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1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205351

ABSTRACT

Background:Palliative radiotherapy offers significant relief in the huge physical distress of patients with bony metastasis. The enormous potential of conformal techniques has not been tested in palliative settings. However,the increasing life span of patients with metastatic disease demands to optimize the radiotherapy techniques to provide maximal durable symptomatic relief. Despitean increase in the utilization of the 3DCRT technique for palliative bony metastasis, the optimal beam arrangement remains unknown. Materials and Methods:Ten patients of vertebral bony metastasis were retrospectively selected and four virtual 3DCRT plans were generated for each patient. The field approaches were a single field, two fields, three fields and five field approaches. For PTV, D90, D50, Dmean, Conformity index (CI) were evaluated.Dmean was evaluated for the esophagus, bowel, kidneys, and combined lungs. Dose-volume histograms were computed for the various treatment plans and compared. Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA test. Results:A total of forty radiotherapy plans were generated. PTV parameters were significantly better with two field plans over one field plans in terms of D90 (p= 0.002), D50 (p= 0.02), Dmean(p=0.0009). Dmeanwassignificantly better with three field approach compared to two field approach (p=0.0006). The Dmeanwas significantly increased for organs at risk in two fields and three field plans.Five field approach did not showan advantage in terms of dosimetry of PTV but there was a significant rise in the dose to Organs at risk (OAR’s). Conclusion:The three field plans showed better dose distribution to the PTV with an acceptable increase in the dose to OAR’s.

2.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Apr; 68(4): 565-572
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197896

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the frequency and the association of Thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Asian Indian patients with optical full thickness corneal grafting surgery. Methods: Prospective case朿ontrol analysis of optical penetrating keratoplasty patients with and without immune rejection and controls for genotyping of 3 THBS1 gene SNPs (rs1478604 A>G; rs2228261 C>T; rs2228262 A>G) by Amplification Refractory Mutation System-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS PCR). Results: Among 58 patients [45 with immune allograft rejection (DNA isolation was possible in 38 samples) and 13 without immune corneal allograft rejection] and 65 controls, allele frequencies observed for rs1478604 (A>G) are A: 69.7% and 72.6%, G: 30.2% and 27.3%; for rs2228261 (C>T) are T: 70.2% and 62.3%, C: 29.7% and 37.6%; and for rs2228262 (A>G) A: 97.4% and 98.4%; G 2.5% and 1.5% respectively. Genotype frequencies were rs1478604 (A>G) AA: 57.8% and 59.3%, AG 23.6% and 26.5%; GG 18.4% and 14%; for rs2228261 (C>T) TT: 40.5% and 33.8%, TC: 59% and 56.9%, CC: 0% and 9.2%; for rs2228262 (A>G) AA: 94.8% and 96.8%, AG: 5.1% and 3.1% in rejection and controls respectively. The allele and genotype frequency for the 3 described THSB1 SNPs did not show any difference between the corneal graft immune rejection patients and controls. Conclusion: Asian Indian population evaluated for THBS1 gene SNPs by ARMS PCR genotyping in Asian Indian population did not show any genetic association to immune rejection occurrence in our study.

3.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Apr; 68(4): 603-607
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197868

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To find out the sociodemographic, sociocultural, and socioeconomic factors leading to delay in pediatric cataract surgery and its impact on final visual outcome. Methods: A prospective interview-based analytical cohort study was conducted on 156 children aged 0� years with either unilateral or bilateral congenital/developmental cataracts. Caregivers were interviewed using a pretested validated questionnaire. Time intervals between recognition by a caregiver to consultation were denoted as Delay-1 and between consultations to surgical intervention as Delay-2. Spearman's rank correlation was used to determine the presence of correlation between causes of delay and visual outcome. Results: The mean age of presentation was 7.78 � 4.34 years. Mothers were the first informant of the problem (n = 110, 70.5%). Out of 156 children, only 8 (5.1%) children presented to the hospital within 1 month by caregivers and 26 (16.7%) children underwent surgery within 2 months of advice. About 22 (14.1%) children had total cumulative delay of 1�months, 11 (7%) had delay of 6� months, and 115 (73.71%) had delay of >12 months. The most common cause identified for Delay-1 was unawareness in 41 cases (26.28%), however, for Delay-2 major factor responsible was cost (n = 38, 24.35%). The median preoperative visual acuity was 1.31 logMAR and median postoperative visual acuity at 4 weeks was 0.61 logMAR. (P < 0.001) Less age at surgery, upper socioeconomic status, less time delay, and better preoperative vision were positively correlated to better visual outcomes. Conclusion: Delay in presentation for childhood cataract surgery remains a significant problem in central rural India. Delay in surgery is multifactorial which includes unawareness, cost, misdiagnosis, self-treatment, distance from the hospital, lack of family support, and poor socioeconomic status.

