquenta por cento das atletas referiram irregularidade menstrual, 23% desconheciam as doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e 72,4% negaram acompanhamento ginecológico, no mínimo, anual. Foram identificados 18,2% de mulheres com perda urinária e 15% de maior risco de alterações alimentares. Além disso, 89,9% desconheciam a existência de incontinência urinária em atletas ou o fato de estarem suscetíveis à tríade da mulher atleta. Entre elas, ainda, 87,1% afirmaram não se referirem a seus técnicos sobre as questões ginecológicas, mesmo que isso pudesse melhorar sua saúde e seu desempenho. Conclusão O questionário Pre-Participation Gynecological Examination mostrou-se um instrumento de fácil aplicabilidade e permitiu o diagnóstico de alterações por vezes não valorizadas pelas próprias atletas. Após a aplicação do questionário, as alterações puderam ser identificadas, determinando o encaminhamento ...


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Athletes , Exercise/physiology , Gynecological Examination/methods , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Sports/physiology , Athletic Performance , Female Athlete Triad Syndrome/diagnosis , Female Athlete Triad Syndrome/physiopathology , Menstrual Cycle/physiology , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Reproducibility of Results , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/psychology , Urinary Incontinence/diagnosis , Urinary Incontinence/physiopathology
2.
São Paulo; s.n; 2005. [202] p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-424908

ABSTRACT

Estudos populacionais de marcadores genéticos têm sido vistos com reservas devido aos baixos índices de reprodutibilidade. O objetivo dessa tese foi investigar a influência da estratificação populacional (EP) e de outras variáveis de confusão em estudos envolvendo 699 dependentes de cocaína, 866 controles e polimorfismos nos genes período (per) 1 e 2. A presença de EP foi confirmada com a contribuição de três subpopulações similarmente distribuídas nos casos e controles, através do uso de 24 marcadores populacionais. A correção estatística para EP e para a variável sexo revelou estimativas de risco de 1.30 e 1.34 para os individuos com os alelos C e A dos SNPs rs2304911 e rs2253820, no gene per1, respectivamente; e de até 1.4 para o haplótipo de risco (CA), sugerindo a participação desse gene na dependência de cocaína / Population studies investigating specific genetic factors are regarded with skepticism, due to the low rate of reproducibility of the results published. The main objective of this thesis was to investigate the influence of population stratification, and other confounders, in 699 cocaine dependents, 866 controls and polymorphisms on association studies involving the period genes (per) 1 and 2. The presence of stratification was confirmed using population markers with contributions from three subpopulations, but was similar in cases and controls. Statistical correction for stratification and gender, revealed odds ratio estimations of 1.30 and 1.34 for alleles C and A of the per1 SNPs: rs2304911 and rs2253820, respectively, and 1.4 for the CA risk haplotype, suggesting a role for this gene in cocaine dependence...


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Male , Female , Humans , Cocaine-Related Disorders , Polymorphism, Genetic , Gene Frequency , Population
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