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1.
Indian Pediatr ; 2023 Mar; 60(3): 267-271
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225401

ABSTRACT

The extent, purpose, and model of performance assessment should be guided by our understanding of clinical competence. We have come a long way from believing that competence is generic, fixed, and transferable across contents; to viewing competence as dynamic, incremental, contextual, and non-transferable. However, our pattern of assessment largely remains what it was many years ago. Contemporary educationists view competency assessment as different from traditional format. They place more emphasis on the role of expert subjective judgment, especially for performance and domain-independent competencies. Such assessments have conclusively shown their validity, reliability, and utility. They; however, require trained assessors, trust between the teachers and the taught, and above all, a political and administrative will for implementation.

2.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223530

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: There is a paucity of data regarding immunogenicity of recently introduced measles–rubella (MR) vaccine in Indian children, in which the first dose is administered below one year of age. This study was undertaken to assess the immunogenicity against rubella and measles 4-6 wk after one and two doses of MR vaccine administered under India’s Universal Immunization Programme (UIP). Methods: In this longitudinal study, 100 consecutive healthy infants (9-12 months) of either gender attending the immunization clinic of a tertiary care government hospital affiliated to a medical college of Delhi for the first dose of routine MR vaccination were enrolled. MR vaccine (0.5 ml, subcutaneous) was administered to the enrolled participants (1st dose at 9-12 months and 2nd dose at 15-24 months). On each follow up (4-6 wk post-vaccination), 2 ml of venous blood sample was collected to estimate the antibody titres against measles and rubella using quantitative ELISA kits. Seroprotection (>10 IU/ml for measles and >10 WHO U/ml for rubella) and antibody titres were evaluated after each dose. Results: The seroprotection rate against rubella was 97.5 and 100 per cent and against measles was 88.7 per cent and 100 per cent 4-6 wk after the first and second doses, respectively. The mean (standard deviation) titres against rubella and measles increased significantly (P<0.001) after the second dose in comparison to the levels after the first dose by about 100 per cent and 20 per cent, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: MR vaccine administered below one year of age under the UIP resulted in seroprotection against rubella and measles in a large majority of children. Furthermore, its second dose resulted in seroprotection of all children. The current MR vaccination strategy of two doses, out of which the first is to be given to infants below one year of age, appears robust and justifiable among Indian children.

3.
Indian Pediatr ; 2023 Jan; 60(1): 49-53
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225447

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To evaluate the antibiotic resistance pattern, clinical profile and predictors for adverse outcomes in children hospitalized due to staphylococcal infection; and the frequency of nasal and axillary carrier states in these children. Methods: This descriptive study enrolled 100 symptomatic children (aged 1 month - 12 years) in whom S. aureus was isolated from cultures of blood, pus or cerebrospinal fluid. All samples were processed as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested using disc diffusion method; minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for vancomycin was measured using E strips. Predictors for poor recovery were determined by univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results: Skin and soft tissue infections were the most common (47%) followed by respiratory infections (37%). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was detected in 62%, out of which 63% (39/62) were multi-drug resistant. Carrier state was present in 49% (93% MRSA); 80% were axillary carriers. High MIC (>1 µg/mL) for vancomycin was seen in 65% of patients, and was the only factor associated with poor recovery [aOR (95%CI) 5.3 (1.6,18.5); P=0.008] on multivariable logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: MRSA is the predominant strain in severe staphylococcal infections requiring hospitalization, and majority of them are multidrug resistant. High MIC to vancomycin among S. aureus is an emerging concern.

