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1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-188548

ABSTRACT

Background: Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) cytology of the thyroid has been increasingly utilized for the investigation of thyroid lesions. FNA of the thyroid gland is considered to be most cost effective and accurate primary diagnostic procedure for thyroid nodules. In the recent years many approaches has been devised to improve the quality of thyroid FNA cytology because the conventional smear (CS) is subject to error in sample collection and slide preparation. The liquid based cytology (LBC) originally developed for the application of gynaecologic cervical smears, has progressively gained for application of both non gynaecologic and fine needle aspiration cytological material. According to the Wilcoxon signed ranked test for thyroid lesions LBC was not useful in goitre and infectious lesions. It gave better results in anaplastic and medullary carcinoma. So conventional smear is more sensitive, specific and accurate than LBC. Methods: in this prospective study, we had 100 cases of thyroid. In each case, two passes were performed. The first pass was for CS and the second pass yielded material for LBC. Both CS and LBC smears were compared for cellularity, background blood and necrotic cell debris, cell architecture, informative background, presence of a monolayer of cells and nuclear and cytoplasmic details and test on an for statistical analysis. Results: Diagnostic accuracy was better in CS compared withLBC smears as CS was most sensitive (93.18%) and accurate (91.75%) method for analysis of thyroid while LBC method is sensitive (89.04%) and accuracy (86.59%).Conclusion: Conventional smear is more sensitive, specific and accurate than LBC because LBC introduce more cytological artifacts to thyroid aspirates.

2.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-177356

ABSTRACT

Objective.The present study was designed to define and evaluate examination stress among ,adolescents in the age group of 12–18 years in relation to heart rate variability (HRV), an index of sympathovagal interplay, one of the sensitive neurophysiological axes to be influenced initially, when an individual is exposed to any stressor.Methods. Hari’s stress inventory for students was used to qualify examination stress was collected on 69 healthy school students, free from any acute or chronic ailment, one month and seven days before the start of final examinations along with acquisition of short – term HRV to profile the sympathovagal interplay, a sensitive index of both physical and mental stress. Results. The stress inventory depicted that the sample population was under an enhanced mental stress 7 days before the examination as compared to that observed 1 month before the ratios of HRV 1month and 7 days before the final examination. Significant appreciable difference could also be appreciated in the values of SDANN in time domain and amplitude of the waveforms in HF, LF on the frequency domain of HRV.Conclusion. An enhanced sympathetic outflow as discerned through increase in LF/HF ratio and LF power with a concomitant decrease in HF power along with significant decrease in SDANN values profiling a decreased vagal outflow of the student population denotes an autonomic neurophysiological status that needs a specialist attention in terms of proper and adequate guidance and counselling.

3.
Indian J Cancer ; 2014 Oct-Dec; 51(4): 557-559
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-172552

ABSTRACT

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the demographic pattern, incidence, and histological characteristics of colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) in very young adults diagnosed in the center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrieved and reviewed slides and data pertaining to all the cases of CRCs and “segregated into decade wise age‑groups” from the archives of Department of Pathology. Patients with age ≤20 years diagnosed during the last 8 years (2006–2013) were further evaluated. RESULTS: Totally, 590 cases of CRCs diagnosed over last 8‑year period, of which 4.2% (25 cases) presented in the study group (age ≤20 years) with a mean age of 17 years. About 50% of the tumors were either signet ring cell, mucin‑secreting or poorly differentiated carcinomas. Four cases occurred in a background of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), three of which showed high‑grade dysplasia, while in one case, carcinoma‑in‑situ was diagnosed. In all but two cases, rectum was the site of involvement except FAP cases in which colorectal location was noted. CRCs show a sharp rise in earlier age onset (≤40 years) and an increasing trend was followed in patients between age groups third, fourth, and fifth decades of life over the last 8 years. CONCLUSION: Colorectal carcinomas show an increasing trend in young age (≤40 years). This change may be attributed to dietary, lifestyle changes, and newer genetic alterations in developing countries. In very young age group (≤20 years), a higher grade and stage at the time of diagnosis and predominantly rectal involvements are the distinct features.

