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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1619-1636, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878658

ABSTRACT

As a typical food safety industrial model strain, Bacillus subtilis has been widely used in the field of metabolic engineering due to its non-pathogenicity, strong ability of extracellular protein secretion and no obvious codon preference. In recent years, with the rapid development of molecular biology and genetic engineering technology, a variety of research strategies and tools have been used to construct B. subtilis chassis cells for efficient synthesis of biological products. This review introduces the research progress of B. subtilis from the aspects of promoter engineering, gene editing, genetic circuit, cofactor engineering and pathway enzyme assembly. Then, we also summarized the application of B. subtilis in the production of biological products. Finally, the future research directions of B. subtilis are prospected.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Gene Editing , Metabolic Engineering , Promoter Regions, Genetic
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 860-873, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878601

ABSTRACT

Genome-scale metabolic network model (GSMM) is an extremely important guiding tool in the targeted modification of industrial microbial strains, which helps researchers to quickly obtain industrial microbes with specific traits and has attracted increasing attention. Here we reviewe the development history of GSMM and summarized the construction method of GSMM. Furthermore, the development and application of GSMM in industrial microorganisms are elaborated by using four typical industrial microorganisms (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as examples. In addition, prospects in the development trend of GSMM are proposed.


Subject(s)
Corynebacterium glutamicum/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Metabolic Engineering , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 689-695, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878594

ABSTRACT

Fermentation engineering is an industrial process that uses the transformation of microorganisms or other cells to produce a specific product in a specific bioreactor. Fermentation engineering has developed from an ancient food fermentation relying solely on experience accumulation to an important production mode of food, agriculture, medicine, chemical industry and other means of production and life. It has become a key technology to support the sustainable development of human beings, and is inseparable from the continuous progress of interdisciplinary technology. The interdisciplinary integration and the continuous upward movement of China's global industrial chain will inevitably put forward higher requirements for the cultivation of fermentation engineering composite talents in the new situation. In order to constantly improve the interdisciplinary fermentation engineering compound talent training system, in recent years, the research lab has been refining and improving the concept of talent training, and actively deepening the reform of talent training system. Systematic research and practice have been carried out around the aspects of training program, enrollment system, teacher background, subject setting, scientific research practice, evaluation system, etc., which has promoted the technological progress of fermentation engineering and related supporting industries, and contributed an important force to the transformation of China from a big fermentation country to a powerful fermentation country.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Fermentation , Humans , Industry
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1629-1639, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826814

ABSTRACT

With the advent of the post-genomic era, metabolic engineering of microorganisms plays an increasingly important role in industrial production. The genome-scale metabolic model (GSMM) integrates all known metabolic information in the organism to provide an optimal platform for global understanding of the metabolic state of the organism and rational guidance for metabolic engineering. As a model strain, Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 plays an important role in industrial fermentation, but there is still no specific genome-scale metabolic model for it. Based on genomic function annotation and comparative genomics, we constructed the first genome-scale metabolic model iWK557 of L. lactis NZ9000, which contains 557 genes, 668 metabolites, and 840 reactions, and further verified at both qualitative and quantitative levels, to provide a good tool for rationally guiding metabolic engineering.

5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1689-1698, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826808

ABSTRACT

Enterokinase is a class of serine proteases that specifically recognize the cleavage DDDDK sequences. Therefore, enterokinase has been widely used as a tool enzyme in the field of biomedicine. Currently, the expression level of enterokinase in Pichia pastoris is low, which hinders related practical applications. In this study, the effects of six different signal peptides SP1, SP2, SP3, SP4, SP7 and SP8 on the secretory expression of enterokinase in Pichia pastoris were studied. Compared with α-factor, SP1 significantly increased the secretory expression of enterokinase (from 6.8 mg/L to 14.3 mg/L), and the enterokinase activity increased from (2 390±212) U/mL to (4 995±378) U/mL in shaking flask cultures. On this basis, the enterokinase activity was further enhanced to (7 219±489) U/mL by co-expressing the endogenous protein Kex2. Moreover, the activity that the mutant strain with N-terminal fusion of three amino acids of WLR was increased to (15 145±920) U/mL with a high specific activity of (1 174 600±53 100) U/mg. The efficient secretory expression of enterokinase laid a foundation for its applications in near future.

