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1.
Gut and Liver ; : 226-233, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966901

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Efficacy of proton pump inhibitors is limited in patients with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD). The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the efficacy and safety of esomeprazole with sodium bicarbonate and esomeprazole alone. @*Methods@#This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, noninferiority comparative study. A total of 379 patients with NERD were randomly allocated to receive either EsoduoⓇ/sup> (esomeprazole 20 mg with sodium bicarbonate 800 mg) or NexiumⓇ/sup> (esomeprazole 20 mg) once daily for 4 weeks from January 2019 to December 2019. The patients had a history of heartburn for at least 2 days in the week before randomization as well as in the last 3 months and no esophageal mucosal breaks on endoscopy. The primary endpoint was a complete cure of heartburn at week 4. The secondary and exploratory endpoints as well as the safety profiles were compared in the groups at weeks 2 and 4. @*Results@#A total of 355 patients completed the study (180 in the EsoduoⓇ/sup> group and 175 in the NexiumⓇ/sup> group). The proportions of patients without heartburn in the entire 4th week of treatment were not different between the two groups (33.33% in the EsoduoⓇ/sup> group and 35% in the NexiumⓇ/sup> group, p=0.737). There were no significant differences in most of the secondary and exploratory endpoints as well as the safety profiles. @*Conclusions@#EsoduoⓇ/sup> is as effective and safe as NexiumⓇ/sup> for managing typical symptoms in patients with NERD (ClinicalTrial.gov identifier: NCT03928470).

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 19-27, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914387

ABSTRACT

Subepithelial tumors (SETs) are commonly encountered during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, especially during national gastric cancer screening programs in Korea. Although the majority of SETs are benign, endoscopists harbor concerns regarding whether a SET is benign or malignant because the diagnosis cannot be established on the basis of routine endoscopic biopsy findings. The differential diagnosis of SETs is important, beginning with meticulous endoscopic examination, including the evaluation of the location, macroscopic shape, color, surface characteristics, mobility, consistency, and size of the tumors. The yield of endoscopic biopsy increases with the use of the bite-on-bite technique for SETs without the rolling or tenting sign, with large openings, and with erosion or ulceration. In this review, a systematic approach for the diagnosis of gastric SETs during conventional endoscopy is introduced.

3.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 34-37, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939064

ABSTRACT

Paneth cell carcinoma is a rare carcinoma composed predominantly or purely of malignant Paneth cells. An 83-year-old woman presented for evaluation of an elevated lesion in the stomach. On endoscopy, a 15 mm, discolored, elevated lesion with a central depression was found on the greater curvature of the gastric lower body. Endoscopic forceps biopsy revealed chronic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia. Magnifying endoscopy revealed an irregularly oval/tubular microsurface pattern and an irregular loop microvascular pattern with a demarcation line, suggestive of early gastric cancer. Therefore, endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed. Histopathological examination revealed a well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma limited to the muscularis mucosae and the tumor cells contained coarse eosinophilic granules in the cytoplasm. These tumor cells were diffusely and strongly stained for lysozyme, confirming the tumor diagnosis as Paneth cell carcinoma. Herein, we report a rare case of Paneth cell carcinoma and its endoscopic and histopathologic findings.

4.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 128-134, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938750

ABSTRACT

Percutaneous balloon dilation with or without placement of an external biliary drain is a nonoperative alternative method for treating benign bilioenteric anastomotic strictures. Although this procedure has a high technical success rate, outcomes are less optimal when attempting to dilate refractory tight strictures. For the stricture, cutting balloon can be an option. We present four patients with benign bilioenteric anastomotic strictures refractory to conventional balloon dilation. To the patients, a peripheral cutting balloon over-the-wire system was inflated, following subsequent conventional non-compliant balloon dilation. After the balloon dilation treatment, an external drainage catheter was placed through the stricture site and maintained for up to 30 days. Technical and end-treatment success was achieved in all four patients. In conclusion, the use of cutting balloon dilation may appear to be a safe and effective alternative method of treatment in patients with benign bilioenteric anastomotic strictures refractory to conventional balloon dilation.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e197-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938065

