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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907881

ABSTRACT

Alstr?m syndrome is a rare multisystem genetic disease caused by mutations in the ALMS1 gene.Both of its clinical diagnosis and treatment are very difficult.In 2020, the Consensus Clinical Management Guidelines for Alstr?m Syndrome, developed with the participation of many countries, was published in the Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases.A systematic literature review on Alstr?m syndrome of the last 45 years until October 2019 was carried out and then the clinical management guideline for Alstr?m syndrome was proposed.In this report, the contents of the 2020 European guideline for Alstr?m syndrome would be introduced briefly with appropriate interpretation in order to provide reference.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885118

ABSTRACT

The clinical data of a case of diabetic ketoacidosis with FOXP3 mutation identified by genetic test were collected and summarized. The follow-up results and clinical characteristics of 18 months after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were analyzed. The male patient was 3 years and 5 months old. At the age of 5 months, the patient was diagnosed as diabetic ketoacidosis due to mental malaise and vomiting, followed by severe diarrhea, repeated eczema, and nephrotic syndrome, which was confirmed as IPEX syndrome due to FOXP3 gene mutation by genetic test. In August 2018, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was carried out in the Hematology Department of our hospital. During 18 months of follow-up, the patients′ autoimmune status was ameliorated, no new autoimmune diseases appeared, the blood glucose control was significantly improved, and the insulin dosage was significantly reduced.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879585

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical and genetic characteristics of a child with frontometaphyseal dysplasia 1 (FMD1) due to variant of FLNA gene.@*METHODS@#Clinical phenotype of the patient was analyzed. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was carried out to detect pathogenic genetic variants. Sanger sequencing was used to verify the result in his parents.@*RESULTS@#The 2-year-and-9-month-old boy presented with facial dysmorphism (supraorbital hyperostosis, down-slanting palpebral fissure and ocular hypertelorism), skeletal deformities (bowed lower limbs, right genu valgum, left genu varus, slight deformity of index and middle fingers, and flexion contracture of little fingers). He also had limited left elbow movement. High-throughput sequencing revealed that he has carried a de novo heterogeneous c.3527G>A (p.Gly1176Glu) missense variant of the FLNA gene. The same variant was found in neither parent.@*CONCLUSION@#The clinical manifestations of FMD1 such as joint contracture and bone dysplasia can occur in infancy and deteriorate with age, and require long-term follow-up and treatment. Above finding has expanded the spectrum of FLNA gene variants.


Subject(s)
Child , Filamins/genetics , Forehead/abnormalities , Humans , Infant , Male , Osteochondrodysplasias/genetics , Phenotype , Whole Exome Sequencing
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879534

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for 7 patients with Alström syndrome.@*METHODS@#DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the patients and their parents. Whole exome sequencing was carried out for the patients. Suspected variant was verified by Sanger sequencing and bioinformatic analysis.@*RESULTS@#Genetic testing revealed 12 variants of the ALMS1 gene among the 7 patients, including 7 nonsense and 5 frameshift variants, which included c.5418delC (p.Tyr1807Thrfs*23), c.10549C>T (p.Gln3517*), c.9145dupC (p.Thr3049Asnfs*12), c.10819C>T (p.Arg3607*), c.5701_5704delGAGA (p.Glu1901Argfs*18), c.9154_9155delCT (p.Cys3053Serfs*9), c.9460delG (p.Val3154*), c.9379C>T (p.Gln3127*), c.12115C>T (p.Gln4039*), c.1468dupA (p.Thr490Asnfs*15), c.10825C>T (p.Arg3609*) and c.3902C>A (p.Ser1301*). Among these, c.9154_ 9155delCT, c.9460delG, c.9379C>T, and c.1468dupA were unreported previously. Based on the standards and guidelines of American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, the c.9379C>T and c.12115C>T variants of the ALMS1 gene were predicted to be likely pathogenic (PVS1+PM2), whilst the other 10 variants were predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1+ PM2+ PP3+PP4).@*CONCLUSION@#ALMS1 variants probably underlay the Alström syndrome in the 7 patients, and genetic testing can provide a basis for the clinical diagnosis of this syndrome. The discovery of four novel variants has expanded the mutational spectrum of Alström syndrome.


