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1.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 380-384, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923719

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the origin of infection and risk factors of a case with SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with overseas countries in the Ningbo-Zhoushan Port, Zhejiang Province, so as to provide the evidence for improving the COVID-19 control measures at ports.@*Methods@#Ningbo Center for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC ) and Beilun CDC conducted case finding and epidemiological surveys immediately after being informed. The general information, history of vaccination and the travel during the latest 14 days were collected from the positive case, and all close contacts were tracked. Saliva samples were collected for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing and whole-genome sequencing, and the sequencing results were aligned with the GISAID's EpiCoV database. The origin of infection and transmission route of the positive case was investigated.@*Results@#A case was identified positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid during company M's routine screening in the Ningbo-Zhoushan Port on August 10, 2021, and was confirmed positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid by Beilun CDC and Ningbo CDC on August 11. Whole-genome sequencing showed SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 ( Delta ) variant, which shared the highest homology with the virus sequence uploaded by Russia on June, 2021 ( Russia/MOW-RII-MH27356S/2021 ). The case was a bundling worker for overseas container ships, and reported communicated with foreign boatmen and contacted materials without protected interventions on the SINOKOR AKITA Container Ship between August 4 and 5, 2021. This ship anchored at Vladivostok, Russia from July 27 to 29, anchored at Ningbo Harbor on August 4, and departed on August 5. Then, 11 boatmen from this ship were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid on August 8. One asymptomatic case was reported in this epidemic; 254 close contacts and 617 secondary close contacts were identified, and all were tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid. No new cases with SARS-CoV-2 infections were detected until August 25, 2021, and the emergency response was therefore terminated.@*Conclusions@#The infection was a sporadic COVID-19 epidemic associated with overseas countries, which was caused by Delta variant infection through contacts with foreign boatmen or materials by a bundling worker in Ningbo-Zhoushan Port; fortunately, no epidemic spread occurred. Intensified closed-loop management and increased frequency of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test among high-risk populations, and improving the precision and rapid emergency treatment of COVID-19 epidemics are required for the containment of COVID-19 at ports.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805690

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To Assess occupational health risks of exposuring to low concentrations (lower than occupational exposure limit, OEL) benzene, toluene and Xylenes.@*Methods@#Qualitative evaluation, semi-quantitative evaluation and quantitative evaluation from guidelines for occupational health risk assessment of chemicals in the workplace were conducted to assess occupational health risks exposure to benzene compounds in different workplaces of 5 manufacturing enterprises, respectively.@*Results@#Concentrations of benzene, toluene and Xylenes in all workplaces were lower than OEL. Qualitative evaluation showed that occupational health risk level was 4 exposure to benzene and Xylenes in all workpalces, while 2 exposure to toluene. Semi-quantitative evaluation showed low level (2 of 5) risks in all workplaces exposured to benzene compounds excepted 4 workpalces exposured to benzene, the latter was moderate (3 of 5) . Quantitative evaluation gave unacceptable carcinogenic risk (higher than 10-4) of benzene in the wood toy manufactory, and the highest risk was (1.48~5.26) ×10-4. The occupational health risks of benzene and Xylenes were all unacceptable (HQ>1) in 9 workplaces.@*Conclusion@#There still need more attention to occupational health risks exposure to benzene, toluene and Xylenes lower than OEL.

3.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 686-691, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805454

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the short-term effects of ambient PM2.5 on the outpatient visits of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Ningbo city.@*Methods@#Through the regional health information platform, number of daily COPD outpatients from the four general hospitals in Ningbo was gathered. Related data on meteorological and air pollution from 2014 to 2016 was also collected. Generalized additive model (GAM) of Possion regression was used to estimate the impact of PM2.5 pollution on COPD outpatients and the lagging effects.@*Results@#In cold (November- April) or warm seasons (May-October), an 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 would result in the excessive number of COPD outpatients as 1.87% (95%CI: 0.98%-2.76%), 2.09% (95%CI: 1.11%-3.08%) and 2.56% (95%CI: 0.56%-4.59%), respectively. In terms of the short-term effects of PM2.5 the strongest was seen in the days of warm season but without delay (P<0.05). The strongest effect appeared at day 4 in cold season and the effect was particularly significant seen in the over 65 year-old group or in the female population. After the introduction of PM10, SO2 and NO2, the concentration of PM2.5, did not show significant effect on the number of hospital visits due to COPD on the same day (P>0.05). The effect of COPD on the fourth day showed a slight change after the lagging, and the effect was statistically significant (P<0.05).@*Conclusion@#The increase of PM2.5 concentration in Ningbo was related to the increase of COPD outpatient numbers. Effective prevention measures should be taken to protect the vulnerable population and to reduce the risk of COPD.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796641