ABSTRACT

Background@#Patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have a poor prognosis and there are no effective clinical biomarkers. Recently, stable microRNAs detected in the blood have been suggested as potential biomarkers in various cancers. Therefore, we investigated whether plasma microRNAs could be feasible biomarkers for ESCC. @*Methods@#Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 16 healthy volunteers and 66 ESCC patients before treatment between May 2016 and April 2021. Plasma miR-18b, miR-21, miR-31, and miR-375 expression levels were measured using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. @*Results@#Compared with those in healthy controls, the expression levels of plasma miR-21 were significantly higher (P = 0.022) and those of plasma miR-31 and miR-375 were significantly lower in ESCC patients (both P < 0.001). Plasma miR-18b expression levels increased in ESCC patients, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.164). The sensitivities and specificities of miR-21, miR-31, and miR-375 for differentiating ESCC patients from healthy controls were 87.5% and 61.9%, 87.5% and 98.4%, and 87.5% and 100%, respectively. There was no difference in expression levels of plasma miR-21, miR-31, and miR-375 according to clinicopathological characteristics of sex, age, tumor size and location, histologic grade, and tumor-node-metastasis stage. @*Conclusion@#Our study demonstrated that plasma miR-21, miR-31, and miR-375 could be potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of ESCC. Particularly, plasma miR-31 and miR-375 showed high sensitivity and specificity for differentiating ESCC patients from healthy controls.

6.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 267-275, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926281

ABSTRACT

Among the types of gastric cancer, the proportion of early gastric cancer has shown a steady increase because the national screening programs have been conducted in Korea. Accordingly, the paradigm shift of the treatment procedure from surgical gastrectomy to endoscopic resection for selected early gastric cancer has accelerated recently. For successful treatment of early gastric cancer, early detection is essential to accurately predict the histological type, depth of invasion, and horizontal margins of the tumor.Current Concepts: The diagnosis of early gastric cancer and selection of treatment procedures comprises the following steps: (1) presence diagnosis, (2) qualitative diagnosis, and (3) quantitative diagnosis. Presently, early gastric cancer diagnosis is based on the endoscopic detection of a demarcated lesion and irregularity of the mucosal surface or color pattern. If a lesion is diagnosed as early gastric cancer, qualitative and quantitative diagnostic processes should be conducted. Qualitative diagnosis predicts the histological type (differentiated vs. undifferentiated), whereas quantitative diagnosis predicts the invasion depth and horizontal margins of the lesion. The diagnostic processes are based on the macroscopic morphology and color of the lesion, while sometimes using chromoendoscopy, image-enhanced endoscopy, and magnifying endoscopy.Discussion and Conclusion: If gastric cancer is detected at an early stage, most cases can be treated only by endoscopic resection. Therefore, endoscopists should have systematic knowledge regarding the findings of early gastric cancer for timely detection and appropriate selection of the treatment procedure.

7.
Gut and Liver ; : 474-482, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925027

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) provides high-resolution images and is superior to computed tomography (CT) scan in diagnosing small pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). As a result, the use of EUS for early detection of PDAC has attracted attention. This study aimed to identify the clinical and radiological characteristics of patients with PDAC diagnosed by EUS but not found on CT scan. @*Methods@#The medical records of patients diagnosed with PDAC at 12 tertiary referral centers in Korea from January 2003 to April 2019 were reviewed. This study included patients with pancreatic masses not clearly observed on CT scan but identified on EUS. The clinical characteristics and radiological features of the patients were analyzed, and survival analysis was performed. @*Results@#A total of 83 patients were enrolled. The most common abnormal CT findings other than a definite mass was pancreatic duct dilatation, which was identified in 61 patients (73.5%). All but four patients underwent surgery. The final pathologic stages were as follows: IA (n=31, 39.2%), IB (n=8, 10.1%), IIA (n=20, 25.3%), IIB (n=17, 21.5%), III (n=2, 2.5%), and IV (n=1, 1.4%). The 5-year survival rate of these patients was 50.6% (95% confidence interval, 38.8% to 66.7%). Elevated liver function testing and R1 resection emerged as significant predictors of mortality in the multivariable Cox regression analysis. @*Conclusions@#This multicenter study demonstrated favorable long-term prognosis in patients with PDAC diagnosed by EUS but indeterminate on CT scan. EUS should be considered for patients with suspected PDAC but indeterminate on CT scan.