4.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 2014 Oct-Dec ; 58 (4) : 379-380
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156225

ABSTRACT

Acute exposure to high altitude hypoxia is known to decrease physical performance. The exercise performance increases during moderate altitude training (2000-3000 m) but benefits are overshadowed by adverse effect associated with hypoxia. Therefore, the study was designed to address whether low altitude of 1200 m could increase exercise performance without any adverse effects and a correlation with stay period (stay > 6 month) was optimized. In the present study residents of lower altitude (1200 m altitude) (LA) and sea level (SL) residents were subjected to sub-maximal exercise test and their exercise response in terms of postexercise heart rate and change in oxygen saturation was compared. Post-exercise peak heart rate (129.89±13.42 vs 146.00±11.81, p<0.05) was significantly lower and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) after exercise had a significant fall (95.3±2.26% vs 98±0% p<0.001) in LA residents. The hematological parameters like hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) taken as markers of physiological adaptation, were also found to be significantly higher in LA as compared to SL residents (Hb 16.13±0.70 vs 14.2±0.87, p<0.001 and Hct 47.42±2.08 vs 44.05±0.72, p<0.001). Overall, the study highlights that physiological adaptation at 1200 m results into a better exercise response and hematological benefit compared to sea level residents.

5.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Apr; 52(4): 369-374
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150368

ABSTRACT

An originally isolated baculovirus, Spodoptera litura multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltMNPV) was serially passed through the S. litura larvae for upto four generations to determine the mean number of occlusion bodies (OBs) harvested per larva and their efficacy in terms of infectivity, feeding cessation and speed of kill of host larvae. The results revealed that the mean number of OBs harvested per larva increased significantly with increase in the dose of SpltMNPV at each passage and the yield was significantly lower in original stock wild-type SpltMNPV (P0) as compared to serially passed SpltMNPV (P1, P2, P3 and P4). Laboratory bioassays indicate that median lethal doses (LD50), median times to feeding cessation (FT50) and median survival times (ST50) of P0, P1, P2, P3 and P4 were significantly different from each other. The OBs of each passage when tested for their cross-infectivity against Spodoptera exigua and Spilarctia obliqua revealed significant reduction in their mortality. These results indicate that serially passed SpltMNPV is more host specific and more effective biocontrol agent than the original stock wild-type virus and can be adopted for mass production as a viral pesticide for control of the S. litura.


Subject(s)
Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Insecticides/metabolism , Nucleopolyhedroviruses/growth & development , Nucleopolyhedroviruses/metabolism , Serial Passage , Species Specificity , Viral Proteins/metabolism
6.
Br J Med Med Res ; 2013 Oct-Dec; 3(4): 1437-1452
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163018

ABSTRACT

Aims: Predictive and prognostic features have served to allow prognostication for patients with early stage breast cancer. We sought to document our own outcomes for these features to see if our cohort corresponded to published reports. Study Design: Retrospective pilot cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medical Oncology, Mid-Western Cancer Centre (MWCC), Mid-Western Regional Hospital (MWRH), Limerick, Ireland, between 1st January 2002 and 31st December 2002. Methodology: A retrospective analysis was designed to include with early stage breast cancer seen at our institution for the aforementioned period, information was derived from the patients’ records and indices were derived from prognostic tools. Information was analyzed using descriptive statistics and χ2 or Fisher’s exact test. Results: Seventy-seven (77) patients were found, with a median age of 52.2 years. Median overall survival of 84 months for the 10-year period of follow-up. The majority presented with moderately differentiated oestrogen receptor positive invasive ductal carcinoma and lymph node involvement (60%). 64% of patients underwent mastectomy as opposed to breast conservation. Adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy uptake was 61%, which was comparable to proportion of node positive disease. The predictive and prognostic features including axillary nodal status, tumour size, tumour grade, age at presentation and oestrogen receptor status were all significant indicators for outcome, but particularly within patients under 50 years of age. Conclusions: This report underscores that these predictive and prognostic factors were more significant within for patients under the age of 50 years.