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To realize the efficient monitoring of frequency of medical exposure and dose monitoring in Ningbo by means of informatization.@*Methods@#Data transmission process and the key elements of frequency of medical exposure and individual dose were investigated. According to standardization principles of data elements, the standardized data elements for frequency of medical exposure and individual dose were determined. On this basis, modules and functions of data receiving platform on the frequency of medical exposure and individual dose in Ningbo were designed.@*Results@#Totally 59 data elements on frequency of medical exposure and individual dose were formed. According to their functions, the data receiving platform was divided into the distribution of radiodiagnosis and radiotherapy resources, the frequency monitoring of medical exposure and dose monitoring for permanent residents, and the dose monitoring.@*Conclusions@#The establishment of frequency and dose information monitoring platform on medical exposure in Ningbo and the determination of standardized data elements will be conducive to further progress in medical exposure information monitoring in Ningbo.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-791392

ABSTRACT

Objective To realize the efficient monitoring of frequency of medical exposure and dose monitoring in Ningbo by means of informatization. Methods Data transmission process and the key elements of frequency of medical exposure and individual dose were investigated. According to standardization principles of data elements, the standardized data elements for frequency of medical exposure and individual dose were determined. On this basis, modules and functions of data receiving platform on the frequency of medical exposure and individual dose in Ningbo were designed. Results Totally 59 data elements on frequency of medical exposure and individual dose were formed. According to their functions, the data receiving platform was divided into the distribution of radiodiagnosis and radiotherapy resources, the frequency monitoring of medical exposure and dose monitoring for permanent residents, and the dose monitoring. Conclusions The establishment of frequency and dose information monitoring platform on medical exposure in Ningbo and the determination of standardized data elements will be conducive to further progress in medical exposure information monitoring in Ningbo.

6.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 678-682, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815687

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the relationship between different temperature indicators and hospital admission for childhood pneumonia.@*Methods@#The hospital admissions for pneumonia in children aged 0-14 years and meteorological data in Ningbo from 2015 to 2017 were collected. A distributed lag non-linear model combined with a generalized linear model was employed to analyze the exposure-response relationships between different temperature indicators(daily average,minimum and maximum temperature;the first percentile as low temperature and the 99th percentile as high temperature)and hospital admission for childhood pneumonia.@*Results@#A total of 4 542 cases of childhood pneumonia were recruited. There were obvious seasonal fluctuations found in the inpatient volume of childhood pneumonia,which peaked in winter and bottomed in summer. After adjusting for potential confounding variables such as relative humidity,PM2.5,long term trend and seasonal trend,the results suggested that after exposed to whether low or high temperature,the inpatient volume of childhood pneumonia would increase. When the daily average temperature and daily minimum temperature were employed,the effect of high temperature on the increase of inpatient volume for childhood pneumonia was statistically significant and the cumulative relative risk for a lag of 0-7 days were 1.52(95%CI:1.04-2.23)and 1.59(95%CI:1.08-2.34),respectively. When the daily maximum temperature was employed,the effect of low temperature on the increase of inpatient volume for childhood pneumonia was statistically significant and the cumulative relative risk for a lag of 0-7 days were 1.30(95%CI:1.02-1.66).@*Conclusion@#Our findings suggested that an increased risk of hospital admission for childhood pneumonia was associated with both low and high temperature.