8.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 426-438, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914975

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#While the incidence of Barrett’s neoplasia has been increasing in Western countries, the disease remains rare in Asian countries. Therefore, very few studies have investigated the endoscopic treatment for Barrett’s neoplasia in Korea. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) enables en bloc and complete resection of gastrointestinal neoplastic lesions. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic outcomes of ESD for Barrett’s neoplasia in a single center in Korea and to examine the predictive factors for incomplete resection. @*Materials and Methods@#We conducted a retrospective observational study of 18 patients who underwent ESD for superficial Barrett’s neoplasia (dysplasia and early cancer) between January 2010 and December 2019 at Pusan National University Hospital. The therapeutic outcomes of ESD and procedure-related complications were analyzed. @*Results@#En bloc resection, complete resection, and curative resection were performed in 94%, 72%, and 61% of patients, respectively. Histopathology (submucosal or deeper invasion of the tumor) was a significant predictive factor for incomplete resection (P=0.047). Procedure-related bleeding and stenosis were not observed, whereas perforation occurred in one case. During the median follow-up period of 12 months (range, 6–74 months), local recurrence occurred in 2 patients with incomplete resection, one patient underwent repeat ESD, and the other patient received concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The 3-year overall and disease-specific survival rates were 73% and 93%, respectively. @*Conclusions@#ESD seems to be an effective and safe treatment for superficial Barrett’s neoplasia in Korea. Nevertheless, the suitability of ESD for Barrett’s cancer cases should be determined considering the high risk of deep submucosal invasion.

9.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 71-77, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874872

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis is increasing in Korea and there are few single-center studies regarding eosinophilic esophagitis in Korea. In particular, data about management for eosinophilic esophagitis are lacking. We aim to evaluate the practice patterns, including initial treatment and response, in the Busan city and Gyeongnam province area. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed medical records to gain data on patient characteristics, medication, endoscopic images, and esophageal biopsy results. From January 2009 to December 2019, a total of 42 patients were diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis. @*Results@#The mean age was 50.7 (from 22 to 81) years and the cohort was predominantly male (78.6%, 33/42). The proton pump inhibitor was the preferred treatment as an initial trial for 64.3% (27/42) of patients, followed by swallowed topical steroids (16.7%, 7/42).Clinical improvement after proton pump inhibitor therapy was achieved in 88.9% (24/27) of patients. Two patients who did not achieve improvement showed a clinical and endoscopic response after swallowed topical steroids treatment. No patient received diet elimination or balloon dilatation therapy. @*Conclusions@#The treatment response of eosinophilic esophagitis was good in Busan city and Gyeongnam province area in Korea. Proton pump inhibitor therapy was the preferred and most effective treatment for eosinophilic esophagitis as the initial therapy.

10.
Gut and Liver ; : 811-817, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914364

ABSTRACT

Early gastric cancers (EGCs) are defined as gastric cancers confined to the mucosa or submucosa, regardless of regional lymph node metastasis. The proportion of EGCs has been increasing due to the increase in screening endoscopy for gastric cancers; therefore, the paradigm shift from surgical resection to endoscopic resection as a treatment modality for selected EGCs is accelerating. For successful endoscopic resection of EGCs, it is important to detect EGCs at an early stage and to accurately predict the histological type, depth of invasion, and horizontal margins of the tumor. The diagnostic process of EGCs can be divided into three steps: presence diagnosis, qualitative diagnosis, and quantitative diagnosis. The presence diagnosis of EGCs is mainly based on two endoscopic findings: a well-demarcated lesion and irregularity in the color/surface pattern. Qualitative diagnosis refers to the prediction of histological type, which is mainly possible based on the macroscopic shape and color of the lesion. Quantitative diagnosis of EGCs consists of predicting the depth of invasion by detailed examination of the macroscopic morphology and determining horizontal margins using chromoendoscopy. Although advanced diagnostic modalities, such as endosonography or magnifying endoscopy, are helpful for the qualitative and quantitative diagnosis of EGCs, these modalities are not available in most hospitals. Therefore, it is still very important to evaluate EGCs systematically during conventional endoscopy for successful endoscopic treatment.