6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 567-576, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771352

ABSTRACT

Ethyl carbamate (EC), a carcinogenic and teratogenic chemical that is widely distributed in various alcoholic beverages, has attracted much attention. Microbial enzymatic degradation of EC in rice wine is always efficient and attractive. In this review, we summarize the research progress and problems of microbial enzymatic elimination of EC in rice wine from three aspects: the mechanisms of EC formation in rice wine, the research progress of acid urease, and the research progress of urethanase. Then, we propose the corresponding strategies to solve the problems: screening new urethanase with satisfied enzyme properties, food-grade expression and directed evolution of the bifunctional Fe³⁺-dependent acid urease and acid urease used in combination with urethanase to eliminate both urea and EC in rice wine.


Subject(s)
Oryza , Urea , Urease , Urethane , Wine
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 626-635, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771346

ABSTRACT

Self-assembling amphipathic peptides (SAPs) have alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic residues and can affect the thermal stabilities and catalytic properties of the fused enzymes. In this study, a novel multifunctional tag, S1vw (HNANARARHNANARARHNANARARHNARARAR) was developed to modify fused enzymes. After fusing S1vw at the enzymes/proteins N-terminus through a PT-linker, the crude enzymatic activities of polygalacturonate lyase and lipoxygenase were enhanced 3.1- and 1.89-fold, respectively, compared to the wild-type proteins. The relative fluorescence intensity of the green fluorescent protein was enhanced 16.22-fold. All the three S1vw fusions could be purified by nickel column with high purities and acceptable recovery rates. Moreover, S1vw also induced the thermostabilities enhancement of the fusions, with polygalacturonate lyase and lipoxygenase fusions exhibiting 2.16- and 3.2-fold increase compared with the corresponding wild-type, respectively. In addition, S1vw could enhance the production yield of green fluorescent protein in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis while the production of GFP and its S1vw fusion changed slightly in Pichia pastoris. These results indicated that S1vw could be used as a multifunctional tag to benefit the production, thermal stability and purification of the fusion protein in prokaryotic expression system.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli , Green Fluorescent Proteins , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Peptides , Pichia , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Metabolism
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 805-815, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771329

ABSTRACT

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is widely used in many fields, such as medicine, cosmetics and food. The bioactivity of HA depends on its molecular weight (Mw). Owing to the important physiological activities and special physiological functions, HA oligosaccharides have important application prospects in medicine fields. Streptococcus zooepidemicus has wide applications in commercial production of HA, due to its short fermentation cycle and strong production intensity. In order to efficiently synthesize HA oligosaccharides and solve the dissolved oxygen in the fermentation process, in this study, we overexpressed HA synthase (HasA) and introduced and optimized the leech hyaluronidase LHAase in Streptococcus zooepidemicus WSH-24. As a result, HA oligosaccharides were efficiently produced with improved dissolved oxygen. After 24 h, HA oligosaccharides production intensity reached to 294.2 mg/(L·h), and the concentration accumulated to 0.97 g/L in flask cultures, which was 1.82 times of the wild strain. Impressively, HA oligosaccharides were increased to 7.06 g/L in 3 L fermentor. The constructed Streptococcus zooepidemicus strain for producing HA oligosaccharides would have broad application prospects.


Subject(s)
Bioreactors , Fermentation , Hyaluronan Synthases , Genetics , Metabolism , Hyaluronic Acid , Genetics , Metabolism , Industrial Microbiology , Oligosaccharides , Genetics , Metabolism , Streptococcus equi , Genetics , Metabolism
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-791206