4.
Indian Pediatr ; 2022 Nov; 59(11): 852-858
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225267

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy of sunlight exposure and oral vitamin D3 supplementation to achieve vitamin D sufficiency in infants at 6 months of age. Design: Open-label randomized controlled trial. Setting: Public hospital in Northern India (28.7°N). Participant: Breastfed infants at 6-8 weeks of age. Intervention: Randomized to receive sunlight exposure (40% body surface area for a minimum of 30 minutes/week) or oral vitamin D3 supplementation (400 IU/day) till 6 months of age. Outcome: Primary - proportion of infants having vitamin D sufficiency (>20 ng/mL). Secondary - proportion of infants developing vitamin D deficiency (<12ng/mL) and rickets in both the groups at 6 months of age. Results: Eighty (40 in each group) infants with mean (SD) age 47.8 (4.5) days were enrolled. The proportion of infants with vitamin D sufficiency increased after intervention in the vitamin D group from 10.8% to 35.1% (P=0.01) but remained the same in sunlight group (13.9%) and was significant on comparison between both groups (P=0.037). The mean (SD) compliance rate was 72.9 (3.4)% and 59.7 (23.6)% in the vitamin D and sunlight group, respectively (P=0.01). The geometric mean (95% CI) serum 25(OH) D levels in the vitamin D and sunlight group were 16.23 (13.58-19.40) and 11.89 (9.93-14.23) ng/mL, respectively; (P=0.02), after adjusting baseline serum 25(OH)D with a geometric mean ratio of 1.36 (1.06-1.76). Two infants in sunlight group developed rickets. Conclusion: Oral vitamin D3 supplementation is more efficacious than sunlight in achieving vitamin D sufficiency in breastfed infants during the first 6 months of life due to better compliance.

5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223688

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Majority of the studies of hospital-acquired diarrhoea conducted in Western countries have focused on the detection of Clostridium difficile in stool samples. Limited Asian and Indian literature is available on hospital-acquired diarrhoea. This study was aimed to describe the aetiological profile for hospital-acquired diarrhoea in children aged below five years. Methods: One hundred children aged one month to five years who developed diarrhoea (?3 loose stools for >12 h) after hospitalization for at least 72 h were enrolled. Children who were prescribed purgatives or undergoing procedures such as enema and endoscopy or those with underlying chronic gastrointestinal disorders such as celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease were excluded from the study. Stool samples from the enrolled children were subjected to routine microscopic examination, modified Ziel- Nielson (ZN) staining for Cryptosporidium and culture for various enteropathogens. Multiplex PCR was used to identify the strains of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli. Rotavirus detection was done using rapid antigen kit. Toxins (A and B) of C. difficile were detected using enzyme immunoassay. Results: Of the 100 samples of hospital-acquired diarrhoea analysed, diarrhoeagenic E. coli (DEC) was found to be the most common organism, detected in 37 per cent of cases (enteropathogenic E. coli-18%, enterotoxigenic E. coli-8%, enteroaggregative E. coli-4% and mixed infections-7%). Cryptosporidium was detected in 10 per cent of cases. Rotavirus was detected in six per cent and C. difficile in four per cent of cases. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that the aetiological profile of hospital- acquired diarrhoea appears to be similar to that of community-acquired diarrhoea, with DEC and Cryptosporidium being the most common causes. The efforts for the prevention and management of hospital-acquired diarrhoea should, thus, be directed towards these organisms.

6.
Indian Pediatr ; 2022 Oct; 59(10): 782-801
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225378

ABSTRACT

Justification: Anemia in children is a significant public health problem in our country. Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey 2016-18 provides evidence that more than 50% of childhood anemia is due to an underlying nutritional deficiency. The National Family Health Survey-5 has reported an increase in the prevalence of anemia in the under-five age group from 59% to 67.1% over the last 5 years. Clearly, the existing public health programs to decrease the prevalence of anemia have not shown the desired results. Hence, there is a need to develop nationally acceptable guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of nutritional anemia. Objective: To review the available literature and collate evidence-based observations to formulate guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of nutritional anemia in children. Process: These guidelines have been developed by the experts from the Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Chapter and the Pediatric and Adolescent Nutrition (PAN) Society of the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP). Key areas were identified as: epidemiology, nomenclature and definitions, etiology and diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia (IDA), treatment of IDA, etiology and diagnosis of vitamin B12 and/or folic acid deficiency, treatment of vitamin B12 and/or folic acid deficiency anemia and prevention of nutritional anemia. Each of these key areas were reviewed by at least 2 to 3 experts. Four virtual meetings were held in November, 2021 and all the key issues were deliberated upon. Based on review and inputs received during meetings, draft recommendations were prepared. After this, a writing group was constituted which prepared the draft guidelines. The draft was circulated and approved by all the expert group members. Recommendations: We recommend use of World Health Organization (WHO) cut-off hemoglobin levels to define anemia in children and adolescents. Most cases suspected to have IDA can be started on treatment based on a compatible history, physical examination and hemogram report. Serum ferritin assay is recommended for the confirmation of the diagnosis of IDA. Most cases of IDA can be managed with oral iron therapy using 2-3 mg/kg elemental iron daily. The presence of macro-ovalocytes and hypersegmented neutrophils, along with an elevated mean corpuscular volume (MCV), should raise the suspicion of underlying vitamin B12 (cobalamin) or folic acid deficiency. Estimation of serum vitamin B12 and folate level are advisable in children with macrocytic anemia prior to starting treatment. When serum vitamin B12 and folate levels are unavailable, patients should be treated using both drugs. Vitamin B12 should preferably be started 10-14 days ahead of oral folic acid to avoid precipitating neurological symptoms. Children with macrocytic anemia in whom a quick response to treatment is required, such as those with pancytopenia, severe anemia, developmental delay and infantile tremor syndrome, should be managed using parenteral vitamin B12. Children with vitamin B12 deficiency having mild or moderate anemia may be managed using oral vitamin B12 preparations. After completing therapy for nutritional anemia, all infants and children should be advised to continue prophylactic iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation as prescribed under Anemia Mukt Bharat guidelines. For prevention of anemia, in addition to age-appropriate IFA prophylaxis, routine screening of infants for anemia at 9 months during immunization visit is recommended.