11.
Gut and Liver ; : 841-850, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914361

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The mucoprotective drug rebamipide is used to treat gastritis and peptic ulcers. We compared the efficacy of Mucosta Ⓡ (rebamipide 100 mg) and its new formulation, AD-203 (rebamipide 150 mg), in treating erosive gastritis. @*Methods@#This double-blind, active control, noninferiority, multicenter, phase 3 clinical trial randomly assigned 475 patients with endoscopically proven erosive gastritis to two groups: AD-203 twice daily or Mucosta Ⓡ thrice daily for 2 weeks. The intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis included 454 patients (AD-203, n=229; Mucosta Ⓡ , n=225), and the per-protocol (PP) analysis included 439 patients (AD-203, n=224; Mucosta Ⓡ , n=215). The posttreatment assessments included the primary (erosion improvement rate) and secondary endpoints (erosion and edema cure rates; improvement rates of redness, hemorrhage, and gastrointestinal symptoms). Drug-related adverse events were evaluated. @*Results@#According to the ITT analysis, the erosion improvement rates (posttreatment) in AD-203-treated and Mucosta Ⓡ -treated patients were 39.7% and 43.8%, respectively. According to the PP analysis, the erosion improvement rates (posttreatment) in AD-203-treated and Mucosta Ⓡ -treated patients were 39.3% and 43.7%, respectively. The one-sided 97.5% lower limit for the improvement rate difference between the study groups was −4.01% (95% confidence interval [CI], –13.09% to 5.06%) in the ITT analysis and −4.44% (95% CI, –13.65% to 4.78%) in the PP analysis. The groups did not significantly differ in the secondary endpoints in either analysis. Twenty-four AD-203-treated and 20 Mucosta Ⓡ -treated patients reported adverse events but no serious adverse drug reactions; both groups presented similar adverse event rates. @*Conclusions@#The new formulation of rebamipide 150 mg (AD-203) twice daily was not inferior to rebamipide 100 mg (Mucosta Ⓡ ) thrice daily. Both formulations showed a similar efficacy in treating erosive gastritis.

12.
Gut and Liver ; : 648-652, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890780

ABSTRACT

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are used worldwide to treat of acid-related disorders such as peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease and to prevent gastroduodenal injuries due to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PPIs are the most potent inhibitors of gastric acid secretion currently available, and they are one of the most commonly prescribed classes of drugs because of their high efficacy and low toxicity. However, long-term PPI use causes histopathological changes such as parietal cell protrusion into the gland lumen, cystic dilation of gastric fundic glands, and foveolar epithelial hyperplasia. These changes can manifest on endoscopic examination as fundic gland polyps, hyperplastic polyps, multiple white and flat elevated lesions, cobblestone-like mucosa, or black spots. Clinicians must be aware of PPI-induced endoscopic features in patients with chronic long-term PPI use. Conversely, identifying patients with long-term PPI use based on their endoscopic findings is important. Recently, potassium-competitive acid blockers (P-CABs), a new class of acid suppressants that inhibit gastric acid secretion more strongly than PPIs, have recently been introduced clinically. Further long-term prospective studies on these gastric mucosal lesions in patients with either PPI or P-CAB use are required to investigate their association with histopathological changes and to establish the clinical significance of these findings.

13.
Gut and Liver ; : 713-722, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890777

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Achalasia is an esophageal motor disorder that leads to functional esophageal obstruction. Food stasis and bacterial fermentation can predispose an individual to esophageal mucosal inflammation, causing multifocal dysplasia and increasing the risk of developing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. We aimed to evaluate esophageal mucosal alterations in achalasia patients and determine clinical factors associated with the histopathological findings. @*Methods@#From 2009 to 2013, we obtained endoscopic biopsies from the lower and middle esophagus of 22 patients with achalasia and 17 controls. Patients’ clinical data and histological severity of esophagitis were retrospectively analyzed. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining for CD3, CD20, Ki-67, and p53 was conducted. @*Results@#The median age of achalasia patients was 49.5 years (range, 27 to 82 years), and there were nine males (40.9%). The median symptom duration was 5.8 years (range, 1 to 33.5 years), and 10 patients (45%) underwent previous treatment (nine, balloon dilation; one, botulinum toxin injection). Achalasia patients had significantly more severe esophagitis than did controls (p=0.001, lower esophagus; p=0.008, middle esophagus), and the number of CD3-positive lymphocytes exceeded that of CD20-positive lymphocytes (p<0.001). Achalasia patients also had a higher esophageal Ki-67 proliferation index (p=0.048). Although statistically nonsignificant, p53 expression was only observed in achalasia patients. There was no association between the histological severity of esophagitis and other clinicopathological findings. @*Conclusions@#Achalasia patients showed significantly severe histological esophagitis and a high Ki-67 proliferation index, indicating an increased risk of neoplastic progression. Therefore, careful endoscopic inspection is necessary for the early detection of superficial neoplasia in these patients.