Subject(s)
Alstrom Syndrome/genetics , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Pedigree , Whole Exome Sequencing
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827753

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical characteristics and genetic basis for an infant featuring combined pituitary hormone deficiency.@*METHODS@#Clinical data and results of DNA sequencing of the child were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The 10-month-old male infant presented with recurrent hypoglycemia, extremely poor appetite and constipation, and severe growth retardation from 2 months on, in addition with pituitary hormone deficiency involving growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, and prolactin. Next generation sequencing revealed a novel heterozygous c.767-769del (p.Glu256del) variant of the POU1F1 gene in the patient.@*CONCLUSION@#The patient was diagnosed with combined pituitary hormone deficiency due to the POU1F1 gene variant, for which replacement therapy including thyroxine and growth hormone was provided. Hypoglycemia is unusual in patients carrying POU1F1 gene variants and requires close attention in clinical practice. For children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, genetic testing should be recommended to determine the cause.

6.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 373-376, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-809932

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To expand the knowledge of the clinical and molecular characteristics of the children with Bloom syndrome.@*Methods@#Clinical data of two siblings with classic Bloom syndrome of Shanghai Children's Medical Center from January 2009 to June 2017 were obtained and analyzed. The DNA of peripheral blood was collected from two Bloom syndrome siblings and their parents during 2015. The mutations were detected with high-throughput sequencing by Illumina sequencing platform.@*Results@#The two siblings (probands) visited our department for short stature and growth retardation, they had full-term normal delivery after normal pregnancy of their mother. Both cases presented with feeding difficulties, malnutrition, microcephaly and mental retardation, repeated infection, symmetrical short stature and special faces. At first, the proband was an 8-year-3-month old girl, her height was 99.7 cm, body mass index (BMI) 12.07 kg/m2, head circumference was 45.5 cm, and birth weight was 1.6 kg. Her younger brother was 3-year-11-month old, his height was 86.6 cm, BMI was 14 kg/m2, birth weight was 1.95 kg, and the head circumference reached 36 cm at 16 months. No evidence of cancer and characteristic rash was detected at 8-year follow-up. Pathogenic complex heterozygous mutations c.772_773delCT, p.Leu258Glufs*7 and c.959+ 2T>A in BLM gene were detected in both siblings, which were separately inherited from their unaffected parents. Besides , c.959 + 2T>A has not been reported previously.@*Conclusions@#Children with Bloom syndrome are characterized by short stature, microcephaly, special faces, feeding difficulties, and immunodeficiency. And butterfly erythematous rash may be absent. The c.959+2T>A mutation detected in our patients maybe a novel pathogenic mutation.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-688199

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze clinical manifestations and genetic mutation in a child with severe short stature and other malformations.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The child has undergone history taking and physical examination. Genome DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the proband and her family members. Candidate genes were captured with Agilent SureSelect and sequenced on an Illumina platform. Suspected mutation was verified by Sanger sequencing.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The patient, a six-year-and-10-month old girl, presented with non-symmetrical short stature, dysmorphism, abnormalities of limbs and spine, amblyopia of left eye, and cataract of right eye, in addition with frequent respiratory infection and micturition. Laboratory testing suggested 25-hydroxy vitamin D deficiency (18.9 ng/mL). Spine X-ray showed multiple malformations with centrums. Her mother also featured short stature (138 cm). Her aunt had short stature (130 cm) and limb-length discrepancy. Her little brother was 2.5 years old, and his height was 81 cm (-3.4 SD). Exome sequencing revealed a heterozygous mutation c.184C to T (p.Arg62Trp) in the proband and her mother. The same mutation was not found in her father and brother.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The patient was diagnosed with X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata 2. Mutation of the EBP gene probably underlied the disease in this family.</p>