7.
Indian Pediatr ; 2022 Sept; 59(9): 710-715
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225372

ABSTRACT

Student doctor method of clinical training or clinical clerkship provides students with exposure to the entire longitudinal illness of the patient. The students participate in patient care as a part of treating team and can refine their clinical, communication and procedural skills. It provides them with an opportunity to work with the faculty and experience the future workplace. Although the graduate medical education regulations (GMER) provide for student doctor method of training, the time provided is too little and opportunistic. Electives have also been recently added to the new curriculum for the first time. We propose a model to deliver the electives using the clerkship method, so as to consolidate what students learn from the ongoing clerkship. This model is feasible, practical and can be introduced in the current GMER for Indian medical undergraduates without any major disruptions.

8.
Indian Pediatr ; 2022 Jul; 59(7): 553-562
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225352

ABSTRACT

Justification: Suicide is an important cause of adolescent mortality and morbidity in India. As pediatricians are often the first point of contact for adolescents and their families in the healthcare system, they need guidelines to screen, assess, manage and prevent adolescent suicidal behavior to ensure survival, health and mental well-being of this vulnerable population. Objectives: To formulate guidelines to aid pediatricians for prevention and management of adolescent suicidal behavior. Process: Indian Academy of Pediatrics, in association with Adolescent Health Academy, formed a multidisciplinary committee of subject experts in June, 2019 to formulate guidelines for adolescent suicide prevention and management. After a review of current scientific literature and preparation of draft guidelines, a national consultative meeting was organized on 16 August, 2019 for detailed discussions and deliberations. This was followed by refining of draft guidelines, and discussions over e-mail where suggestions were incorporated and the final document was approved. Guidelines: Pediatricians should screen for mental distress, mental disorders and suicidal and para-suicidal (non-suicidal self-injury) behavior during adolescent health visits. Those with suicidal behavior should be referred to a psychiatrist after providing emergency healthcare, risk assessment, immediate counselling and formulation of a safety plan. Pediatricians should partner with the community and policymakers for primary and secondary prevention of adolescent suicide.

9.
Indian Pediatr ; 2022 Jun; 59(6): 477-484
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225343

ABSTRACT

Justification: Adolescent health is critical to the current and future well- being of the world. Pediatricians need country specific guidelines in accordance with international and national standards to establish comprehensive adolescent friendly health services in clinical practice. Process: Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) in association with Adolescent Health Academy formed a committee of subject experts in June, 2019 to formulate guidelines for adolescent friendly health services. After a review of current scientific literature and drafting guidelines on each topic, a national consultative meeting was organized on 16 August, 2019 for detailed discussions and deliberations. This was followed by discussions over e-mail and refining of draft recommendations. The final guidelines were approved by the IAP Executive Board in December, 2021. Objective: To formulate guidelines to enable pediatricians to establish adolescent friendly health services. Recommendations: Pediatricians should coordinate healthcare for adolescents and plan for transition of care to an adult physician by 18 years of age. Pediatricians should establish respectful, confidential and quality adolescent friendly health services for both out-patient and in-patient care. The healthcare facility should provide preventive, therapeutic, and health promoting services. Pediatricians should partner with the multidisciplinary speciality services, community, and adolescents to expand the scope and reach of adolescent friendly health services.