14.
Gut and Liver ; : 440-450, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890753

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (G/P) is a combination of direct-acting antiviral agents that is an approved treatment for chronic infections by all six hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes. However, there are limited data on the effect of G/P in Korean patients in actual real-world settings. We evaluated the real-life effectiveness and safety of G/P at a single institution in Korea. @*Methods@#This retrospective, observational, cohort study used sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after treatment completion (SVR12) as the primary effectiveness endpoint. Safety and tolerability were also determined. @*Results@#We examined 267 individuals who received G/P for chronic HCV infections. There were 148 females (55.4%), and the overall median age was 63.0 years (range, 25 to 87 years). Eightythree patients (31.1%) had HCV genotype-1 and 182 (68.2%) had HCV-2. A total of 212 patients (79.4%) were HCV treatment-naïve, 200 (74.9%) received the 8-week treatment, 13 (4.9%) had received prior treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma, 37 (13.7%) had chronic kidney disease stage 3 or higher, and 10 (3.7%) were receiving dialysis. Intention to treat (ITT) analysis indicated that 256 (95.9%) achieved SVR12. A modified ITT analysis indicated that SVR12 was 97.7% (256/262). Six patients failed therapy because of posttreatment relapse. SVR12 was significantly lower in those who received prior sofosbuvir treatment (p=0.002) and those with detectable HCV RNA at week 4 (p=0.027). Seventy patients (26.2%) experienced one or more adverse events, and most of them were mild. @*Conclusions@#These real-life data indicated that G/P treatment was highly effective and well tolerated, regardless of viral genotype or patient comorbidities.

15.
Gut and Liver ; : 553-561, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890736

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Unlike other gastrointestinal tract cancers, there are relatively few reports on the clinical significance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and TWIST, a marker of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). This study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of TWIST expression in CTCs in patients with ESCC. @*Methods@#Peripheral blood samples for CTC analyses were prospectively obtained from 52 patients with ESCC prior to treatment between September 2017 and September 2019. CTCs were detected using a centrifugal microfluidic system based on a fluid-assisted separation technique, and CTCs positive for TWIST on immunostaining were defined as TWIST (+) CTCs. @*Results@#Of the 52 patients with ESCC, CTCs and TWIST (+) CTCs were detected in 44 patients (84.6%) and 39 patients (75.0%), respectively. The CTC and TWIST (+) CTC counts were significantly higher in patients aged >65 years and those who had a large tumor (>3 cm) thanin those aged ≤65 years and those who had a small tumor (≤3 cm), respectively. There were nodifferences in CTC and TWIST (+) CTC counts according to tumor location, histologic grade, or TNM stage. TWIST (+) CTCs were significantly associated with histologic grade; a proportion of TWIST (+) CTCs ≥0.5 was significantly associated with advanced histologic grade. Other clini-copathologic characteristics such as sex, age, tumor location, tumor size, and TNM stages were not significantly associated with TWIST (+) CTCs. @*Conclusions@#Our study showed that TWIST (+) CTCs were frequently detected in patients with ESCC, and a high proportion of TWIST (+) CTCs was associated with poor differentiation

16.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 324-328, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890088

ABSTRACT

Gastric mesenchymal tumors (GMTs) are incidentally discovered in national gastric screening programs in Korea. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the most useful diagnostic modality for evaluating GMTs. The differentiation of gastrointestinal stromal tumors from benign mesenchymal tumors, such as schwannomas or leiomyomas, is important to ensure appropriate clinical management. However, this is difficult and operator dependent because of the subjective interpretation of EUS images. Digital image analysis computes the distribution and spatial variation of pixels using texture analysis to extract useful data, enabling the objective analysis of EUS images and decreasing interobserver and intraobserver agreement in EUS image interpretation. This review aimed to summarize the usefulness and future of digital EUS image analysis for GMTs based on published reports and our experience.