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-345322

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To identify the genetic cause for a 11-year-old Chinese boy with Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) was used to detect potential variations, while whole exome sequencing (WES) was used to identify sequence variants. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the suspected variants.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The boy has featured short stature, microtia, small patella, slender body build, craniofacial anomalies, and small testes with normal gonadotropin. A complete uniparental disomy of chromosome 16 was revealed by CMA. WES has identified a novel homozygous mutation c.67A>G (p.Lys23Glu) in ORC6 gene mapped to chromosome 16. As predicted by Alamut functional software, the mutation may affect the function of structural domain of the ORC6 protein.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The patient is probably the first diagnosed MGS case in China, who carried a novel homozygous mutation of the ORC6 gene and uniparental disomy of chromosome 16. The effect of this novel mutation on the growth and development needs to be further investigated.</p>


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Child , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16 , Genetics , Congenital Microtia , Genetics , Family Health , Fathers , Growth Disorders , Genetics , Heterozygote , Humans , Male , Micrognathism , Genetics , Mutation , Origin Recognition Complex , Genetics , Patella , Congenital Abnormalities , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Methods , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Methods , Uniparental Disomy , Genetics
9.
Journal of Clinical Pediatrics ; (12): 278-281, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-511496

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the clinical feature, diagnosis and treatment of Alstrom syndrome. Method The clinical data of a case of Alstrom syndrome and the result of her ALMS1 sequencing by the two generation sequencing were retrospectively reviewed. Results The 12 year and 10 month old female suffered from dilated cardiomyopathy, obesity, optic nerve diseases, sensorineural hearing loss, high blood glucose and irregular menstruation since one month of birth. Laboratory examination showed she had high testosterone level, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and fatty liver. High-throughput sequencing confirmed there was ALMS1 gene mutation which includes hybrid frameshift mutations of c.5418delC and p.Y1807Tfs*23, and heterozygous nonsense mutation of c.10549C>T and p.Q3517*, and c.5418delC was a new variation reported for the first time. Conclusion Alstrom syndrome is an autosomal recessive genetic disease, which is characterized by multiple organ dysfunction and metabolic syndrome, and can be diagnosed by gene detection.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-507027

ABSTRACT

[Summary] Microcephalic or Majewski's osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type Ⅱ ( MOPD Ⅱ) is an extremely rare genetic disease mainly caused by pericentrin ( PCNT) gene mutations. This paper reported one 13-year-old boy, who was admitted because of the slow growth for more than 13 years and deepened skin color over six months. He was diagnosed as MOPD Ⅱ associated with a combination of growth hormone deficiency, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, acanthosis nigricans, multiple café-au-lait spots. On magnetic resonance imaging of brain, no vascular malformations such as aneurysms were shown. There were novel compound heterozygous mutations of PCNT gene in the patient, with the nonsense mutations of c. 502C > T ( p. Gln168 * heterozygous variation) and c. 3103C > T (p. Arg1035* heterozygous variation). His father carried a nonsense mutation c. 3103C > T ( p. Arg1035 *heterozygous variation ) and his mother had a nonsense mutation c. 502C > T ( p. Gln168 * heterozygous variation). After treatment with metformin for three months, his blood glucose returned to normal, and acanthosis nigricans was improved. It seems critical to evaluate the abnormal condition of blood vessels regularly for MOPD Ⅱpatients with PCNT gene mutations.

11.
Journal of Clinical Pediatrics ; (12): 418-420, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-619031

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the clinical manifestation and gene mutation of primary renal glucosuria (PRG). Methods The clinical data and gene detection results of a child with PRG were analyzed. Results A girl aged 2 years and 10 mouths had glucose ++++ by urine dipstick analysis and 22.4 g of the 24 h urine glucose. Her father was urine glucose positive. Genome DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of the girl and her parents, SLC5A2 gene were amplified by PCR for sequencing, including exons and splicing areas. The results showed a homozygous point mutation (c.127-16C>A) in girl, and both of her patents had the same heterozygous mutation. This mutation had been classified to pathogenic mutations by ClinVar data base. Conclusions The diagnosis of PRG is confirmed in this child and SLC5A2 gene mutation is the cause.

