Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.571
Filter
1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204878

ABSTRACT

Nearly one billion hectares of arid and semiarid areas of the world are salt affected and remain barren due to salinity or water scarcity. These lands can be utilized by adopting appropriate planting techniques and integrating trees with tolerant crops, forage grasses, oil yielding crops, aromatic and medicinal plants. Biosaline agroforestry provides various ecosystem services such as the improved soil fertility, carbon sequestration, and biomass production. Provisioning services relating to biomass production have been well studied in different biosaline agroforestry. Tree plantations and agroforestry enrich the soil in organic matter and exert a considerable ameliorative effect on soil properties. The soil microbial biomass serves as a useful indicator of soil improvement under salt stress. By integrating trees with the naturally occurring grassland systems on highly sodic soils, the soil organic carbon content increased from 5.3 Mg ha−1 (in sole grass) to 13.6, 10.9, and 14.2 Mg ha−1, when Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia nilotica, and Prosopis juliflora trees were introduced with grass. The strip-plantations of clonal Eucalyptus tereticornis sequestered 15.5 t ha–1 carbons during the first rotation of 5 years and 4 months. The soils of biosaline agroforestry could store 25.9–99.3 Mg C ha−1 in surface 0.3 m soil. Maintaining the stores and sink of carbon in agroforestry could play a key role in climate change mitigation as well as help in adaption changing environmental conditions.

2.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205342

ABSTRACT

Background: Ovarian cancers are very common worldwide with serous epithelial tumors being the most common. Her-2/neuprotoncogene encodes a protein belonging to the EGFR tyrosine kinase receptor family. Overexpression has been shown for poor prognosis in breast cancer. The study was done to find the association of ovarian tumors with Her-2/neu expression. Aim and objectives: To assess the clinicopathological profile of various ovarian tumors with special reference to age, histological type, grade, and stage of the tumor. To assess and compare the expression of Her-2/neu oncogene in benign and malignant ovarian tumors in relation to age, histological type, grade, and stage of the tumor. Method: The prospective study was done on 37 specimens received in the Department of Pathology; NIMS medical college from the period between 2015 to 2019. Results: All the benign and borderline tumors were negative for her-2/neu .48.6% of malignant tumors were her-2/neu positive. Conclusion: Her-2/neu positivity was seen in 24.3% of ovarian tumors. All the benign and borderline tumors were negative for her-2/neu. 48.6% of malignant tumors were her-2/neu positive.

3.
Indian J Public Health ; 2020 Mar; 64(1): 22-26
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198194

ABSTRACT

Background: Cold chain equipments (CCEs) at health facilities (HFs) are an essential part of the immunization supply chain (ISC). The CCEs in government HFs of Delhi were never assessed using the World Health Organization-United Nations Children's Fund (WHO-UNICEF) Effective Vaccine Management (EVM) tool except that of state vaccine store during National EVM assessment 2013. Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess the CCEs and their management in government HFs using the WHO-UNICEF EVM tool in a district of Delhi. Methods: The assessment was done during December 2017朚arch 2018 in one randomly selected district of Delhi. Sample size and site selection were done using the WHO EVM site selection tool. A total of 29 HFs were assessed along with District Vaccine Store. Questions on CCEs in EVM tool 1.0.9 were used for data collection. Results: Out of 56 electrical CCEs, 8.9% were nonfunctional, 48.2% were noncompliant with WHO standards, 5.4% were not chlorofluorocarbon free, 4.7% did not have temperature monitoring device, and 18.8% did not have stabilizer. Eighty-six percent of passive containers were compliant with the WHO standards. The storage capacity of electrical vaccine storage equipment was insufficient in 3.4%, passive container capacity in 65.5%, and ice packs preparation and storage capacity in 24.1% of HFs. There was no planned preventive maintenance of CCEs and no standard operating procedures for emergency event management. Conclusion: There was a shortage of vaccine storage, ice packs preparation and storage, and passive container capacity. Many CCEs used in ISC of assessed sites were noncompliant to the WHO standards. There was no PPM of CCEs and no guidelines for emergency event management.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205324