7.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2013 Oct-Dec; 31(4): 405-409
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156827

ABSTRACT

Ralstonia paucula (formerly classifi ed as CDC (Centre for Disease Control) group IVc-2, Wautersia paucula; recently renamed as Cupriavidus pauculus) is an environmental Gram-negative bacillus isolated from water sources and can cause serious human infections. Patients recover bacteriologically indicating low virulence. A total of 32 cases have been reported world-wide, but no isolation has ever been reported from cerebrospinal fl uid or in India. The fi rst case of R. paucula meningitis and septicemia is being reported here along with the brief summary of cases reported world-wide.

8.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2013 Jan-Mar; 31(1): 29-33
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147542

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Damage caused by an organism during infection is attributed to production of virulence factors. Different virulence factors produced by the organism contribute to its pathogenicity, individually. During infectious conditions, role of virulence factors produced by the pathogen is different, depending upon the site of involvement. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen known to cause infections of the respiratory tract, burn wound, urinary tract and eye. Importance of virulence factors produced by P. Aeruginosa during infections such as keratitis, burn wound and respiratory tract is known. The present study was designed to understand the importance of different virulence factors of P. aeruginosa in urinary tract infection in vivo. Materials and methods: An ascending urinary tract infection model was established in mice using standard parent strain PAO1 and its isogenic mutant, JP2. Mice were sacrificed at different time intervals and renal tissue homogenates were used for estimation of renal bacterial load and virulence factors. Results: Both parent and mutant strains were able to reach the renal tissue. PAO 1 PAO1was isolated from renal tissue till day 5 post-infection. However, the mutant strain was unable to colonise the renal tissue. Failure of mutant strain to colonise was attributed to its inability to produce protease, elastase and rhamnolipid. Conclusion: This study suggests that protease, elastase and rhamnolipid contribute to pathogenesis and survival of P. aeruginosa during urinary tract infection.

9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157371

ABSTRACT

Proper use of medicines can be ensured in the society through various ways. Scientific and rational prescription is one of them, but at the same time judicious use of medicines by the patients is also equally important. Compliance of therapy can determine fate of any medicine. This study was planned to explore some important aspects of use of medicines in pregnant women in remote villages of India. This was an observational, cross sectional study using face to face interview of the pregnant ladies and also auditing the prescriptions available from them. Present study revealed that the average age of the study population was 23.6 years and primi-gravida (51.4%) constituted slight majority over multi-gravida. Most commonly prescribed medicine during pregnancy was iron, folic acid (79%) and injection tetanus toxoid (91%). A large number of pregnant women (37.5%) were non compliant with the medicine prescribed for them. In modern therapeutics, drugs or medicines play an important role in the health of any individual. But at the same time its proper use should be ensured. This study showed the importance of use of medicines by the patient. Judicious use of scarce resources on medicines not only improves the quality of therapy but also the quality of life.


Subject(s)
Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , India , Medical Audit , Medication Adherence , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Rural Population , Young Adult
10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135479