7.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1528-1532, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737867

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the influence of daily air temperature on daily chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality in residents in Ningbo. Methods A time-series analysis using distributional lag non-linear model (DLNM) was conducted to estimate the attributable numbers and fraction of average air temperature on the daily COPD mortality in Ningbo from 2011 to 2016, by controlling the long-term time trend, day of week, air pollutants and other weather variables. Results A reverse J-shape relationship was found between the average air temperature and COPD mortality, and the minimum-mortality temperature (MMT) was 25.5℃. The relative risks of extreme low and extreme high air temperature over lag 0-14 d were 2.767 (95%CI: 1.950-3.928) and 1.197 (95%CI:1.021-1.404). In total, 31.62%(95%CI:23.05%-38.89%) of COPD mortality (4963 cases, 95%CI: 3469-6027) was attributable to non-MMT exposure, More attributable deaths were due to low air temperature, with a fraction of 30.41%corresponding to 4772 deaths, compared with 1.22%and 192 deaths due to high air temperature. Low air temperature and high temperature were more likely to influence the mortality in females and those aged ≥65 years, but the influence was not significant in people aged <65 years. Conclusion Both high and low air temperature were associated with an increased risk of COPD mortality in residents in Ningbo, especially during cold season, related measures on disease prevention should be taken to protect vulnerable population to reduce the risk of COPD mortality.

8.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 297-302, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737636

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) in the air on the myocardial infarction mortality in Ningbo,Zhejiang province,from 2011 to 2015.Methods The data of daily air quality surveillance and the causes of deaths in Ningbo from January 1,2011 to December 31,2015 were collected and the time series study using a generalized additive model was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the mortality of myocardial infarction and the air pollutants after adjustment for the long-term trend of death,weather conditions,"days of the week" and other confounding factors.Results The daily average concentrations of CO and O3 in Ningbo during 2011-2015 were 0.90 (0.02-3.31) mg/m3 and 82.78 (4-236) μg/m3,respectively.A total of 5 388 myocardial infarction deaths occurred,with a daily average of 3 deaths.In single-pollutant model,an increase of 0.1 mg/m3 in average concentration of CO could increase the risk of myocardial infarction mortality by 1.06% (95% CI:0.29%-1.93%) in general population,and by 1.26% (95% CI:0.28%-2.24%) in aged people aged ≥65 years in lagged 6 days,but the influence was not significant in people aged <65 years.The influence had no significant difference in males,but it increased the risk of myocardial infarction mortality by 1.77% in females (95% CI:0.44%-3.13%).In multipollutant model,CO did remain robust after adjusting for other co-pollutants.Whereas the effect of O3 had no significant influence.Conclusion These findings suggested that the increased risk of daily myocardial infarction mortality was associated with the increase of CO concentration,but no such association was found for O3 in Ningbo.

9.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1528-1532, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736399

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the influence of daily air temperature on daily chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality in residents in Ningbo. Methods A time-series analysis using distributional lag non-linear model (DLNM) was conducted to estimate the attributable numbers and fraction of average air temperature on the daily COPD mortality in Ningbo from 2011 to 2016, by controlling the long-term time trend, day of week, air pollutants and other weather variables. Results A reverse J-shape relationship was found between the average air temperature and COPD mortality, and the minimum-mortality temperature (MMT) was 25.5℃. The relative risks of extreme low and extreme high air temperature over lag 0-14 d were 2.767 (95%CI: 1.950-3.928) and 1.197 (95%CI:1.021-1.404). In total, 31.62%(95%CI:23.05%-38.89%) of COPD mortality (4963 cases, 95%CI: 3469-6027) was attributable to non-MMT exposure, More attributable deaths were due to low air temperature, with a fraction of 30.41%corresponding to 4772 deaths, compared with 1.22%and 192 deaths due to high air temperature. Low air temperature and high temperature were more likely to influence the mortality in females and those aged ≥65 years, but the influence was not significant in people aged <65 years. Conclusion Both high and low air temperature were associated with an increased risk of COPD mortality in residents in Ningbo, especially during cold season, related measures on disease prevention should be taken to protect vulnerable population to reduce the risk of COPD mortality.

10.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 297-302, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736168