4.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Feb; 68(2): 311-315
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197791

ABSTRACT

Childhood blindness is one of the priority targets of Vision 2020—Right To Sight due to its impact on the psychological and social growth of the child. An extensive search was performed to locate research papers on childhood blindness prevalence and its causes in the community based and blind schools, respectively, conducted from 1990 onward up to the present. Cross references were also manually searched along with expert consultation to enlarge the reference data. A total of five community-based studies on the prevalence including two refractive error studies conducted all over India in children less than 16 years were found. The causes of childhood blindness from the available blind school studies revealed that causes of childhood blindness have mainly shifted from corneal causes to whole globe abnormalities. This article highlights that though with the availability of proper healthcare facilities, the trend is changing for the causes but still a lot of effort in the form of timely neonatal eye care facilities, pediatric surgical services and proper refraction strategies is required.

5.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Jan; 68(1): 59-64
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197701

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Barrett Universal II (BU-II) is considered as one of the most accurate intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation formulas; however, there is no literature studying the same in Indian population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of BU-II formula in prediction of IOL power for cataract surgery in Asian Indian population. This was an institutional, prospective, observational study. Methods: Patients with senile cataract who underwent phacoemulsification with posterior chamber IOL implantation were enrolled in the study. Biometry data from Lenstar-LS900 was used and IOL power was calculated using four IOL formulas: modified SRK-II, SRK/T, Olsen, and BU-II. Primary outcome was measured as the prediction error in postoperative refraction for each formula and secondary outcome was measured as the difference in mean absolute errors between the four formulas. SPSS Version-21 with P < 0.05 considered significant. Results: A total of 244 eyes were included in the study and were divided into three groups in accordance to axial length (AL): Group 1 (AL: 22�.5 mm; N = 135), Group 2 (AL <22 mm; N = 53), and Group 3 (AL >24.5 mm; N = 56). BU-II formula gave the lowest mean absolute error (0.37 � 0.27D) and median absolute error (0.34) in predicted postoperative refraction in the entire study population. When compared with the other formulas, mean absolute error was significantly lower in all three groups (P < 0.0005) as well, except for Olsen formula in the normal AL group, where the results were comparable (P = 0.742). Conclusion: BU-II performed as the most accurate formula in the prediction of postoperative refraction over a wide range of ALs.

6.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196107

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Dengue virus (DENV) transmission is known to be influenced by the environmental conditions. During 2017, the Viral Research and Diagnostic Laboratories (VRDLs) tested 78,744 suspected dengue fever (DF) patients, of whom, 21,260 were laboratory confirmed. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the hypothesis that spatial heterogeneity existed for DF patients and to identify significant determinants of DENV transmission in various districts across the Indian States during 2017. Methods: Laboratory confirmed DF cases were analysed from 402 districts spread across the Indian States. The determinants for DF transmission included in the model were population density, proportion of population living in rural areas, proportion o f forest cover area to the total geographical area, proportion of persons not able to read and write and who were aged greater than seven years; the climatic variables considered were minimum, maximum and average temperature, precipitation and cumulative rainfall. The spatial heterogeneity was assessed using spatial regression analysis. Results: DF cases showed strong spatial dependency, with Moran's I=4.44 (P <0.001). The robust measure for spatial lag (6.55; P=0.01) was found to be the best model fit for the data set. Minimum temperature and cumulative rainfall were significant predictors. Interpretation & conclusions: A significant increase in the number of dengue cases has occurred when the minimum temperature was 23.0-25.8癈 and the cumulative rainfall 118.14-611.64 mm across the Indian districts. Further in-depth investigations incorporating more number of demographic, ecological and socio-economic factors would be needed for robust conclusions.