ABSTRACT

Aim: Digital rectal examination (DRE) grading and the grade of prostatomegaly on cystoscopy are routinely used in clinical practice, but its correlation to prostate volume is understudied. This study was done to assess the correlation of DRE and endoscopic grading with the prostate volume on trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS). Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in 101 eligible patients with prostatomegaly. Each patient was evaluated for three parameters, prostate volume by TRUS examination, DRE and endoscopic grading on cystoscopy. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to find the correlation between variables, p<0.05 was taken to be statistically significant. Data were analyzed using the Epi Info (TM) 7.2.2.2. Results: Significant positive correlation (p<0.001) was found between TRUS Volume and DRE grading (Pearson Correlation=0.945) and TRUS volume and Endoscopic grading (Pearson Correlation=0.949). Both the grading were also significantly positively correlated (Pearson Correlation=0.989, p<0.001). Conclusion: Our attempt for correlating the digital rectal grading and endoscopic grading with prostate volume is satisfactorily validated in the clinical setting. These grades are sufficient to provide a rough estimation of the prostate volume and to classify patients with prostatomegaly.

6.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Jan; 68(1): 91-98
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197713

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To report the outcomes of pars-plana approach for the management of brunescent cataract in eyes with severe microcornea and associated chorio-retinal coloboma. Methods: This was a retrospective, single center, interventional case series performed in a tertiary eyecare center in central Medical records of consecutive cases of microcornea with coloboma who underwent pars-plana vitrectomy with phacofragmentation (PF) between January 2015 and December 2017 were reviewed. Results: The study group comprised of 30 eyes of 30 patients, of which 18 (60%) were males and 12 (40%) were females. The mean age of the patients was 41.9 years (range of 17� years). The mean corneal diameter was 6.7 mm with a range of 4�mm and all the eyes had dense cataract with nuclear sclerosis of grade 4 or more. The mean preoperative visual acuity was 1.97 (+/-0.067) Log MAR and the mean postoperative vision at 1 month was 1.6 (+/-0.39) Log MAR. Postoperatively, 21 patients (70%) gained ambulatory vision. The visual gain in all the patients was maintained over a mean follow-up period of 15.5 months. Conclusion: Pars-plana vitrectomy with PF can be considered in eyes with severe microcornea and brunescent cataracts, where cataract surgery through the limbal (anterior) approach is not only difficult but at times impossible due to anatomical restraints.

7.
J Environ Biol ; 2019 Nov; 40(6): 1188-1195
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214456

ABSTRACT

Aim: The present investigation was conducted to approximate the magnitude of genotype × environment interaction effects in mungbean crop and to identify suitable genotypes for northern hilly terrain of India. Methodology: Thirty one promising mungbean genotypes were evaluated in three diverse environments, viz., Srinagar, Berthin and Imphal of northern hilly terrains of India. The individual genotype was planted in 5 rows of 4m length in 3 replications in randomized block design. The statistical analysis was done for Additive Main effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) and genotype main effect plus genotype-by-environment interaction (GGE) biplots analysis. Results: ANOVA devised that the genotypes, environment and genotype × environment interactions were significant for grain yield. The first two principal components, PC1 and PC2 described 73.65 and 26.35 percent variations, respectively, of total variation. According to AMMI I, the genotypes such as Pant M 6, RMG 1092, TMB 134, CoGG 13-19, KM 2349, DGG-8, TRCM 87-6-2-1, KM 2241 and MDGGv-16 were highly stable genotypes. GGE biplot analysis revealed that Pant M 6 and TMB 134 as winning genotypes for Berthin while NMK 15-12 and MDGGV-16 were the best genotypes for Srinagar. The genotypes IPM 14-7 and GAM 5 were found best for Imphal. Overall, high yield and most stable genotype was DGG-8 for northern hilly terrains of India. Interpretation: GGE biplot and AMMI approach could be instrumental in appraising the genotypes performance in multi-environments/locations testing for efficient selection of the stable genotypes.

8.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Nov; 67(11): 1870-1872
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197611

ABSTRACT

Phacotrabeculectomy is the preferred surgical management of coexisting visually significant cataract and moderate to advanced glaucoma. We report the surgical technique of a new modified fornix-based separate-site phacotrabeculectomy, with mitomycin C (MMC) application, in both primary open angle and angle closure glaucoma. In this new separate-site technique, both phaco and filtration are accommodated superiorly, side by side, hence called twin-site. This was achieved in an efficacious and safe manner with sparing of limbal stem cells without compromising safety. It is not only MMC-compatible but also has a low incidence of wound leak. The technique has no adverse consequence on the survival of the bleb, and we achieved complete success in 79.2% and total success in 93.1% in 130 eyes of 117 patients, in the intermediate term. Furthermore, the time taken for this separate-site surgical technique is comparable to published one-site procedures.