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) in the air on the myocardial infarction mortality in Ningbo,Zhejiang province,from 2011 to 2015.Methods The data of daily air quality surveillance and the causes of deaths in Ningbo from January 1,2011 to December 31,2015 were collected and the time series study using a generalized additive model was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the mortality of myocardial infarction and the air pollutants after adjustment for the long-term trend of death,weather conditions,"days of the week" and other confounding factors.Results The daily average concentrations of CO and O3 in Ningbo during 2011-2015 were 0.90 (0.02-3.31) mg/m3 and 82.78 (4-236) μg/m3,respectively.A total of 5 388 myocardial infarction deaths occurred,with a daily average of 3 deaths.In single-pollutant model,an increase of 0.1 mg/m3 in average concentration of CO could increase the risk of myocardial infarction mortality by 1.06% (95% CI:0.29%-1.93%) in general population,and by 1.26% (95% CI:0.28%-2.24%) in aged people aged ≥65 years in lagged 6 days,but the influence was not significant in people aged <65 years.The influence had no significant difference in males,but it increased the risk of myocardial infarction mortality by 1.77% in females (95% CI:0.44%-3.13%).In multipollutant model,CO did remain robust after adjusting for other co-pollutants.Whereas the effect of O3 had no significant influence.Conclusion These findings suggested that the increased risk of daily myocardial infarction mortality was associated with the increase of CO concentration,but no such association was found for O3 in Ningbo.

11.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 841-845, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737503

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the short-term effect of particulate matters with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 10 μg (PM10) and aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 μg (PM2.5) on cardio-cerebrovascular mortality in Ningbo city.Methods Daily cardiocerebrovascular mortality data from 2011 to 2014 in Ningbo city were collected and the time series study using a semi-parametric generalized additive model were used to evaluate the relationship between the mortality of cardio-cerebrovascular disease and particulate matters after adjustment for the long-term trend of death,weather conditions,"days of the week" and other confounding factors.Results In single-pollutant model,the short-term effects of particulate matter on cardio-cerebrovascular mortality was strongest in lagged 2 days in Ningbo city,and an increase of 10 μg/m3 in moving average concentrations (lagged 2-3 days and lagged 2-4 days) of PM2.5 and PM10 could increase the cardio-cerebrovascular mortality by 0.55% (0.23%-0.87%) and 0.53% (0.28%-0.78%),respectively.In multi-pollutant models,PM10 did remain robust after being adjusted for PM2.5 with 0.58% (0.09%-1.07%) increase in cardio-cerebrovascular mortality.The effect of PM2.5 had no statistical significantce after being adjusted for other co-pollutants.Conclusion These findings suggested that the concentrations of ambient particulate matters were associated with an increased risk of daily cardio-cerebrovascular mortality in Ningbo city.

12.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 841-845, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736035

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the short-term effect of particulate matters with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 10 μg (PM10) and aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 μg (PM2.5) on cardio-cerebrovascular mortality in Ningbo city.Methods Daily cardiocerebrovascular mortality data from 2011 to 2014 in Ningbo city were collected and the time series study using a semi-parametric generalized additive model were used to evaluate the relationship between the mortality of cardio-cerebrovascular disease and particulate matters after adjustment for the long-term trend of death,weather conditions,"days of the week" and other confounding factors.Results In single-pollutant model,the short-term effects of particulate matter on cardio-cerebrovascular mortality was strongest in lagged 2 days in Ningbo city,and an increase of 10 μg/m3 in moving average concentrations (lagged 2-3 days and lagged 2-4 days) of PM2.5 and PM10 could increase the cardio-cerebrovascular mortality by 0.55% (0.23%-0.87%) and 0.53% (0.28%-0.78%),respectively.In multi-pollutant models,PM10 did remain robust after being adjusted for PM2.5 with 0.58% (0.09%-1.07%) increase in cardio-cerebrovascular mortality.The effect of PM2.5 had no statistical significantce after being adjusted for other co-pollutants.Conclusion These findings suggested that the concentrations of ambient particulate matters were associated with an increased risk of daily cardio-cerebrovascular mortality in Ningbo city.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-270028