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8.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Oct; 67(10): 1663-1666
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197534

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To ascertain if ultrasound (USG) B-scan examination of the optic nerve head (ONH) can be a useful tool to diagnose and quantify glaucomatous cupping. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study of 48 eyes of 48 patients with clear ocular media and cup-disc ratio of (CDR) ?0.6 were included. The disc was studied by + 90D examination, USG B-scan and ONH Optical coherence tomography (OCT) by three masked observers. Observer-1 assessed the clinical CDR, observer-2recordedopticcup diameter on USG B-scan and observer-3performed ONH OCT to note the software computed average CDR. Measurements of cupping obtained by these 3 methods were compared and their relative strengths determined. The interdependency between variables was further studied using regression analysis. Results: Clinically assessed disc ratios of 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and total corresponded to USG cup measures of 1.02 ± 0.11 mm, 1.23 ± 0.14 mm, 1.35 ± 0.072 mm, 1.45 ± 0.084 mm, 1.75 ± 0.15 mm and OCT average CDR of 0.62 ± 0.087, 0.68 ± 0.060, 0.75 ± 0.078, 0.81 ± 0.036, 0.89 ± 0.038, respectively. There was an excellent correlation between the three arms, with Pearson's co-efficient (r) of 0.87, P < 0.001 between clinical and USG cupping; r = 0.89, P < 0.001 between clinical and OCT cupping; and r = 0.88, P < 0.001 between USG and OCT cupping. A relation of y = 1.64x + 0.03 was obtained between them, where y stands for USG cup diameter and x stands for the observed clinical CDR. Conclusion: Ultrasonographic measurement of optic cup diameter corresponds well to clinical ONH cupping. Therefore, it can reliably be used in quantifying ONH cupping in cases of media opacities which preclude optic disc visualization.

9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205518

ABSTRACT

Background: Prostate carcinoma screening tests usually include digital rectal examination (DRE) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. If these tests detect some abnormality, further evaluation is recommended using transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), TRUS guided biopsy, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is a preferred tool among three as its noninvasive and has high sensitivity and specificity. In MRI, most of the medical centers perform multi-parametric MRI. The present study is an endeavor to evaluate the feasibility of using biparametric study for detection of prostate cancer; thereby reducing the scan time and avoiding the use of contrast. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the diagnostic efficacy of using biparametric MRI (T2-weighted imaging [T2WI] and Diffusion-weighted images [DWI]) for detection of carcinoma prostate as compared to multiparametric MR study which in addition also includes dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and spectroscopic MRI sequences. Materials and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included 60 patients suspected to have prostate cancer on the basis of PSA levels and DRE. All the patients underwent pre-treatment MRI on 1.5 T scanner followed by TRUS guided biopsy. MRI protocol included T1-weighted images, T2W, DWI, DCE MRI, and MR spectroscopy. The diagnostic performance of T2WI + DWI and multi-parametric MRI for diagnosis of prostate cancer was determined and compared with each other using histopathology as the gold standard. Results: The sensitivity for detection of carcinoma prostate for biparametric MRI (T2WI + DWI) is 63.3%, specificity 78.95%, positive predictive value (PPV) 86.6%, and negative predictive value of (NPV) 50.00%. The sensitivity of multiparametric MRI was 78.05%, specificity 68.42 % with PPV 84.2%, and NPV of 59.09%. Conclusion: For the detection of prostate cancer biparametric (DWI/T2WI) and multi-parametric MRI both showed comparable results. Multi-parametric MRI involves the administration of intravenous contrast and requires longer acquisition time; T2/DWI is faster and non-contrast sequences and is workhorse sequence in the detection of prostate cancer.

11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-195968

ABSTRACT

Corneal blindness is one of the major causes of reversible blindness, which can be managed with transplantation of a healthy donor cornea. It is the most successful organ transplantation in the human body as cornea is devoid of vasculature, minimizing the risk of graft rejection. The first successful transplant was performed by Zirm, and since then, corneal transplantation has seen significant evolution. It has been possible because of the relentless efforts by researchers and the increase in knowledge about corneal anatomy, improvement in instruments and advancements in technology. Keratoplasty has come a long way since the initial surgeries wherein the whole cornea was replaced to the present day where only the selective diseased layer can be replaced. These newer procedures maintain structural integrity and avoid catastrophic complications associated with open globe surgery. Corneal transplantation procedures are broadly classified as full-thickness penetrating keratoplasty and partial lamellar corneal surgeries which include anterior lamellar keratoplasty [sperficial anterior lamellar keratoplasty (SALK), automated lamellar therapeutic keratoplasty (ALTK) and deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK)] and posterior lamellar keratoplasty [Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK)] broadly.