12.
Journal of Clinical Pediatrics ; (12): 902-905, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-665058

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical phenotype and molecular diagnosis of Noonan syndrome (NS) caused by mutations in SHOC2 gene. Methods The clinical data and gene testing results of one child with NS were analyzed retrospectively. Results This is an 8-month-old infant. Since birth, the boy had feeding and sleeping difficulties, irritability, and growth retardation. The boy had large head circumference, sparse, thin and yellow hair, broad and prominent forehead, flat nose, slightly wide eye distance, and slightly bilateral eye fissure outward tilt, no eyelid ptosis. Echocardiography showed patent foramen ovale,ventricular septum and left ventricular hypertrophy.A novel mutation(De novo)was found in the SHOC2 gene, heterozygous missense mutation c.4A>G, p.Ser2Gly His parents were normal genotypes. According to the clinical characteristics, relevant literature was reviewed. The clinical manifestation of sleep difficulty has not been reported in the NS patients with SHOC2 mutation.Conclusions This is the first domestic reported NS case with SHOC2 mutation.The phenotype is consistent with the foreign reports.Sleep difficulty may be a new phenotype of NS with SHOC2 mutation.

13.
Journal of Clinical Pediatrics ; (12): 885-888, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-664967

ABSTRACT

Objective To analysis the clinical and gene mutation characteristics of hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI). Methods The clinical features and the results of gene testing in the child with HFI and her parents were analyzed retrospectively. Gene sequencing was carried out by high-throughput sequencing and validated by Sanger sequencing. Results The 4-year-3-month old girl had recurrent hypoglycemia episodes and growth retardation. When the condition was stable, the levels of lactic acid and urine micro protein were slightly higher, and the levels of thyroid hormone, cortisol, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin and C peptide were normal.EEG showed epileptiform activity.Gene sequencing revealed the presence of aldolase B gene(ALDOB) compound heterozygous mutations, a novel splicing mutations (c.325-1G>A) in intron 3 and a frameshift mutation (c. 865delC;p.L289fs*10) in exon 8. Her father carries a frameshift mutation, and her mother carries a splicing mutation. Conclusion The diagnosis of HFI caused by ALDOB mutation can be confirmed by high-throughput sequencing technology.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-388416

ABSTRACT

Objectives To evaluate final adult height(FAH), lipid profile, sexual development, and quality of life in individuals with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency (CO-GHD) during the transition from childhood to adulthood, to reassess the function of GH-IGF-I axis, and to explore effective managements for different types of GHD in each period. Methods Totally 80 CO-GHD patients were divided into 2 groups; 22 patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency ( IGHD) and 58 patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD); 62 male (age ≥18 years) and 18 female ( age ≥ 16 years) patients. The clinical and biochemical parameters, education and occupation, rhGH, and other hormones therapy in the past were followed up. Results rhGH replacement improved FAH of patients with GHD. The incidences of either hyperlipidemia (39.0% , 47.4%) or fatty liver disease (26.8%, 31.6%) showed no statistically significant changes between 2 groups with and without rhGH replacement. Mean value of IGF-I SDS was significantly higher in IGHD group than that in MPHD group (-1.43±0. 31,-3. 01 ±0. 66) ,and also IGFBP3(-2. 10±0. 33,-3. 17±0. 19,all P< 0.05 ). Patients with IGHD had normal sexual development, but the incidence of sexual dysfunction accounted for 79.7% in MPHD group. Conclusions rhGH improves FAH of individuals with CO-GHD. Patients with CO-GHD should be followed during the transition period; GHD patients carry a high risk of metabolic abnormalities in the adulthood; IGHD female can give birth to offsprings; patients with MPHD have gonadotrophin deficiency of varying degrees.

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