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the breakthrough varicella infection rate and varicella vaccine effectiveness (VE) among children who received 1-dose varicella vaccine.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 57 180 subjects for the consecutive 4-year birth cohorts were selected from the local children born between 2007 and 2010 in Yinzhou District, Ninghai County and Yuyao City. And they were followed up for varicella from 2008 to 2013. The recipients of the vaccinations were identified through Ningbo Immunization Information System and data on breakthrough infections among the recipients were collected by using China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. The breakthrough varicella rate and the VE were calculated and the trends of them were described from 2008 to 2013 among 4-year birth cohorts. The cumulative incidence of varicella was compared between vaccinated and unvaccinated children among the consecutive 4-year birth cohorts.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The rate of varicella vaccine coverage, vaccine cumulative incidence among the cohorts was 96.74% (55 317/57 180) and 0.56% (321/57 180). The breakthrough varicella infection for 4-year birth cohorts was 0.44% (244/55 317), and for each birth cohort was 0.95% (142/14 928), 0.44% (61/13 855), 0.22% (29/13 433) and 0.09% (12/13 101), respectively. It was on the rise from 2008 to 2013 and the 2007 birth cohort of it increased fastest from 0.04% (6/14 928) in 2007 to 0.32% (48/14 834) in 2013. The vaccine cumulative incidence of these who vaccinated 1-dose varicella (the breakthrough varicella infection) was lower than these who were unvaccinated (the incidence: 6.25% (37/592), 3.52% (15/426), 3.69% (17/461) and 2.08% (8/384)) by each birth cohort (χ²= 130.27, P < 0.001 for 2007 birth cohort; χ²= 74.11, P < 0.001 for 2008 birth cohort; χ²= 162.80, P < 0.001 for 2009 birth cohort; χ²= 100.01, P < 0.001 for 2010 birth cohort). The vaccine effectiveness for 4-year birth cohorts was 89.33% (95% CI: 86.7%-92.1%) and for each birth corhort was 84.78% (95% CI: 77.94%-89.50%), 86.82% (95% CI: 77.82%-92.95%), 93.99% (95% CI: 89.27%-96.81%) and 95.60% (95% CI: 89.18%-98.21%), respectively. The effectiveness of each birth cohort declinedgradually from 2008 to 2013 and the 2009 birth cohort of it decreased fastest from 98.86% in 2010 to 66.83% in 2013.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The 1-dose varicella vaccine effectiveness was good, but breakthrough varicella infection rate was on the rise with time and the VE declined gradually from 2008 to 2013.</p>


Subject(s)
Chickenpox , Chickenpox Vaccine , Child , China , Humans , Incidence , Vaccination , Vaccine Potency
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-302539

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and the bacterial pathogen composition of pneumonia among children under 5 years old in Ningbo.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In 2013 February-April, we selected pediatric ward in three hospitals according to stratified cluster random sampling, and from which we collected all 57 556 hospitalized cases in January 2009-December 2012 period of children under 5 years old. A total of 16 740 medical records and bacterial spectrum records of pneumonia or bronchial pneumonia cases among children under 5 years old were described to calculate the proportions of children pneumonia or bronchial pneumonia hospitalized cases accounted for hospitalized children over the same period(referred to as proportions of pneumonia incidence), the detection rate of bacterial pathogens, proportions of bacterial spectrum, and to analyze the characteristics and bacterial pathogen composition of pneumonia among children under 5 years.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The proportions of children pneumonia in 2009-2012 were 26.16% (2 882/11 017), 31.23% (4 004/12 819), 29.35% (4 898/16 689) and 29.10% (4 956/17 031)(Z = 3.13, P < 0.01), and were in a downward trend by the increasing of age(Z = -113.74, P < 0.01). The proportions of children pneumonia of 0-5 age group were 50.71% (6 756/13 318), 26.60% (3 159/11 877), 24.17% (2 574 /10 648), 22.36% (2 509 /11 223) and 16.63% (1 745 /10 490). The proportions of children pneumonia with different season were 26.90% (3 725/13 850), 26.51% (3 788/14 287), 29.59% (4 442/15 011) and 33.21% (4 785 /14 408) (χ² = 198.77, P < 0.01). The proportions of severe children pneumonia of 0-5 age group were 1.10% (74/6 753), 0.47% (15/3 159), 0.19% (5 /2 574),0.08% (2 /2 509) and 0.06% (1 /1 745), with a downward trend by the age(F = 57.62, P < 0.01). The detection rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae,Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae was 19.3% (540/2 805), 16.4% (460/2 805), 13.6% (381/2 805), 11.9% (335/2 805), 11.5% (323/2 805) and 6.8% (192/2 805).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>In 2009-2012, the proportions of children pneumonia under 5 year old constituted a relatively high proportion in Ningbo city. Children under 1 year old were the major suffering group of pneumonia and severe pneumonia, which should be the key prevention group. The major bacterial pathogens of children's pneumonia in Ningbo are gram-negative bacteria.</p>


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Child , Epidemics , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Haemophilus influenzae , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pneumonia , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-457104