12.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-195902

ABSTRACT

Scrub typhus is largely ignored in India particularly during outbreaks of viral fever. The disease course is often complicated leading to fatalities in the absence of treatment. However, if diagnosed early and a specific treatment is initiated, the cure rate is high. We report here five cases of scrub typhus to highlight the fact that high clinical suspicion for such a deadly disease is an absolute necessity.

13.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-195901

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Influenza virological surveillance is an essential tool for the early detection of novel genetic variants of epidemiologic and clinical significance. This study was aimed to genetically characterize A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulating in 2017 and to compare it with the global data. Methods: The regional/State Viral Research and Diagnostic Laboratories (VRDLs) provided influenza diagnosis for referred clinical samples and shared influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positives with the Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Virology (ICMR-NIV), Pune, India, for hemagglutinin (HA) gene phylogenetic analysis. Sites at Manipal, Jaipur and Dibrugarh performed the sequencing and shared the sequence data for analysis. The antiviral susceptibility of influenza viruses was assessed for known molecular marker H275Y at the ICMR-NIV, Pune. Results: All the eight VRDLs had well-established influenza diagnostic facilities and showed increased activity of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during 2017. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses from the different regions of the country were similar to A/Michigan/45/2015 strain which was the 2017-2018 recommended vaccine strain and were clustered with the globally circulating clade 6B.1 with signature mutations S84N, S162N and I216T. The clade 6B.1 showed further subgrouping with additional mutations S74R, S164T and I295V; however, there was no significant association between the presence of these mutations and severity of disease due to influenza. All the study viruses were sensitive to oseltamivir. Interpretation & conclusions: During the study period, all the study sites reported globally circulating A/Michigan/45/2015 vaccine strain of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses and remained sensitive to oseltamivir. Further genetic and antigenic characterization of influenza viruses is recommended to address public health concerns.

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-184194

ABSTRACT

Background: Respiratory infections among critically ill Patient are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Mechanically ventilated patients are at a high risk of acquiring respiratory infections due to complex interplay between the endotracheal tube, host immunity and virulence of invading bacteria. Irrational use of antibiotics increases the emergence of drug – resistant bacteria. Objectives: The aim of study was to investigate the bacterial isolates in the endotracheal aspirates of mechanically ventilated patients in ICU and see the antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial isolates. Methods: Analysis of E.T aspirates of 459 patients over a period of 1 year (Aug 14 to Aug 15) was done. Aspirates were cultured on Blood and MacConkey agar isolation and identification was done using conventional techniques and biochemical reactions. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method as per CLSI guidelines. Results: Out of 459 Samples 365 was found to be positive. Acinetobacter sp (44.65%) was the most common isolate followed by Klebsiella sp (18.63%), Pseudomonas sp (11.23%), Candida (10.46%), Escherichia Coli (7.94%), COPS (3.28%), CONS (2.46%), Enterococci (0.82%), and Citrobacter (0.54%). The gram-negative bacilli were mostly sensitive to Tigecycline, Colistin, Imipenem, Meropenem, Amikacin and Piperacillin/Tazobactam. Gram positive Cocci were mostly sensitive to Vancomycin, Linezolid and Gentamicin. Conclusion: The isolation and antimicrobial resistance pattern of the microorganisms is necessary for their effective management. Endotracheal intubation is one of the major risk factors in causing iatrogenic infections to patients. A local antibiogram for each hospital, based on bacteriological patterns and susceptibility is essential to initiate empirical therapy.

15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-195866

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases remain as the major causes of human and animal morbidity and mortality leading to significant healthcare expenditure in India. The country has experienced the outbreaks and epidemics of many infectious diseases. However, enormous successes have been obtained against the control of major epidemic diseases, such as malaria, plague, leprosy and cholera, in the past. The country's vast terrains of extreme geo-climatic differences and uneven population distribution present unique patterns of distribution of viral diseases. Dynamic interplays of biological, socio-cultural and ecological factors, together with novel aspects of human-animal interphase, pose additional challenges with respect to the emergence of infectious diseases. The important challenges faced in the control and prevention of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases range from understanding the impact of factors that are necessary for the emergence, to development of strengthened surveillance systems that can mitigate human suffering and death. In this article, the major emerging and re-emerging viral infections of public health importance have been reviewed that have already been included in the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme.

