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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690689

ABSTRACT

To study the evolution of Chinese ancient and modern pharmacopoeia standards and compare the domestic and foreign pharmacopoeias, further understand the international requirements on chrysanthemum quality, and establish a more suitable and modern standard system for high quality Chrysanthemi Flos pieces. Newly Revised Materia Medica, Welfare Pharmacy, Collected Essentials of Species of Materia Medica (Bencao Pinhui Jingyao), Chinese Pharmacopoeia and other herbal remedies in various generations were reviewed to summarize the evolution of domestic standards on Chrysanthemi Flos pieces. Then they were compared with those in European Pharmacopoeia, United States Pharmacopoeia, Japanese Pharmacopoeia and other foreign Pharmacopoeias to establish a modern and international high-quality Chrysanthemi Flos pieces standard system with Chinese medicine characteristics and produce more internationally recognized high-quality Chinese medicine pieces.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775332

ABSTRACT

Macrophages are a group of immune cells with pluripotency and plasticity that can differentiate into different phenotypes under different microenvironments in vitro and in vivo. In the development of pulmonary fibrosis, there are alveolar macrophages and interstitial macrophages, which are polarized to different cell phenotypes at different stages of development. And their polarized phenotypes include M1 macrophages and M2 macrophages. In the inflammation early stages of pulmonary fibrosis, the increase of classical activated macrophages are helpful to clear pathogenic microorganisms and promote the progress of inflammation. In the fibrosis stage, the alternatively activated macrophages increased, which inhibiting the inflammatory reaction or directly promoting tissue fibrosis, on the other hand, it also promoting the fibrosis degradation. To clarify the polarization and polarization mechanisms of macrophages in pulmonary fibrosis will be conducive to the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. In IPF, the polarization mechanism of M1 and M2 is closely related to TGF-β1/Smad. TGF-β1/Smad pathway plays an important regulatory role in liver fibrosis, renal fibrosis, myocardial fibrosis, scars, tumors and other diseases. Blocking the signaling of TGF-β1 by Smad3 and Smad4 is beneficial to inhibit the polarization of AM, which in turn helps to inhibit the progression of IPF.


Subject(s)
Fibrosis , Humans , Inflammation , Macrophages , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Signal Transduction
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