17.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 544-556, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903715

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Real-world, clinical practice data are lacking about sofosbuvir/ ribavirin (SOF/RBV) treatment of Korean patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 2 (HCV GT2) infection. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of SOF/RBV in Korean patients with HCV GT2 infection and clinical factors predicting sustained virological response 12 weeks (SVR12) after the end of SOF/RBV treatment. @*Methods@#A total of 181 patients with HCV GT2 with/without cirrhosis were treated with SOF/RBV for 16/12 weeks. Rapid virological response (RVR) was defined as non-detectable HCV RNA at 4 weeks. @*Results@#The RVR rate was 80.7% (146/181), the end of treatment response rate was 97.8% (177/181) and the SVR12 rate was 92.8% (168/181). Of eight patients with relapse, four did not achieve RVR. Three patients had a history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Multivariable analysis showed that RVR (p = 0.015) and no previous history of HCC (p = 0.007) were associated with SVR12. Factors significantly contributing to RVR included cirrhosis, creatinine concentration, and pre-treatment HCV RNA level. SVR12 rate was significantly higher in RVR (+) than RVR (–) patients (95.2% vs. 82.9%, p = 0.011) and also significantly higher in patients without than with a history of HCC (94.1% vs. 72.7%, p = 0.008). During treatment, 80/181 patients (44.2%) experienced mild to moderate adverse events, with 32 (17.7%) requiring RBV dose reductions due to anemia. @*Conclusions@#SOF/RBV treatment was effective and tolerable in HCV GT2 patients. RVR and no previous history of HCC were positive predictors of SVR12.

18.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 4-9, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903644

ABSTRACT

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is the seventh most common cancer and the sixth most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Esophageal squamous dysplasia is the only histopathology that predicts the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. It is difficult to identify esophageal squamous dysplasia by conventional endoscopy; however, Lugol chromoendoscopy is useful for the diagnosis of such a lesion. In addition, advance endoscopic detection techniques, such as image-enhanced endoscopy (especially, narrow-band imaging), magnifying endoscopy, and endocytoscopy, are helpful in detecting esophageal squamous dysplasia. Similar to the treatment for early esophageal cancer, endoscopic resection such as endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection is the choice of treatment for esophageal squamous dysplasia. This review discusses esophageal squamous dysplasia in detail, especially in terms of endoscopic diagnosis and clinical management.

19.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 82-85, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903642

ABSTRACT

Gastric adenocarcinoma of fundic gland type is known to originate from the gastric mucosa of the fundic gland region without intestinal metaplasia. It is difficult to detect during endoscopy and diagnose histopathologically. The development of immunohistochemistry has enabled the diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma of fundic gland type by gastric phenotype. A 34-year-old man visited us for treatment of a 5 cm-sized low-grade dysplasia in the gastric fundus which was incidentally found during a health check-up endoscopy. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed successfully, and the final histopathology showed gastric adenocarcinoma of fundic gland type. Herein, we report a rare case of gastric adenocarcinoma of fundic gland type and its endoscopic and histopathologic findings.

20.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 152-155, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903631

ABSTRACT

Esophageal leiomyoma is a benign tumor that accounts for two-thirds of esophageal benign tumors. In general, patients with esophageal leiomyoma are asymptomatic; however, as the tumor grows in size, symptoms such as dysphagia, chest discomfort, obstruction, or bleeding can appear. A 65-year-old man visited our clinic to receive treatment for a subepithelial tumor in the lower esophagus, which was incidentally found during endoscopy for work-up of chest discomfort and indigestion. On endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), the tumor was 2.6×1.9 cm in size, with a cystic lesion located in the submucosal and proper muscle layers and thick cystic wall. Therefore, it was highly likely to be a duplication cyst. As the patient had symptoms such as chest discomfort, surgical resection was performed. The tumor was finally diagnosed as a leiomyoma with cystic degeneration. Leiomyoma with cystic change that has similar EUS features to duplication cyst is rare. Thus, we report the case with a literature review.

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