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the expression and mechanism of microRNA (miRNA)-613 in breast cancer. Methods: A total of 91 specimens of breast cancer tissue were collected from Nanchong Central Hospital between May 2017 and May 2018. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to estimate miRNA-613 expression levels in breast cancer and adjacent tissues and breast cancer ( cells MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and MCF-7) and normal breast epithelial (HBL-100) cell lines. Based on these data, the relationship between miRNA-613 expression and clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis in breast cancer patients were analyzed using the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database. A dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to detect the binding of miRNA-613 to the 3'UTR of SOX9. Effects on cell proliferation and cell invasion and migration upon transfection of MDA-MB-231 cells with miRNA-613 mimics were detected by the CCK-8 assay and Transwell invasion and migration assays, respectively. In addition, Western blot was used to estimate the expression levels of SOX9, β-catenin, E-cadherin, and Vimentin in the transfected cells. Results: The expression of miRNA-613 in breast cancer tissues was significantly lower than that in adjacent tissues (P<0.05) and was found to be closely related to TNM stage and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). TCGA survival data showed that miRNA-613 expression was not related to the overall survival rate of breast cancer patients (P>0.05 ). The expression of miRNA-613 in breast cancer cell lines was significantly lower than that in the normal breast epithelial cell line (P<0.05). Similarly, the expression of miRNA-613 in highly invasive metastatic breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468) was significantly lower than that in the metastatic breast cancer cell line MCF-7 with lower invasion ability (P<0.05). The dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that miRNA-613 could specifically bind to the 3'UTR of SOX9. Upregulation of miRNA-613 expression could inhibit the proliferation, invasion, and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells (P<0.05). This was associated with the downregulated expression of SOX9, β-catenin, and Vimentin (P<0.05) and upregulation of E-Cadherin expression (P<0.05). Conclusions: The expression of miRNA-613 was decreased in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. MiRNA-613 may inhibit the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of breast cancer cells and epithelial-mesenchymal transition by regulating the SOX9 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways.

10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1222-1233, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771806

ABSTRACT

Sulfated compounds are widely present in cytoplasm, on cell surface, and in extracellular matrix. These compounds play important roles in cell development, differentiation, immune response, detoxication, and cell signal transduction. 3-Phosphoadenosine-5-phosphosulfate (PAPS) is the universal sulfate group donor for the biosynthesis of sulfated compounds. Up to now, the synthesis of PAPS is still too expensive for industrial applications. This review focuses on the recent progress of PAPS production and summaries the application of PAPS, particularly in the production of glucosinolate, heparin, condroitin sulfate, and oxamniquine production.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation , Chondroitin Sulfates , Phosphoadenosine Phosphosulfate , Metabolism , Sulfates
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1374-1381, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771792

ABSTRACT

As one of the top 10 breakthrough and emerging technologies in the world in 2018, cultured meat has attracted extensive attention due to its advantages of traceable origin, food safety and green sustainable development. Europe and the United States have invested a lot of resources to focus on research about cultured meat, which will affect our domestic meat and food market in the future. At present, the challenge of cultured meat production is how to efficiently simulate the growth environment of animal muscle tissue and realize large-scale production in bioreactor. Although cell tissue engineering has been deeply studied and achieved varying successful application, it is still difficult to obtain large-scale cultured meat production due to the high cost and technical requirements. Therefore, the development of efficient and safe cell culture technology is an urgent problem for large-scale cultured meat production, which can effectively reduce costs and achieve industrial application. In this review, we summarize the research progress of animal cell tissue culture technology used for cultured meat, and highlighted the current challenges and possible strategies in further applications.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bioreactors , Cell Culture Techniques , Meat , Tissue Engineering , United States
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1787-1796, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771753

ABSTRACT

Chitinase has a wide industrial application prospect. For example, it can degrade shrimp shells, crab shells and other crustacean waste into high value-added chitooligosaccharides. However, the low catalytic efficiency of chitinase greatly limits the production of chitooligosaccharides. In previous study, the we expressed a chitinase Chisb with high catalytic efficiency and studied its enzymatic properties. In order to further improve the catalytic efficiency of Chisb, with R13NprB-C-SP-H as the parent, here error-prone PCR was used to construct random mutant library to conduct directed evolution of chitinase Chisb. Two mutants C43D and E336R were obtained with 96-well plate primary screening and shaker-screening, and their enzymatic properties were also studied. The optimum temperature of C43D and E336R was 55 °C, and the optimum pH of C43D was 5.0, while that of E336R was 9.0. The catalytic efficiency of C43D and E336R was 1.35 times and 1.57 times higher than that of control. The chitooligosaccharide concentration of E336R and C43D was 2.53 g/L and 2.06 g/L, improved by 2.84 times and 2.31 times compared with the control (0.89 g/L), respectively. In addition, the substrate conversion rate of mutants E336R and C43D was 84.3% and 68.7%, improved by 54.6% and 39% compared with the control (29.7%), respectively. In summary, the study indicates that random mutation introduced by error-prone PCR can effectively improve the catalytic efficiency of chitinase Chisb. The positive mutants with higher catalytic efficiency obtained in the above study and their enzymatic property analysis have important research significance and application value for the biosynthesis of chitooligosaccharides.