16.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-195852

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Dengue virus infection is endemic in India with all the four serotypes of dengue virus in circulation. This study was aimed to determine the geographic distribution of the primary and secondary dengue cases in India. Methods: A multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted at Department of Health Research / Indian Council of Medical Research (DHR)/(ICMR) viral research and diagnostic laboratories (VRDLs) and selected ICMR institutes located in India. Only laboratory-confirmed dengue cases with date of onset of illness less than or equal to seven days were included between September and October 2017. Dengue NS1 antigen ELISA and anti-dengue IgM capture ELISA were used to diagnose dengue cases while anti-dengue IgG capture ELISA was used for identifying the secondary dengue cases. Results: Of the 1372 dengue cases, 897 (65%) were classified as primary dengue and 475 (35%) as secondary dengue cases. However, the proportion varied widely geographically, with Theni, Tamil Nadu; Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh and Udupi-Manipal, Karnataka reporting more than 65 per cent secondary dengue cases while Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir reporting as low as 10 per cent of the same. The median age of primary dengue cases was 25 yr [interquartile range (IQR 17-35] while that of secondary dengue cases was 23 yr (IQR 13.5-34). Secondary dengue was around 50 per cent among the children belonging to the age group 6-10 yr while it ranged between 20-43 per cent among other age groups. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed a wide geographical variation in the distribution of primary and secondary dengue cases in India. It would prove beneficial to include primary and secondary dengue differentiation protocol in the national dengue surveillance programme.

17.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-191940

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are also known as chronic diseases, as they tend to be of long duration. Detection, screening, treatment and palliative care, are key components of the response to NCDs. Aim& Objective: To find out the prevalence of risk factors of non-communicable diseases. Settings and Design: It was a community based cross sectional study in urban and rural areas of district Etawah. Methods and Material: Present study was conducted among persons aged between 25-64 years. WHO STEPS approach was used. Statistical analysis used: Qualitative data were expressed in the percentages and tested by chi square test. Results: In the study almost half of the subjects were males. Current tobacco use, alcohol use, insufficient use of fruits and vegetables and physical inactivity were found in 33.9%, 15.9%, 88.8% and 53% of the subjects respectively. Overweight, obesity, increased waist circumference, raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were found in 37.1%, 16.1%, 37.7%, 14.6% and 19.3% respectively. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes and hypertension (HTN) were 3.6% and 10.2% respectively. Conclusions: There is considerable prevalence of NCDs in the district. Majority of having insufficient use of fruits and vegetables and physical inactivity. Most of them were overweight and increased waist circumference.

20.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2018 Jul; 66(7): 951-956
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196771

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Very few studies have been conducted in India and other parts of the world on visual impairment among individuals aged 15–49 years. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence, causes, and associated factors of visual impairment among adults aged 15–49 years in a rural population of Jhajjar district, Haryana, north India. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in two blocks of Jhajjar district. A total of 34 villages were selected using probability proportionate to size sampling method. Adults aged 15–49 years were selected using compact segment cluster sampling approach. As part of the house-to-house survey, presenting visual acuity using screening chart corresponding to five “E” 6/12 optotypes was measured along with collection of other demographic details. The optometrists performed detailed eye assessment including repeat measurement of visual acuity using retro-illuminated conventional logMAR tumbling “E” charts, torch light examination, and non-cycloplegic refraction at a clinic site within the village to ascertain visual impairment and its cause. Results: Of 5,470 enumerated adults, 5,117 (94%) completed all study procedures. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of visual impairment was found to be 1.85% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.48, 2.23] and blindness was 0.09% (95% CI: 0.01, 0.18). The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of unilateral visual impairment was 1.11% (95% CI: 0.81, 1.41). Uncorrected refractive errors (84%) contributed maximum to visual impairment in this age group. The visual impairment in study participants was found to be associated with age and educational status. Conclusion: At the community level, uncorrected refractive errors contribute largely to visual impairment in the age group of 15–49 years.

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