9.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Oct; 67(10): 1663-1666
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197534

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To ascertain if ultrasound (USG) B-scan examination of the optic nerve head (ONH) can be a useful tool to diagnose and quantify glaucomatous cupping. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study of 48 eyes of 48 patients with clear ocular media and cup-disc ratio of (CDR) ?0.6 were included. The disc was studied by + 90D examination, USG B-scan and ONH Optical coherence tomography (OCT) by three masked observers. Observer-1 assessed the clinical CDR, observer-2recordedopticcup diameter on USG B-scan and observer-3performed ONH OCT to note the software computed average CDR. Measurements of cupping obtained by these 3 methods were compared and their relative strengths determined. The interdependency between variables was further studied using regression analysis. Results: Clinically assessed disc ratios of 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and total corresponded to USG cup measures of 1.02 ± 0.11 mm, 1.23 ± 0.14 mm, 1.35 ± 0.072 mm, 1.45 ± 0.084 mm, 1.75 ± 0.15 mm and OCT average CDR of 0.62 ± 0.087, 0.68 ± 0.060, 0.75 ± 0.078, 0.81 ± 0.036, 0.89 ± 0.038, respectively. There was an excellent correlation between the three arms, with Pearson's co-efficient (r) of 0.87, P < 0.001 between clinical and USG cupping; r = 0.89, P < 0.001 between clinical and OCT cupping; and r = 0.88, P < 0.001 between USG and OCT cupping. A relation of y = 1.64x + 0.03 was obtained between them, where y stands for USG cup diameter and x stands for the observed clinical CDR. Conclusion: Ultrasonographic measurement of optic cup diameter corresponds well to clinical ONH cupping. Therefore, it can reliably be used in quantifying ONH cupping in cases of media opacities which preclude optic disc visualization.

10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-206260

ABSTRACT

Diabetes has become a serious threat to mankind, as it is found in all parts of the world. Alloxan induced diabetic mice were treated by metformin to study the impact of oxidative stress and endogenous antioxidants. Due to the establishment of diabetes, the oxidative stress indicators were found to be positively correlated with the elevation in the levels of endogenous antioxidants. Whereas, in metformin-treated diabetic mice, the data revealed the correction of diabetes by lowering of blood glucose level along with body weight. But the levels of endogenous antioxidants were not recorded to increase except GST. It shows that under in vivo system level of oxidative stress increases due to the metformin. The data revealed that metformin treatment of mice, however, manage the glucose level but not effective in controlling oxidative stress.

11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205520

ABSTRACT

Background: Adolescence is considered as a stressful phase due to physical, psychological, and sexual changes. Due to stress overload, people from adolescent age group easily fall prey to mood disturbances such as anxiety and depression compromising their quality of life. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to study the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of stress, among urban and rural areas of Moradabad district of Uttar Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A present cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2017 to December 2017 among adolescents of field practice areas of the Department of Community Medicine, Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College and Research Centre, Moradabad. A total of 400 participants were selected using a multistage sampling design with a random approach. Results: Majority of adolescents (165) belonged to late adolescent followed by early (119) and midadolescent (116). One hundred and thirteen adolescents were in primary school, high school (124), intermediate (100), and illiterate (18). About 54.5% of adolescents belonged to nuclear families. Amongst our 400 study participants 49.3% reported of being stressed. This was significantly more in mid and late adolescents, who were living either alone or belonging to nuclear families, children of illiterate parents, belonging to lower socioeconomic class (58.7%) followed by participants from upper socioeconomic class (51.8%). Conclusion: Our study draws attention to the high prevalence of stress among adolescents. Identification of stress can enable us to intervene proactively which can avert further complications. We recommend strengthening the information, education, and communication activities for prevention, early identification, and timely treatment for stress in adolescents.

12.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2019 Sep; 37(3): 381-386
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198889

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Various stool concentration techniques have been used to increase the microscopic detection of parasites. We assessed the enclosed, single-vial, Mini Parasep® technique in comparison to the currently used coprodiagnosis procedures. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 stool samples were collected. Samples concentrated by formol–ether method (FEM) and Mini Parasep® SF foecal concentrator and unconcentrated samples were subjected to wet mount, iodine mount microscopy and smear examination by modified acid-fast staining. Results: Direct wet mount detected 72 positive samples (48.6%), whereas 77 (51.3%) and 80 (53.3%) samples were detected by FEM and Mini Parasep® SF methods, respectively. The sensitivity of detection of parasites was 98.7%, 95% and 90.1% with Mini Parasep®, FEM and direct microscopy, respectively. A clearer background with less foecal debris and a better yield of Hymenolepis nana, Trichuris trichiura, Entamoeba coli and Giardia lamblia were noted with Mini Parasep®. Conclusion: Mini Parasep® SF technique is simple, rapid and less cumbersome than conventional diagnostics, making it suitable for routine use. In addition, it offers higher sensitivity and better background clearance than both direct stool examination and FEM.