10.
Indian Pediatr ; 2022 Apr; 59(4): 331-338
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225325

ABSTRACT

Self-directed learning (SDL) is a modality where learners are expected to take responsibility for their own learning, diagnose gaps in their learning, frame their own goals and resources for learning, implement appropriate learning strategies and evaluate learning outcomes. Flexibility and creativity in designing assignments for students to work individually or collaboratively are the keys to promoting SDL. The recent competency-based curriculum document from the National Medical Commission does not elaborate the concept or implementation of SDL, leaving it open to individual interpretation. We, herein, discuss the concept of SDL, address common misconceptions surrounding SDL, and elucidate strategies by which SDL skills can be inculcated in medical students using pre-existing opportunities in the curriculum. Flipped classrooms, reciprocal teaching, technology-enhanced methods, problem-based learning, and group projects are excellent ways of promoting SDL. SDL requires efforts and policies both at the teachers’ level and at the institutional level; and is an important input to achieve the goal of being a lifelong learner by the Indian medical graduate.

11.
Indian Pediatr ; 2022 Apr; 59(4): 300-306
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225322

ABSTRACT

Justification: Febrile seizures are quite common in children but there are controversies in many aspects of their diagnosis and management. Methods: An expert group consisting of pediatric neurologists and pediatricians was constituted. The modified Delphi method was used to develop consensus on the issues of definitions and investigations. The writing group members reviewed the literature and identified the contentious issues under these subheadings. The questions were framed, pruned, and discussed among the writing group members. The final questions were circulated to all experts during the first round of Delphi consensus. The results of the first round were considered to have arrived at a consensus if more than 75% experts agreed. Contentious issues that reached a 50- 75% agreement was discussed further in online meetings and subsequently voting was done over an online platform to arrive at a consensus. Three rounds of Delphi were conducted to arrive at final statements. Results: The expert group arrived at a consensus on 52 statements. These statements pertain to definitions of febrile seizures, role of blood investigations, urine investigations, neuroimaging, electroencephalography (EEG), cerebrospinal fluid analysis and screening for micronutrient deficiency. In addition, role of rescue medications, intermittent anti-seizure medication and continuous prophylaxis, antipyretic medication and micronutrient supplementation have been covered. Conclusion: This consensus statement addresses various contentious issues pertaining to the diagnosis and management of febrile seizures. Adoption of these statements in office practice will improve and standardize the care of children with this disorder.

12.
Indian Pediatr ; 2022 Mar; 59(3): 193-197
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225313

ABSTRACT

With its colonial past, and a glaring problem of poverty and hunger, India oft fails to acknowledge a new, rapidly growing problem of overnutrition. With the economic boost and entry of various foreign players from the food industry, Indian citizens have been increasingly exposed to ultra-processed, high in sugar, salt and fat foods (HFSS foods). The last decade or so has seen an exponential rise in the consumption of such foods, leading to increasing prevalence of overweight- and obesity-related illnesses like diabetes, hypertension, etc. In this scenario, examining the efficacy of policy-related measures in reducing consumption of these harmful foods and preventing the associated health issues is paramount. Across the globe, several countries have explored options from taxation on HFSS foods to restricting marketing to children, as well as different practices for front of the pack labeling. In the context of India and its increasing burden of preventable, diet-related illnesses, the urgent need of instituting these preventive policies at national scale cannot be neglected.