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: TT virus (TTV) is a newly discovered non-enveloped, single stranded DNA virus of high genotypic variability, found frequently in patients with acute or chronic hepatitis of non A-G aetiology. This study was carried out to look for the presence of TTV and its genotypes in patients with different types of liver diseases from northern India. Methods: A total of 262 serum samples from patients of acute viral hepatitis (AVH; n=72), fulminant hepatic failure (FHF; n=49), chronic active hepatitis (CAH; n=93) and liver cirrhosis (LC; n=48), were analyzed for hepatitis A-G viral markers. TTV DNA was detected in all cases by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the primers from N22 and untranslated (UTR) region. TTV-DNA was also tested in 150 volunteer blood donors. Direct nucleotide sequencing of N22 amplicons were carried out to look into the prevalent TTV genotypes. Results: TTV-DNA was detected in 73.6, 59.2, 21.5 and 29.1 per cent cases with AVH, FHF, CAH and cirrhosis, respectively. In AVH and FHF groups, TTV showed co-infection with all A-G hepatitis cases whereas in CAH and cirrhosis groups, TTV co-infection observed with HBV, HCV and HGV. TTV-DNA was detected in 45.3 per cent volunteer blood donors. No statistically significant difference was observed amongst the mean liver function profile of UTR PCR positive and negative cases in different liver disease groups except AVH cases, in whom the various biochemical parameters between TTV positive and TTV negative patients were marginally significant. However, no significant evidence of biochemical or histological deterioration of the liver was observed in TTV positive cases amongst FHF, CAH and cirrhosis. Predominance of genotype 1a was observed in all the cases from north India. Interpretation & conclusions: TTV is a frequent virus isolated from patients with various types of liver diseases as well as in healthy individuals from northern India. TTV has no effect on biochemical markers of associated liver diseases. Genotype 1a was the most predominant type in different liver disease groups. The occurrence of TTV did not further influence the course of the disease.


Subject(s)
Adult , Base Sequence , DNA Primers , Humans , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Torque teno virus/genetics , Torque teno virus/isolation & purification
11.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2009 Apr-Jun; 52(2): 244-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-73741

ABSTRACT

Carcinosarcoma of the gallbladder is an uncommon neoplasm. We herein report the case of a patient with carcinosarcoma of the gallbladder, treated by simple cholecystectomy for a tumor which was confined to the gallbladder.

12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-45883

ABSTRACT

Pediatric femoral hernias account for less than 1% of all groin hernias. Pediatric femoral hernias are rather uncommon more so in males, often overlooked, misdiagnosed and treated as inguinal hernia. Femoral hernia masquerading as inguinal hernia in a seven year old male is reported along with review of relevant literature.


Subject(s)
Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Hernia, Femoral/congenital , Humans , Male
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-91655

ABSTRACT

A 22-year-old female presented to us after consuming hair dye with features of angio-neurotic edema, asphyxia and irregular pulse. Serial ECGs revealed presence of ST segment elevation and T wave inversion in anterior chest leads. Strongly positive c-troponin-T test further confirmed the myocardial damage. This is a rare manifestation of para-phenylene diamine poisoning mentioned in literature. Patient also had elevated liver enzymes and oliguria.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biomarkers/analysis , Cardiomyopathies/chemically induced , Electrocardiography , Fatal Outcome , Female , Hair Dyes/poisoning , Humans , Phenylenediamines/poisoning , Tachycardia/chemically induced , Troponin T/analysis
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-21523

ABSTRACT

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an important component of the immune defence able to bind to repeating mannose based structural patterns typical of microbial surface (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites) leading to opsonization and phagocytosis, and activation of the complement pathway resulting in lysis of the pathogen. MBL thus plays a very important role in the first line of host immune response. MBL deficiency has been implicated in susceptibility and modulating the severity in viral, bacterial, fungal, and protozoan infections. High MBL levels, on the contrary might be helpful to intracellular organisms, which take the advantage of C3 opsonization and C3 receptor on monocytes/macrophages to enter their host. MBL replacement therapy to help patients with MBL deficiency has undergone phase I clinical trials. Phase II and III trials and production of recombinant MBL for replacement therapy are currently underway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Immunity, Innate/physiology , Mannose-Binding Lectin/deficiency , Mycoses/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/immunology
15.
J Environ Biol ; 2008 Jan; 29(1): 79-84
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113697