ABSTRACT

Objective To determine the efficacy of lifestyle interventions in adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).Methods MEDLINE (Pub Med),EMBASE,Science Citation Index (SCI),and Cochrane Database were retrieved for articles about the relations of lifestyle intervention and IGT.Searches were limited to English language publications.The RCTs outcome evaluated in this study included 2 h plasma glucose level and fasting plasma glucose,meta-analysis was carried oat by Stata 11.0 among articles for the inclusion and exclusion criteria.The difference of effects was expressed as standardized mean deviation(SMD).Results A total of 10 RCTs studies met the inclusion criteria.Lifestyle interventions were associated with a decline in 2 h plasma glucose and fasting plasma glucose level (SMD =-0.67,P<0.01 ;SMD =-0.33,P<0.01),but high heterogeneity was identified in this meta-analysis.Conclusion Physical,dietary and both combined interventions can reduce 2-h plasma glucose and fasting plasma glucose levels in adults with impaired glucose tolerance.As high heterogeneity was identified in this meta-analysis,more high quality research is needed.

16.
Chinese Journal of Zoonoses ; (12): 840-842, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-455104

ABSTRACT

In this study ,we analyzed the genetic characterizations and propagation paths of measles viruses prevalent in Ningbo ,China from 2004 to 2013 .Measles viruses were isolated from throat swab specimens from 2004 to 2013 ,and 450 bp fragments of C terminus of nucleoprotein (N) gene were amplified by RT-PCR .Sequence analysis was conducted of all 31 virus strains ,and then compared with other measles virus strains published in GenBank .Results showed that all the 31 measles virus isolates belonged to genotype H1 ,6 strains (one strains in 2004 and 5 ones in 2005) belonged to H1b subtype ,and others be-longed to H1a subtype .Compared the 31 strains to the China 93-4 and China 94-7 ,the homology of 450 bp fragments of C ter-minus of nucleoprotein (N) gene were 97 .1%-100% and 96 .7%-100% ,respectively .The homology of 450 bp fragments of nu-cleotide and nucleotide (amino acids) compared with S191 were 81 .9%-92 .4% and 87 .2%-90 .6% ,respectively .It’s suggested that genotype H1 measles virus circulated in Ningbo from 2004 to 2013 ,and H1a was the predominant epidemic strain ,and H1b strain was existed as well .There are five different transmission chains of H1a subtype caused measles co-circulations in Ning-bo .

17.
Virologica Sinica ; (6): 418-427, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-423926

ABSTRACT

A total of 100 HIN1 flu real-time-PCR positive throat swabs collected from fever patients in Zhejiang,Hubei and Guangdong between June and November 2009,were provided by local CDC laboratories.After MDCK cell culture,57 Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) viruses were isolated and submitted for whole genome sequencing.A total of 39 HA sequences,52 NA sequences,36 PB2 sequences,31 PB1 sequences,40 PA sequences,48 NP sequences,51 MP sequences and 36 NS sequences were obtained,including 20 whole genome sequences.Sequence comparison revealed they shared a high degree of homology (96%~99%) with known epidemic strains (A/Califomia/04/2009(H1N1).Phylogenetic analysis showed that although the sequences were highly conserved,they clustered into a small number of groups with only a few distinct strains.Site analysis revealed three substitutions at loop 220 (221-228) of the HA receptor binding site in the 39 HA sequences:A/Hubei/86/2009 PKVRDQEG→PKVRDQEA,A/Zhejiang/08/2009 PKVRDQEG→PKVRDQER,A/Hubei/75/2009PKVRDQEG→PKVRDQGG,the A/Hubei/75/2009 was isolated from an acute case,while the other two were from patients with mild symptoms.Other key sites such as 119,274,292 and 294 amino acids of NA protein,627 of PB2 protein were conserved.Meanwhile,all the M2 protein sequences possessed the Ser32Asn mutation,suggesting that these viruses were resistant to adamantanes.Comparison of these sequences with other H1N1 viruses collected from the NCBI database provides insight into H1N1 transmission and circulation patterns.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-593529

ABSTRACT

0.05).The infection rate in first intermediate host(snails), second intermediate host(crabs) and animal reservoir hosts was 0.05%(9/19 368), 31.1%(15 627/50 313) and 11.9%(52/438) respectively.Evidently, natural nidi for Paragonimus spp.still exist in Ningbo City.

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