13.
Indian Pediatr ; 2022 Mar; 59(3): 235-244
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225311

ABSTRACT

Justification: Screen-based media have become an important part of human lifestyle. In view of their easy availability and increasing use in Indian children, and their excessive use being linked to physical, developmental and emotional problems, there is a need to develop guidelines related to ensure digital wellness and regulate screen time in infants, children, and adolescents. Objectives: To review the evidence related to effects of screen-based media and excessive screen time on children’s health; and to formulate recommendations for limiting screen time and ensuring digital wellness in Indian infants, children and adolescents. Process: An Expert Committee constituted by the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP), consisting of various stakeholders in private and public sector, reviewed the literature and existing guidelines. A detailed review document was circulated to the members, and the National consultative meet was held online on 26th March 2021 for a day-long deliberation on framing the guidelines. The consensus review and recommendations formulated by the Group were circulated to the participants and the guidelines were finalized. Conclusions: Very early exposure to screen-based media and excessive screen time (>1-2h/d) seems to be widely prevalent in Indian children. The Group recommends that children below 2 years age should not be exposed to any type of screen, whereas exposure should be limited to a maximum of one hour of supervised screen time per day for children 24-59 months age, and less than two hours per day for children 5-10 years age. Screen time must not replace other activities such as outdoor physical activities, sleep, family and peer interaction, studies, and skill development, which are necessary for overall health and development of the children and adolescents. Families should ensure a warm, nurturing, supportive, fun filled and secure environment at home, and monitor their children’s screen use to ensure that the content being watched is educational, ageappropriate and non-violent. Families, schools and pediatricians should be educated regarding the importance of recording screen exposure and digital wellness as a part of routine child health assessment, and detect any signs of cyberbullying or media addiction; and tackle it timely with expert consultation if needed.

14.
Indian Pediatr ; 2022 Feb; 59(2): 142-158
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225300

ABSTRACT

Justification: The emerging literature on prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in India, prevention and treatment strategies of rickets, and extra-skeletal benefits of vitamin D suggest the need for revising the existing guidelines for prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in India. Objectives: To review the emerging literature on vitamin D prevalence and need for universal vitamin D supplementation. To suggest optimum vitamin D therapy for treatment of asymptomatic and symptomatic vitamin D deficiency, and rickets. To evaluate the extra-skeletal health benefits of vitamin D in children. Process: A National consultative committee was formed that comprised of clinicians, epidemiologists, endocrinologists, and nutritionists. The Committee conducted deliberations on different aspects of vitamin D deficiency and rickets through ten online meetings between March and September, 2021. A draft guideline was formulated, which was reviewed and approved by all Committee members. Recommendations: The group reiterates the serum 25- hydroxy vitamin D cutoffs proposed for vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency as <12 ng/mL, 12-20 ng/mL and >20 ng/mL, respectively. Vitamin D toxicity is defined as serum 25OHD >100 ng/mL with hypercalcemia and/or hypercalciuria. Vitamin D supplementation in doses of 400 IU/day is recommended during infancy; however, the estimated average requirement in older children and adolescents (400-600 IU/day) should be met from diet and natural sources like sunlight. Rickets and vitamin D deficiency should be treated with oral cholecalciferol, preferably in a daily dosing schedule (2000 IU below 1 year of age and 3000 IU in older children) for 12 weeks. If compliance to daily dosing cannot be ensured, intermittent regimens may be prescribed for children above 6 months of age. Universal vitamin D supplementation is not recommended in childhood pneumonia, diarrhea, tuberculosis, HIV and non-infectious conditions like asthma, atopic dermatitis, and developmental disorders. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D level of >20 ng/mL should be maintained in children with conditions at high-risk for vitamin deficiency, like nephrotic syndrome, chronic liver disease, chronic renal failure, and intake of anticonvulsants or glucocorticoids.

15.
Indian Pediatr ; 2022 Feb; 59(2): 137-141
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225299

ABSTRACT

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends promotion of nurturing care for early childhood development (NCECD) by focusing on five essential components viz., good health, adequate nutrition, promotion of early childhood learning, responsive caregiving, and safety and security. Indian medical graduates and pediatricians are the keys to successful delivery and propagation of NC-ECD in the community. Their training therefore needs to include skills and knowledge needed to promote and practice ECD. Objective: To evaluate the existing undergraduate (UG) and postgraduate (PG) curricula of pediatrics for components related to early childhood development, assess gaps in the training essential to practice and promote ECD, and suggest recommendations to incorporate NC-ECD in the UG and PG curricula. Process: Indian Academy of Pediatrics created a task force to review the UG/PG medical curricula, consisting of experts from pediatrics and medical education. The task force deliberated on 20 March, 2021 and identified the gaps in current curricula and provided suggestions to strengthen it. The recommendations of the task force are presented here. Recommendations: Taskforce identified that the UG/PG medical curricula are lacking training for propagating early childhood learning, responsive caregiving, caregiver support, and ensuring safety and security of children. The taskforce provided a list of competencies related to ECD that need to be included in both UG and PG curriculum. NC-ECD should also be included in topics for integrated teaching. Postgraduates also need to be exposed to hands-on-training at anganwadis, creches, and in domestic setting.

