*China Pharmacy ; (12): 173-178, 2023.*

##### ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of denosumab and teriparatide in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chinese women， and provide reference for relevant decision-making. METHODS From the perspective of health system in China， Excel 2003 was used to establish Markov model， and cost-utility analysis was used to evaluate the cost- effectiveness of denosumab or teriparatide combined with Calcium carbonate D3 tablets in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chinese women. Pharmacotherapy effects were obtained with network meta-analysis， and cost and health utility value data were obtained from published literature. The model cycle was 1 year， and the simulation time limit was the patient’s lifetime. Univariate sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were used to evaluate the effects of model parameter changes on the robustness of the results. Through scenario analysis， the cost-effectiveness of domestic drug cost used as drug cost of terlipatide group was discussed； the influence of residual effects of teriparatide on the results and the cost-effectiveness of sequential use of desumamab after terlipatide withdrawal were also discussed. RESULTS The effect of denosumab regimen was better than that of terlipatide regimen [13.24 quality-adjusted life years （QALYs） vs. 12.96 QALYs]， with lower cost （51 224.64 yuan vs. 167 102.67 yuan）， denosumab regimen was the absolutely superior regimen. The results of single factor sensitivity analysis showed that the cost and discount rate of Terlipatide injection had greater impact on the results. The results of probability sensitivity analysis showed that when three times of China’s per capita gross domestic product （GDP） in 2021 was used as the threshold of willingness to pay， the probability of cost-effectiveness of denosumab regimen was 93.5%. The results of scenario analysis showed that， whether the drug cost of terlipatide regimen which was replaced by domestic drugs， or the residual effect of terlipatide was considered， or desulmonab was used sequentially after two years of terlipide treatment， denosumab regimen was always the absolute advantage regimen. CONCLUSIONS Denosumab combined with Calcium carbonate D3 tablets is more cost-effective than teriparatide combined with Calcium carbonate D3 tablets in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chinese women.

*China Pharmacy ; (12): 1742-1747, 2022.*

##### ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of denosumab and zoledronic acid in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis ，and to provide reference for relevant decision-making. METHODS From the perspective of Chinese health system ，Excel 2003 software was used to establish Markov model ，and cost-utility analysis was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of denosumab or zoledronic acid combined with calcium carbonate D 3 in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Pharmacotherapy effects were obtained from the network Meta-analysis ，and cost and health-utility value data were obtained from the published literature or network ，etc. The model cycle was 1 year，and the simulation time limit was the patient ’s lifetime. One-way sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were used to evaluate the impact of model parameter changes on the robustness of the results ；and the cost-effectiveness of changing the medication cycle of zoledronic acid were explored through scenario analysis. RESULTS Denosumab regimen was more effective than zoledronic acid regimen （12.77 QALYs vs. 11.98 QALYs），and its cost was also higher than zoledronic acid regimen （51 224.56 yuan vs. 49 221.67 yuan）， and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was 2 544.14 yuan/QALY. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that the cost of Zoledronic acid injection and that of Denosumab injection had great impact on the results. The results of probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that when using 3 times of per capita gross domestic product （GDP）in China in 2021 as the threshold of willingness to pay ，the probability of Denosumab regimen being cost-effective was 85.4％. The results of the scenario analysis showed that the Denosumab regimen was still more cost-effective when the dosing cycle of zoledronic acid was changed. CONCLUSIONS Under the threshold of 1-3 times of Chinese per capita GDP in 2021，denosumab combined with calcium carbonate D 3 is more cost-effective than zoledronic acid combined with calcium carbonate D 3 in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

*China Pharmacy ; (12): 1860-1864, 2022.*

##### ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of durvalumab for consolidation therapy after chemoradiotherapy for unresectable stage Ⅲ non-small cell lung cancer from the perspective of the Chinese health care system. METHODS A Markov model was developed by using updated four-year survival data from the PACIFIC trial in May 2021 and relevant literature. The cost-effectiveness of durvalumab for consolidation therapy after chemoradiotherapy for unresectable stage Ⅲ non-small cell lung cancer was evaluated by using quality-adjusted life years （QALYs）as health output index with 20-year simulation time frame and a 2-week cycling period. The costs and health output were discounted using discount rate of 5％；one-way sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were used to examine the robustness of the model simulation results. RESULTS The results of the base analysis showed that compared with placebo group ，durvalumab resulted in 0.73 QALYs at an incremental cost of 1 076 062.86 yuan and an incremental cost-utility ratio （ICER）of 1 467 546.54 yuan/QALY，which was much higher than 3-fold per capita gross domestic products （GDP）in 2020（217 713 yuan）as willingness-to-pay （WTP）threshold. The results of one-way sensitivity analysis showed that the price of durvalumab and discount rate had a great impact on ICER. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed no cost-effective advantage for durvalumab when the WTP threshold was three times of GDP per capita in 2020 （217 713 yuan）. CONCLUSIONS From the perspective of Chinese health care system ，there is no cost-effective advantage to the use of durvalumab for consolidation therapy after chemoradiotherapy for unresectable stage Ⅲ non-small cell lung cancer when the WTP threshold was three times of GDP per capita in 2020.

*China Pharmacy ; (12): 1466-1473, 2022.*

##### ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the cost-utility of pembrolizumab combined with chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in the first-line treatment of advanced or metastatic esophageal carcinoma. METHODS Cost-utility analysis of pembrolizumab combined with chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for advanced or metastatic esophageal carcinoma was conducted by using a three-state partitioned survival model from the perspective of health system in China. The model use d a lifetime simulation time frame with 3 weeks as a cycle. The survival data were extrapolated using KEYNOTE- 590 data；cost data were obtained from the median of 2022 public winning bid on Yaozhi network ，among which the price of pembrolizumab was obtained after discounting by a patient assistance program ；utility data were obtained from the literatures ，and a 5％ discount rate was used for both cost and utility. One-way sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were also conducted to examine model robustness. RESULTS Analysis of the base case results showed that compared to chemotherapy alone ，the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio （ICER）of pembrolizumab combined with chemotherapy regimens were 950 528.42 yuan/QALY，107 845.39 yuan/QALY and 315 754.56 yuan/QALY for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma （ESCC），programmed deathligand- 1 combined positive score （PD-L1 CPS）≥10 and intention-to-treat population （ITT），respectively. The results of sensitivity analysis verified the robustness of the basic analysis results. CONCLUSIONS Under our healthcare system ，using a threshold of willingness-to-pay of 1-3 times our GDP per capita in 2021，pembrolizumab combined with chemotherapy regimen isn ’t cost-utility compared with chemotherapy alone in the ESCC and ITT subgroups of patients ，while it is cost-utility in the PD-L 1 CPS≥10 subgroup of patients.