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Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212514


Background: Obesity has long been recognized to have significant effect on respiratory functions. Many studies have reported exponential decrease in pulmonary function test (PFT) with increasing body mass index (BMI), which is a crude indicator of obesity. Also, the relationship between BMI and PFTs varies with age, race, geographical region and the different obesity standards used. To the best of our knowledge, not many studies have been done to examine the relationship between obesity and lung volumes among adults in our region, Jammu. This cross-sectional study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect of obesity on lung function test in obese but otherwise healthy adults of Jammu region.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Jammu region on subjects selected randomly from different colleges in the age group of 18-40 years. The study involved 300 subjects; divided into three groups of 100 each, based on BMI into normal, overweight and obese groups. Four respiratory parameters viz. FVC (Forced Vital Capacity), FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second), FEV3 (Forced Expiratory Volume in 3 seconds), and MVV (Maximum Voluntary Ventilation) were used to assess their lung functions.Results: All the respiratory parameters exhibited statistically significant decrease in obese groups as compared to normal and overweight groups.Conclusions: The present study suggests that obesity alters the respiratory physiology by producing a restrictive ventilatory pattern.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-194287


Background: Micro vascular complications are the major outcome of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus progression, which reduces the quality of life and increases diabetic morbidity & mortality. As the incidence of type 2 diabetes is growing day by day; our search for its aetiology and pathogenesis is also ever growing to predict its risk factors and early screening for better care and prevention of its complications. Many studies have tried to link susceptibility of type 2 diabetes with ABO blood group though results have been inconsistent. The present study aims to analyse association of micro vascular complication with different blood groups if any.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among patients of type 2 diabetes Mellitus in a tertiary care hospital. Determination of ABO and Rh status was done by standard slide method of agglutination. Detailed information about age, gender, BMI, duration of diabetes, age of onset of diabetes was noted with the help of a proforma. The records (clinical examination and investigations done by physician) were screened for type of micro vascular complications.Results: Out of a total of 319 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes, 209 subjects (65.15%) had one or the other complications. A statistically significant (p=0.00) difference was observed between the presence or absence of complications in different blood groups. In patients with Blood group B, 76.14% presented with complications. Though Nephropathy was the most common complication observed among different blood groups, none of the type of micro vascular complication was found to be significantly associated with different blood groups.Conclusions: The findings in our study suggest that although there was a significant association between presence or absence of complications and different blood groups, but this association was not significant for different types of complications.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210857


Faecal samples (n=300) from diarrhoeic neonatal goat-kids of different livestock sheds of ICAR-CIRG, Makhdoom, and field goat-kids of Mathura, UP were aseptically collected, and used for E. coli isolation. On the basis of cultural, morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics, a total of 193 E. coli isolates were identified from 300 fecal samples. Out of 140 E. coli isolates, only 90 isolates could be serotyped at National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli, and the most common serogroups responsible for neonatal diarrhoea were found as O88 (n=11), O22 (n=10), O11 (n=8) and O83 (n=7). Congo red dye agar test was done to determine invasiveness of the isolates, and 77.20% (149/193)E. coli isolates showed Congo red binding activity. Identification of shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) was done by PCR amplification of its stx-1 gene, and 5.69% (11/193) isolates were identified as STEC. Pathotype specific primers were used to amplify bundle forming pilus (bfpA) gene of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and 35.23% (68/193) isolates were identified as EPEC. A multiplex PCR was performed to detect labile toxin producing enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC-lt), stable toxin producing enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC-st) and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and 24.35% (47/193), 2.59% (5/193) and 2.07% (4/193) isolates were determined as ETEC-st, ETEC-lt and EIEC, respectively. EPEC and ETEC-st were found as the most prevalent pathotypes associated with neonatal diarrhoea in goat-kids whereas; O88 and O22 were observed as the most common serogroups in causing diarrhoea in the neonatal goat-kids.

Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158705


Enzyme inhibition has emerged as an important area in development of therapeutics. The basis of a large number of therapeutics used in modern day medicine for treatment of various aliments is enzyme inhibition. This review is a compilation of nearly all the therapeutic entities, currently in use, embracing almost each area of therapy including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antimalarials, anticancer, antihypertensive, diuretics, antianginals, antithromboembolics, hypolipidemics, cardiotonics, anti-inflammatory, analgesics, antipyretics, antigout, antiasthamatics, antidepressants, cognition enhancers, antidiabetics, antithyroid drugs, drugs used for myasthenia gravis, peptic ulcer, parkinson’s disease, BHP, osteoarthritis, glaucoma, erectile dysfunction, septic shock, inflammation and/or neuro-degenerative disorders.

Enzymes/metabolism , Enzymes/physiology , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/physiology , Disease/drug therapy , Disease/enzymology , Therapeutics/enzymology , Therapeutics/therapeutic use