Subject(s)
Biocatalysis , Chitin , Chitinases , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Polymerase Chain Reaction
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2003-2013, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771737

ABSTRACT

Industrial fermentation focuses on realizing the uniform of high titer, high yield, and high productivity. Multi-scale analysis and regulation, including molecule level, cell level, and bioreactor level, facilitate global optimization and dynamic balance of fermentation process, which determine high efficiency of biosynthesis, targeted directionality of bioconversion, process robustness, and well-organized system. In this review, we summariz and discuss advances in multi-scale analysis and regulation for fermentation process focusing on the following four aspects: 1) kinetic modeling of metabolic pathways, 2) characteristic of cell metabolism, 3) co-coupling fermentation and purification, and 4) bioreactor design. Integrating multi-scale analysis of fermentation process and integrating multi-scale regulation are expected as an important strategy for realizing highly efficient fermentation by industrial microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Bioreactors , Fermentation , Industrial Microbiology , Kinetics , Metabolic Networks and Pathways
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1784-1793, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776290

ABSTRACT

Heparin is a very important anticoagulant drug. Currently, heparin is mainly extracted from porcine mucosa. However, animal-derived heparin shows low anticoagulant activity due to the low proportion of the anticoagulant active unit, the GlcNS6S-GlcA-GlcNS6S3S-Ido2S-GlcNS6S pentasaccharide. In this study we proposed an enzymatic strategy to sulfate the animal-sourced heparin to increase the proportion of anticoagulant pentasaccharide and the anticoagulant activity. First, three sulfotransferases HS2ST, HS6ST, and HS3ST were expressed tentatively in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris. After measuring the sulfotransferase activity, we confirmed P. pastoris GS115 is the better host for sulfotransferases production. Then, the maltose binding protein (MBP) and thioredoxin (TrxA) were fused separately to the N-terminal of sulfotransferases to increase enzyme solubility. As a result, the yields of HS2ST and HS6ST were increased to (839±14) U/L and (792±23) U/L, respectively. Subsequent sulfation of the animal-sourced heparin with the recombinant HS2ST, HS6ST and HS3ST increased the anticoagulant activity from (76±2) IU/mg to (189±17) IU/mg.


Subject(s)
Animals , Escherichia coli , Heparin , Chemistry , Oligosaccharides , Chemistry , Pichia , Sulfotransferases , Swine
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1106-1116, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687706

ABSTRACT

Glucose oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of β-D-glucose to gluconic acid and its derivatives, thus shows a great potential in the development of antibiotic-free feed. However, its production and processing still have the problem of poor thermal stability of enzyme activity. In this study, fusion of amphiphilic peptide technology was used to improve the stability of glucose oxidase. Herein, eight self-assembling peptides with different amino acid lengths and Linkers were fused to the N terminus of the glucose oxidase, yielding eight chimeric fusions SAP1-GS-GOD, SAP1-PT-GOD, SAP2-PT-GOD, SAP3-PT-GOD, SAP4-PT-GOD, SAP5-PT-GOD, SAP6-PT-GOD and SAP7-PT-GOD. Then, the 8 recombinant proteins were expressed in P. pastoris GS115. After separation and purification, the stability of glucose oxidase at 60 ℃was determined. The relative enzyme activities of the PT Linker-linked fusion enzyme incubated at 60 ℃ for 60 min were higher than those of the original enzyme, and the relative activity of SAP5-PT-GOD was 67% at 60 ℃ for 30 min, which was 10.9 times higher than that of the initial enzyme with the same treatment. Among them, the Kcat/Km value of SAP1-PT-GOD, SAP2-PT-GOD, SAP3-PT-GOD and SAP5-PT-GOD of the fusion enzyme was further improved than that of the initial enzyme. Through the analysis of the intramolecular force of the fusion enzyme, the increase of the thermal stability of the fusion enzyme is mainly due to the increase of the hydrogen bond. In summary, the study indicates that translational fusion of self-assembling peptides with PT Linker was able to augment the thermo-stability of glucose oxidase, which has certain potential in the production and application of glucose oxidase. The glucose oxidase with improved thermostability obtained in the above study and the related mechanism will play an important role in improving the activity of related enzymes in the proceeding of processing and application.