13.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2019 Sep; 37(3): 299-308
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198886

ABSTRACT

Topically applied antibacterial agents are widely used. Opinions regarding the clinical efficacy of topical antibiotics are conflicting, and for most indications, alternative oral therapies are available. Topical application has many potential advantages over systemic therapy that includes high and sustained concentrations of drug directly at the infected site, low quantity of antibiotic needed, better compliance, fewer systemic side effects and potentially less chance of antimicrobial resistance. Despite these advantages, an important concern has been the difficulty in monitoring antibiotic dosage and duration of therapy. Most topical preparations are applied on sites with pre-existing normal bacterial flora, and the detrimental effect of antibiotic on the 'good' bacteria is difficult to control. Unnecessary exposure of the resident microflora to high drug levels may select drug-resistant phenotypes. The number of antibiotics available and the quality and composition of the formulations recommended for topical drug delivery are improving. Their role in the prevention and treatment of locally invasive infections is established for many clinical conditions. However, there is still a lacuna in the availability of pharmacokinetic (PK) knowledge of these topical preparations and translation of the same to clinical practice. In addition, reporting the clinical outcome following the use of these agents and its analysis considering the recently proposed epidemiological cut-off value-based cut-offs are also areas which merit further research. In this review, we highlight the clinical utility and the PK aspects of topical antimicrobials in various infections. We also discuss the limitations of the current antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) protocols and new methods for AMST for topical agents.

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-201480

ABSTRACT

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus belongs to a group of diseases labelled as lifestyle diseases and is on the rise in Asians especially Indians. Hence finding bio-markers is important to warn people and create awareness. Aim of the present study is to estimate waist-hip ratio, waist circumference in type 2 diabetic patients with respect to gender. Methods: A cross-sectional, community based study was conducted from February 2014 to February 2015 among adults in the age group of 30 year and above residing in area covered under UHTC of Bareilly City. A simple random sampling technique was adopted to achieve the desired sample size. 640 is the sample size came out to be by applying 3.8 4𝑃𝑄/d2 formula. Subject’s waist circumference, waist-hip ratio was measured in study samples. House to house survey was done for collecting data. Data tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Prevalence of DM and IFG was more in those who were having high waist circumference and the association was also found to be statistically significant. The association was also found statistically significant between male high waist hip ratio and Diabetes Mellitus but no association was seen between female’s high waist-hip ratio and Diabetes Mellitus.Conclusions: High waist circumference can be a screening procedure for DM individuals in both sexes, but the same scenario we haven’t seen in high waist hip ratio among females and prevalence of DM. Appropriate waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio values are complex because they are likely influenced by gender and other factors.

15.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 2019 Jul; 11(7): 63-73
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205986

ABSTRACT

Objective: The objective of the present study was to develop “once daily” extended release tablets of tramadol (100 mg) by wet granulation using hydrophilic polymer like hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K100M,K15M and polyethylene oxide (PEO). Methods: The tramadol matrix tablets were prepared by using different polymers like hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K15M and K100M), polyethylene oxide (PEO) as the nontoxic and easily available suitable matrix system. The extended release tablets of tramadol (400 mg) were prepared wet granulation technique. Different pre compression and post compression were performed. In vitro dissolution tests were performed and percentage drug release was calculated. The fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies conducted on pure drug tramadol and the optimize formulation (T6). Different release models like zero order, first order, higuchi and Korsemeyer-Peppas were applied to in vitro drug release data in order to evaluate the drug release mechanisms and kinetics. Results: Pre compression and post compression parameters satisfied with pharmacopeia specifications. The In vitro release studies were performed using USP type II apparatus showed that optimized formulation T6 consisting of polyethylene oxide (PEO) with 25 mg of the polymer was found to extended release of tramadol over a period of 24h. The optimized formulation T6 followed the zero order kinetics as correlation coefficient (r2) values are higher than that of first-order release kinetics. In order to understand the complex mechanism of drug release from the optimized formulation T6 matrix system, the in vitro release rate were fitted to Korsemeyer-Peppas model and the release exponent value (n) obtained was 0.82105 exhibited anomalous (non fickian) diffusion mechanism. Conclusion: The present study shows that polyethylene oxide was found to play a great role in controlling release of tramadol from the matrix system. Accordingly it can be concluded that the formulation is robust in the performance is less likely to be affected by the various factors studied.