ABSTRACT

Decolourization activity of Phanerochaete chrysosporium for three synthetic dyes viz., congo red, malachite green and crystal violet and impact of additional carbon and nitrogen supply on decolourization capacity of fungus were investigated. Maximum decolourizing capacity was observed up to 15 ppm. Addition of urea as nitrogen source and glucose as carbon source significantly enhanced decolourizing capacity (up to 87%) of fungus. In all the cases, both colour and COD were reduced more in non-sterilized treatments as compared to sterilized ones. Significant reductions in COD content of dye solutions (79-84%) were recorded by fungus supplied with additional carbon and nitrogen. A highly significant correlation (r = 0.78, p < 0.001) between colour and COD of dye solutions was recorded. Thus, a readily available carbon and nitrogen source is imperative to enhance the bioremediation activity of this fungus which has been the most suitable for synthetic dyes and textile industry wastewater treatment.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Carbon/chemistry , Color , Coloring Agents/chemistry , Congo Red/chemistry , Gentian Violet/chemistry , Nitrogen/chemistry , Oxygen/chemistry , Phanerochaete/drug effects , Rosaniline Dyes/chemistry , Textile Industry , Water Pollutants, Chemical
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-89660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In view of high incidence and mortality due to ethylene dibromide poisoning, a prospective study was planned to assess demographic, toxicological, clinical profile and outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospectively collected data of sixty four patients with ethylene dibromide poisoning were reviewed. All the patients were from Gwalior and neighbouring districts. RESULTS: Majority were males in the age group 21-30 years. Out of sixty-four cases 26 patients (40.6%) survived and 38 patients (59.4%) expired. Nausea vomiting and pain abdomen were most common symptoms at presentation. Diarrhoea, drowsiness, palpitations and oliguria were other features. Pulse rate was normal (< 100) in 22 (84.6%) survived patients whereas it was > 100 in 24 (63.1%) of expired patients at the time of admission (p value = 0.0004199). Half ampoule (1.5ml.) of ethylene dibromide was sufficient as fatal dose. Mortality was 20% and 46.15% with half and one ampoule respectively. Best outcome was when the patient presented to the hospital within six hours. Death occurred anywhere between twelve hours and five days. Gastrointestinal toxicity was predominant at presentation. Nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain was present in all the patients. Nephrotoxicity 32 (50%), hepatotoxicity 28 (43.8%), cardiotoxicity 28 (43.8%), central nervous system 8 (12.5%) toxicity and hypoglycemia 24 (37.5%) were also observed. CONCLUSION: Ethylene dibromide is highly toxic. Patients who consumed half to one ampoule usually survived with supportive care provided they presented to the hospital within six hours. Pulse rate more than 100 at presentation was a poor prognostic factor. Patients with normal pulse and blood pressure at admission had better prognosis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Ethylene Dibromide/poisoning , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Suicide, Attempted , Treatment Outcome
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-46565

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical profile and outcome in patients with iliopsoas abscess. METHODS: A descriptive study was carried out in B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Science, Dharan, Nepal from February 2005 to March 2006. The medical records of all thirty six patients admitted in surgery ward with diagnosis of iliopsoas abscess during the study period were analyzed. RESULTS: Thirty six patients were included the study. There were 22 (61.1%) males and 14 (38.9%) females with a mean age of 24.33 +/-19.19 years. Demographic distribution of the patients revealed the highest number 13 (36.1%) from Sunsari district, eastern part of the country. Right sided unilateral involvement was the most common presentation and only 2 cases had bilateral involvement. In none of our patients the dorsolumbar spine radiograph revealed any involvement of the bone. The most common complaints were pain in lower abdomen and lump in iliac fossa with flexion deformity at hip joint. All the patients underwent open surgical drainage and their outcomes were analyzed in term of cure, morbidity and mortality. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism 24 (61.5%) isolated. Twenty two (91.66%) of Staphylococcus aureus samples were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. There was one mortality in the group who died of septicaemia secondary to necrotizing fascitis. Six patients had wound infection, which were cured by regular dressing. CONCLUSION: On the basis of our experience and review of available relevant literature, we can conclude that a high index of suspicion and awareness of the varying clinical picture are required to diagnose this condition properly. Ultrasonography should still be the preferred imaging modality as it is cheap, safe, cost effective and readily available. Ciprofloxacin should be used as a first line drug. Image guided aspiration may be practical in selected cases having little pus and traditional open drainage should be considered without hesitation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Nepal/epidemiology , Psoas Abscess/diagnosis
18.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2007 Oct; 50(4): 851-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-73261