16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1091-1100, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-242247

ABSTRACT

Terminators as regulatory signals are typically placed behind the last coding sequence to block the transcription of DNA to RNA and release the transcript. In the present study, the hairpin and the U-rich sequence of the bacteriophage λto terminator were first modified to investigate their effects on termination efficiency and mRNA stability in Bacillus subtilis 168. Compared with the native λto terminator, the terminator variants M3, M11 and M12 showed higher termination efficiency values. Moreover, the variantsM3, M4 and M11 showed significant positive effects on the mRNA stability of the upstream gfp gene. Additionally, insertion of RNase site also increased the mRNA stability. The results of this study suggested that the composition of the hairpin loop is not required for effective intrinsic termination in B. subtilis. Our results also showed that the terminator could also be used as a potential tool for increasing mRNA stability and the corresponding enzyme production in B. subtilis.

17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 936-945, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-242217

ABSTRACT

Heparosan is the start point for chemoenzymatic synthesis of heparin and it is of great significance to efficiently synthesize heparosan in microorganisms. The effects of overexpressing key enzyme genes of the UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) pathway (pgcA, gtaB and tuaD) or the UDP-N-acetyl-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) pathway (glmS, glmM and glmU) on the heparosan production and molecular mass were analyzed in the constructed heparosan-producing Bacillus subtilis ((1.71±0.08) g/L). On this basis, heparosan production was increased to (2.89±0.11) g/L with the molecular mass of (75.90±1.18) kDa through co-overexpressing the tuaD, gtaB, glmU, glmM and glmS genes in shake flask cultivation. In the 3 L fed-batch fermentation, heparosan production was improved to (7.25±0.36) g/L with the molecular mass of (46.66±2.71) kDa, providing the potential for heparosan industrial production.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337399

ABSTRACT

Ethyl carbamate (EC) as a potential carcinogen commonly exists in traditional fermented foods. It is important eliminate urea that is the precursors of EC in many fermented foods, including Chinese Rice wine. On the basis of achieving high-level overexpression of food-grade ethanol-resistant acid urease, we studied the hydrolysis of urea and EC with the recombinant acid urease. Recombinant acid urease showed degraded urea in both the simulated system with ethanol and Chinese Rice wine (60 mg/L of urea was completely degraded within 25 h), indicating that the recombinant enzyme is suitable for the elimination of urea in Chinese Rice wine. Although recombinant acid urease also has degradation catalytic activity on EC, no obvious degradation of EC was observed. Further investigation results showed that the Km value for urea and EC of the recombinant acid urease was 0.7147 mmol/L and 41.32 mmol/L, respectively. The results provided theoretical foundation for realizing simultaneous degradation of urea and EC.


Subject(s)
Oryza , Recombinant Proteins , Metabolism , Urea , Chemistry , Urease , Metabolism , Urethane , Chemistry , Wine
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1233-1242, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310544

ABSTRACT

Ethyl carbamate as a potential carcinogen commonly exists in traditional fermented foods and beverages. Enzymatic removal of ethyl carbamate from fermented foods and beverages is an efficient and safe method. In this study, we mutated urethanase from Lysinibacillus fusiformis SC02 on the Q328 site through computer aided design approaches. The half-life of resulting mutants Q328C and Q328V was detected to be 7.46 and 1.96 folds higher than that of the original enzyme, and Q328R presented better thermal-tolerance than the original urethanase when incubated at high temperature. The tolerance of Q328C to ethanol and acid also increased when compared with that of the original enzyme. The stability and tolerance to acid and ethanol of urethanase could be improved by modification on its Q328 site.


Subject(s)
Amidohydrolases , Genetics , Bacillaceae , Genetics , Bacterial Proteins , Genetics , Computer-Aided Design , Enzyme Stability , Ethanol , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Protein Engineering
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1145-1149, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-242266

ABSTRACT

As a novel cofactor of oxidoreductase, pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) has a great potential of application in medicine, food industries. In order to improve the efficiency of the PQQ production by Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, the strain was treated by atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP). Positive mutants with changes in PQQ yield were obtained based on a high-throughput screening approach. After ARTP treatment, analysis data show that the positive mutation rate was 31.6%. Furthermore, we obtained an excellent positive mutant M. extorquens AM1 (E-F3) with the yield of 54.0 mg/L PQQ, which was approximately 3 times as much compared with that of the wild-type strain. The robust high-throughput screening method for mutagenesis by ARTP improves PQQ production. In addition, this method also provides a new strategy for further strain improvement.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Methylobacterium extorquens , Genetics , Mutagenesis , PQQ Cofactor , Plasma Gases , Temperature
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