16.
Indian Pediatr ; 2022 Jan; 59(1): 51-57
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225265

ABSTRACT

Justification: Data generated after the first wave has revealed that some children with coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) can become seriously ill. Multi-inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and long COVID cause significant morbidity in children. Prolonged school closures and quarantine have played havoc with the psychosocial health of children. Many countries in the world have issued emergency use authorisation (EUA) of selected COVID-19 vaccines for use in children. In India, a Subject Expert Committee (SEC) has recommended the use of Covaxin (Bharat Biotech) for children from the ages of 2-18 years. The recommendation has been given to the Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) for final approval. Objective: To provide an evidence-based document to guide the pediatricians on the recommendation to administer COVID vaccines to children, as and when they are available for use. Process: Formulation of key questions was done by the committee, followed by review of literature on epidemiology and burden of COVID-19 in children, review of the studies on COVID vaccines in children, and the IAP stand on COVID-19 vaccination in children. The available data was discussed in the ACVIP focused WhatsApp group followed by an online meeting on 24 October, 2021, wherein the document was discussed in detail and finalized. Recommendations: The IAP supports the Government of India’s decision to extend the COVID-19 vaccination program to children between 2-18 years of age. Children with high-risk conditions may be immunized on a priority basis. The IAP and its members should be a partner with the Government of India, in the implementation of this program and the surveillance that is necessary following the roll-out.

17.
Indian Pediatr ; 2020 Mar; 57(3): 259-260
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-199509

ABSTRACT

This survey was conducted among 125 pediatricians working inpublic and private child care facilities of Delhi. Prescription ratesof routine vitamin D supplementation varied between 70-100%for various groups of infants, despite non-availability ofgovernment guidelines. Pediatricians in private practice morefrequently prescribed vitamin D supplementation to term healthyinfants as compared to government pediatrician (91.4% vs71.6%; P=0.005).

19.
Indian Pediatr ; 2019 Dec; 56(12): 1020-1024
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-199444

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the seasonal change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) level inhealthy infants and to relate it to common childhood morbidities. Methods: 72 healthybreastfed infants residing in Delhi were enrolled at the end of summer and followed till the endof winter [mean (SD) duration 200 (10) d]. Serum 25-OHD was estimated at baseline andfollow-up. Infants were monitored for common childhood diseases. Results: Mean (SD)serum 25-OHD level was lower at the end of winter (20.7 (8.02) ng/mL) than summer (22.9(8.70) ng/mL) [mean difference (95% CI) –2.14 ng/mL (–3.36, –1.06), P<0.001). Theseasonal distribution of children according to vitamin D status in summer and winter -Deficient(15.3%, 12.5%), Insufficient (19.4%, 30.6%) and Sufficient(65.3%, 56.9%),respectively was comparable P=0.17). The morbidity profile remained unaffected by changein vitamin D status from summer to winter. Conclusions: Seasonal changes in vitamin Dlevels do not have significant clinical effect or effect on overall vitamin D status in apparentlyhealthy infants from North India. This may have implications for results of population surveysfor vitamin D status, irrespective of the season when they are conducted.

20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-185582

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate and compare macular thickness changes after uneventful Phacoemulsification and Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery in correlation with visual acuity. METHOD: Study was conducted on 250 cataract patients they were equally divided into Group A and Group B. Group A patients underwent Phacoemulsification and Group B underwent MSICS. In both groups macular thickness using OCTand Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA) was recorded preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 day, 1, 3, 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months. Macular thickness changes were evaluated and compared with visual acuity. RESULTS: Macular thickness continued to increase from 1 week to 6 months postoperatively which was statistically significant. No correlation found between increased macular thickness and BCVA. CONCLUSION: Increase in macular thickness remained subclinical and there was no impact of increased macular thickness on the final visual outcome.

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