ABSTRACT

Testicular fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an important investigation in management of male infertility, especially to differentiate between obstructive and non obstructive causes of azoospermia. It is less invasive and associated with no or minimal complications. Nowadays when assisted fertilization techniques are being practiced, fibrosis after biopsy may further hamper in sperm extraction for intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Present study describes a detailed analysis of aspiration cytology in 546 cases and also compared 48 cases of testicular biopsies with cytology. The cytological diagnoses correlated well with histological diagnoses and helped in management of infertility. FNAC can help in management of surgical and medical causes of infertility and can save unnecessary expensive investigations in cases of sertoli cell only syndrome and atrophic patterns. FNAC in combination with semen analysis and serum follicle stimulating hormone levels are of great help in management of male infertility.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Atrophy/diagnosis , Azoospermia/diagnosis , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Infertility, Male/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Semen/cytology , Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome/diagnosis , Testis/pathology
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-21825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Information on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in pregnant women in India is scanty. This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of HCV within an obstetric population in north India and to identify the various risk factors for the viral infection. METHODS: A total of 8130 pregnant women from antenatal clinic were subjected to anti-HCV testing by third generation ELISA. Anti-HCV positive seropositive women were further tested for HCVRNA, hepatitis B and HIV. The women were evaluated for the presence of following known risk factors for HCV infection. RESULTS: Eighty four (1.03%) pregnant females had HCV antibodies. Of these, 46 (54.8%) were positive for HCV-RNA, 4(4.8%) tested positive for HBsAg, while none tested positive for HIV. The mean age and parity of the anti-HCV antibody positive women was 24.36+/-3.6 yr and 0.9+/-0.8, while that of the anti-HCV antibody negative women was 24.13+/-3.6 yr and 0.8+/-0.8 respectively. Of the 84 anti-HCV positive women, 52 (61.9 %) did not have any identifiable risk factors. The risk factors variables did not have significant association with HCV positive status. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Prevalence of hepatitis C in pregnant women was 1.03 per cent. None of the known risk factors was found to be significantly associated with the HCV infection. Hence case identification and consequent management pose a particular problem and routine screening is not a viable option in our resource- poor setting.


Subject(s)
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Risk Factors
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-24918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Association of hepatitis G virus (HGV) with acute viral hepatitis (AVH) and fulminant hepatitis (FH) is not clearly understood.This study was designed to asses the occurrence of HGV infection and its relationship with other hepatotropic viruses in patients with FH and AVH and also to determine the nucleotide sequence of HGV isolates. METHODS: The study included 100 patients of FH and 125 of AVH on the basis of clinical examination, liver function test and serology for hepatitis A, B, C and E virus. HGV RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and direct sequencing for 4 randomly selected samples followed by phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients with FH, 30 were negative for hepatitis viruses A, B, C and E by serology (non A-non E) while 60 were negative in the AVH group. In the non A-non-E hepatitis group, HGV was positive in 16.66 per cent (5/30) cases of FH, 10 per cent (6/60) cases of AVH and 6 per cent (6/100) of healthy controls. The difference in HGV seropositivity between FH and AVH patients was statistically not significant compared to healthy controls, while HBV and HCV infections were significant. The four isolates sequenced seemed to be of same type and close to Chinese strain of HGV (Y13755.1 Y13756.1 Y15407, and U67782) on phylogeny. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: In HGV infection was not found to be clinically significant as well as nonpathogenic in the patients of FH and AVH and appeared to be an innocent bystander in the course of the disease. The four sequenced HGV isolates showed close pairing with Chinese strains.


Subject(s)
Adult , Case-Control Studies , DNA, Viral/genetics , Female , GB virus C/genetics , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Humans , Liver Failure, Acute/epidemiology , Male , Phylogeny , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA
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