16.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Jul; 67(7): 1226-1229
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197409

ABSTRACT

A 11-year-old boy presented with complaints of blurred vision and on evaluation was found to have X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) with angle-closure glaucoma. Clinical and genetic evaluation of first-degree family members was done. His brother had a milder form of XLRS with shallow anterior chamber. Topical dorzolamide 2% and timolol 0.5% were used to control intraocular pressure. Genetic analysis revealed a novel three base pair deleterious mutation (c. 375_377 del AGA) in exon-5 of the RS1 gene in three members of the family.

17.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Jul; 67(7): 1036-1039
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197329

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To study the changes in corneal astigmatism before and after pterygium excision as well as with differences between various surgical techniques (bare sclera, conjunctival autograft, amniotic membrane graft). Methods: The study population included 71 patients with primary pterygium who underwent surgery. The surgical techniques used differed among the study population. All the patients were preoperatively assessed for visual acuity, anterior and posterior segments, autorefraction, and autokeratometry. After surgery, the patients were assessed for visual acuity, autorefraction, and autokeratometry on day 5, 1 month, and 3 months and the results were analyzed. Paired and unpaired t-tests were used to compare the variables. The probability level of 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The reduction in the mean preoperative astigmatism of 3.47 ± 1.74 Diopters (D) to 1.10 ± 0.78 D 3 months after surgery was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Bare sclera, conjunctival autograft, and amniotic membrane graft techniques exhibited changes in astigmatism amounting to 1.85 ± 0.88 D, 2.55 ± 1.26 D, and 2.67 ± 1.44 D, respectively. Pterygium excision surgeries using amniotic membrane graft and conjunctival autograft techniques were more effective than pterygium excision surgery using bare sclera technique in reducing astigmatism. Conclusion: Pterygium excision results in significant reduction in astigmatism which leads to improvement in visual acuity. Amniotic membrane graft and conjunctival autograft are better surgical techniques than bare sclera as far as reducing astigmatism is concerned.

19.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-191976

ABSTRACT

Background: Late adolescent girls are being forced into marriage and the burden of marital responsibilities, most notably partner’s sexual demands and childbearing and child-rearing, led to significant emotional distress and depression. Thus, early marriage for girls might have profound impact on their health status. Aims & Objectives: To study impact of early marriage on health status of married girls of late adolescent age and to compare them with unmarried girls of same age. Material & Methods: A comparison study was conducted among girls of late adolescent age in an urban slum of North East Delhi. One sixty study participants were included in each group. A pretested interview schedule was used for collecting details such as knowledge on reproductive health, physical parameters and anemic status. Chi square tests were used and odds ratio was calculated. Results: Majority of married girls, 102(63.8%) had middle school education while 93(58.1%) of unmarried girls had high school education. The mean (SD) age of marriage of married adolescent girls was 17(±) years while their husband age at time of marriage was 21.6(±) years. Levels of hemoglobin were low in both groups 87.5% in married girls and 98.75% in unmarried girls. Conclusion: Early marriage was found to have impact on menstruation, reproductive health and nutritional status of adolescent girls.

20.
J Environ Biol ; 2019 May; 40(3): 400-406
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214569

ABSTRACT

The use of biomass energy is preferred over fossil fuels as the former is more sustainable and emits a reduced amount of greenhouse gases. Sorghum, a tropical C4 plant, is known to have a marked drought tolerance. However, very little is known about the mechanisms involved. An allied species Zea mays, also a C4 plant, is far less drought tolerant. Both plants are known to accumulate high biomass during the course of their growth cycle and can be used as renewable energy sources. This article discusses the possibilities of using these two plants for the production of improved biomass in the context of drought tolerance and sustainable food production. Crucial and novel approaches that render Sorghum more tolerant to drought have been reviewed. Novel drought tolerance mechanisms in two sorghum cultivars- Samsorg 17 (more drought tolerant) and Samsorg 40 (less drought tolerant) have also been reviewed.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL